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(Third Revised Edition) 


William G. Most, Ph.D. 
Professor of Latin 
Loras College 
Dubuque, Iowa 

Henry Regnery Company 
114 West Illinois St. 
Chicago, Ill. 60610 

Copyright 1957, 1960, 1964 
by Wm. G. Most 

Printed in the United States of America 


On December 31, 1939, in the encyclical On Educa¬ 
tion His Holiness Pope Pius XI wrote about the 
Christian teacher: 

... in accepting the new, he will not hastily abandon 
the old, which the experience of centuries has found 
expedient and profitable. This is particularly true in 
the teaching of Latin, which in our days is falling more 
and more into disuse, because of the unreasonable re¬ 
jection of methods so successfully used by that sane 
humanism, whose highest development was reached in 
the schools of the Church. 1 

The thirteenth and sixteenth centuries were certainly 
eras when Christian humanism flourished. Also, 
methods of teaching are means to the objectives; and 
methods are naturally adapted as goals vary. Hence, the 
Holy Father’s words clearly manifest his desire for a re¬ 
turn to the objectives and methods of Latin teaching 
used with success in the thirteenth and sixteenth cen¬ 
turies, coupled with modern improvements. 

Precisely that is what is achieved by Father William 
G. Most’s textbooks for teaching and learning Latin by 
“The Natural Method.” They employ, not slavishly but 
with wise adaptation to changed modern circumstances, 
the objective (facility in using Latin as a means of com¬ 
munication) and methods (habit formation by frequent 
repetition) used in 1250 or 1550. They lead the student 
to reproduce the natural processes of habit formation by 
which Roman children learned Latin as their mother 
tongue. While doing this, the books do not discard the 
valuable training of mind, knowledge of grammar, and 
other benefits hitherto sought by Latin teachers of the 
twentieth century, but merely postpone their achieve¬ 
ment until after the student has gained facility in using 
Latin. Also, they apply to the teaching of Latin many of 
the most effective techniques of teaching modern lan¬ 
guages, and much that has been learned from the modern 
science called “descriptive linguistics.” They are the first 
published American Catholic Latin textbooks which 
do all this. 

The great change in objectives and procedures of 
teaching Latin between the sixteenth and the twentieth 
centuries can be sketched here only with the utmost 
brevity. 2 

In the centuries of St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) 
and St. Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) virtually all 
education was imparted from Latin textbooks explained 
by oral Latin. The pupils learning Latin were almost en¬ 
tirely between the ages of six and about fourteen. The 
chief objective of the teachers was to impart the art of 
reading, writing, and speaking Latin with facility, that 

it might be used as a means of communicating thought, 
or, in other words, as an indispensable tool in all higher 
studies and then in later life. They made extensive use of 
Latin conversation and of textbooks of easy Latin, such 
as dialogues, or “colloquia” about everyday life, the 
Pater, Axe, psalms, and Gospels. Thus by means of easy 
materials the teachers gave their pupils the copious prac¬ 
tice and repetition which alone develop a set of habits— 
and that is the essence of learning a language success¬ 
fully. The pupils, in truth, felt a sense of achievement 
in expressing their thought in a new language. Learning 
Latin was fun rather than drudgery. The Latin words 
directly evoked the ideas, not vernacular equivalents or 
grammatical nomenclature which was laboriously used 
to catch the ideas. Through mastering the threefold art 
of reading, writing, and speaking Latin the pupils auto¬ 
matically acquired much training of mind and cultural 
knowledge. But nobody thought of setting up discipline 
of mind or cultural knowledge as the goal of Latin 
teaching. That goal was mastery of the art of using Latin 
with ease. 

This entire situation gradually changed from about 
1700 onwards. The vernaculars replaced Latin in text¬ 
books and as the medium of instruction. As Latin more 
and more ceased to be necessary as the means of acquir¬ 
ing and expressing learning, men were less and less 
motivated to study it, and its place in the curriculum 
continually waned. To defend it, especially after the 
times of John Locke (1632-1704) and Christian Wolff 
(1679-1754), the teachers pointed to the training of 
mind and the cultural knowledge it brought. Growing 
stress was put upon knowledge of Ciceronian style and 
grammatical analysis. In time, pupils began Latin not 
at the age of six but at fourteen. They learned declen¬ 
sions, conjugations, rules of syntax, vocabulary lists, 
and grammatical nomenclature. Then, after 1890 in 
the United States, they decoded the long difficult sen¬ 
tences of Caesar, and parsed the words. They repeated 
the process with a speech or two of Cicero and a few 
books of Vergil. They were acquiring knowledge about 
Latin, but not the art of using it with ease as a means of 
communicating thought. (Ability to read Latin at sight 
was ranked only in last place among the nineteen ob¬ 
jectives of Latin teaching listed by the teachers during 

1 Acta Apostolicae Sedis, 22, 80; America Press Edition, p. 

2 For a longer account, see “A Sketch of the History of Latin 
Teaching,” pp. 218-258 of Ganss, G.E., S.J., St. Ignatius' Idea 
of a Jesuit University, Marquette University Press, Milwaukee, 

the Classical Investigation of 1923.) With most stu¬ 
dents the learning of Latin became drudgery rather than 
fun and a growing sense of achievement. Enrollments 
fell. In 1910, 49.05% of the American high school stu¬ 
dents were taking Latin. By 1954, only 7% were study¬ 
ing it (-1.3% in Alabama, 5.8% in Wisconsin, 16.4% 
in Connecticut). 3 

Most Americans who have studied Latin, with our 
priests and seminarians included, have employed this 
method, which they thought was “traditional.” But as 
something fully developed, this tradition scarcely goes 
farther back than 1880; and even in its beginnings it 
hardly antedates the seventeenth century. 

In contrast to this method of grammatical analysis, 
Father Most’s textbooks reproduce much of the “natural 
method” by which children learn their native language. 
Hence, the significance of Father Most’s books is mani¬ 
festly great for the Latin classes in any Catholic high 
schools or colleges. So much of our Catholic doctrine 
and culture have been deposited in Latin that we want 
many of our educated Catholics to be able to use Latin 
with ease. 

But the special significance of Father Most’s texts is 
for the Latin classes in our seminaries. Here the students 
still have much the same cogent motives to master the 
art of using Latin with ease as the pupils of the thirteenth 
or sixteenth century. They need it as an indispensable 
means of communicating thought in their higher studies, 
and afterwards throughout life. The objectives (knowl¬ 

edge about Latin and training of mind) and correspond¬ 
ing methods (grammatical analysis and translation) 
“traditional” since 1880 have taken over in our semi¬ 
naries; and there too the students have been experienc¬ 
ing an ever growing inability to use Latin. Father Most’s 
textbooks can contribute much towards revolutionizing 
the teaching of Latin by bringing back, as the chief 
objective, the art of reading, writing, and (when de¬ 
sired) speaking Latin with ease. Thus they will help 
towards realizing not only the desires of Pope Pius XI 
cited above, but also those expressed by Pope Pius XII to 
the Carmelite Congress on September 13, 1951: 

Alas, the Latin language, the glory of priests, now 
has rather few devotees, and even they are constantly 
languishing. . . . Let there be no priest who does not 
know how to speak and read it easily and quickly. 
Beyond this, may there arise among you some neither 
mediocre nor few who can write it even in a com¬ 
pressed and elegant style of speech. 4 

Towards the accomplishment of these lofty objec¬ 
tives, our hope and prayer is that Father Most’s impor¬ 
tant textbooks using the “natural method” will have a 
wider and wider use. 

George E. Ganss, S.J., Ph.D. 
Director, Department of Classics, 
Marquette University, 

January 20, 1957 

3 The F.L. Program, Report No. 2 (August, 1955), Boston, 
D.C. Heath Co., p. 5. 

4 Acta Apostolicae Sedis 43, 737. 

Table of Contents 


1. Perfect indicative active, third singular 
Nominative and objective singular of the first 

three declensions. 1 

2. Perfect indicative active, third plural 
Objective plural of first three declensions 

Quod indirect statements. 3 

3. Ablative singular of the first three declensions 

Prepositions . 5 

4. Review Lesson . 7 

5. Ablative plural of the first three declensions 
The expletive there 

Plebs .. . 9 

6. Nominative singular and plural of the first 

three declensions. 11 

7. Objective and ablative of fourth and fifth 


Adjectives used as nouns 

Ablative without prepositions. 13 

8. Review Lesson. 15 

9. Nominative of fourth and fifth declensions 

Present active infinitives . 17 

10. Neuter nouns of second and third declensions 19 

11. Gender 

Agreement of bonus type adjectives 

Use of medius . 21 

12. Review Lesson . 24 

13. Declension and agreement of third declen¬ 

sion adjectives 
Pluperfect indicative active 
Adjectives used as nouns. 26 

14. Perfect indicative passive 
Perfect passive participles 

The three parts of verbs. 28 

15. Parts of verbs already learned 

Agent with ab . 31 

16. Review Lesson . 33 

17. Ablative absolutes with perfect passive par¬ 

ticiples . 35 

18. Possessive case of all five declensions 

Participles used as nouns. 37 

19. I lie in the nominative, objective and ablative 39 

20. Review 

Word order. 41 

21. Hie in three cases 
Pluperfect indicative passive 

Suus . 43 


22. Present indicative active, third singular, in 

four conjugations . 45 

23. Present indicative active, third plural, in four 


-iunt verbs. 47 

24. Review Lesson. 49 

25. Is and idem in three cases. 51 

26. The use and declension of qui (three cases) 53 

27. Quidam, ipse and sui in three cases. 55 

28. Review Lesson . 57 

29. Present indicative passive, third singular and 


Present infinitive passive. 59 

30. Dative case of all five declensions 

Word order sandwiches. 61 

31. Deponent verbs 

Going to towns and cities. 63 

32. Review Lesson . 65 

33. Imperfect indicative active, all conjugations 

Use of the imperfect. 67 

34. Imperfect indicative passive, all conjugations 

Possessive of pronouns. 69 

35. Formation and use of present participles 

Ablative absolutes without participles .... 71 

36. Review Lesson. 73 

3 7. Future indicative, active and passive, all con¬ 
jugations . 75 

38. Interrogative quis in nominative, possessive, 

objective and ablative 

Perfect infinitives. 77 

39. Indirect statements with objective and infini¬ 

tive . 79 

40. Review 

Word order. 81 

41. Imperfect subjunctive active 

Purpose clauses and substantive purpose 
clauses. 83 

42. Imperfect subjunctive passive 
Dative of pronouns 

Nine irregular adjectives. 85 

43. Pluperfect subjunctive active 
Cum clauses 

Tense use in subjunctive. 87 

44. Review Lesson . 90 


45. Pluperfect subjunctive passive 
Result clauses 

Indeclinable names. 92 

46. Present subjunctive, active and passive 
Tense use in subjunctive 
Hortatory subjunctive 

Indirect questions . 94 

47. Preview of first and second person active 


Present and imperfect subjunctive active 

First and second person. 96 

48. Review Lesson . 98 

49. Imperfect indicative active, first and second 



Tuus . 100 

50. Perfect indicative active, first and second 



Noster . 102 

51. Present indicative active, first and second 



Meus . 104 

52. Review Lesson . 106 

53. Future indicative active, first and second 


Imperative active. 108 

54. First and second person forms of velle, nolle 

and ire . Ill 

55. Review of the active first and second person 

forms . 113 

56. First and second person forms of esse, posse 

and ferre . 115 

57. First and second person forms in the perfect 


Perfect subjunctive and future perfect indica¬ 
tive passive. 117 

58. Preview of first and second person passive in 

the simple tenses 

First and second person of present and 
imperfect subjunctive. 119 

59. Review Lesson . 122 

60. First and second person in imperfect indica¬ 

tive passive 
Aliquis, aliqui 

-que . 124 

61. First and second person in present indicative 


Indefinite quis and qui . 126 


62. First and second person in future indicative 


Vocative case . 128 

63. Review of all passive forms. 130 

64. Future perfect indicative and perfect sub¬ 

junctive active 

Passive imperatives. 132 

65. Future passive participles expressing obliga¬ 


Objective of extent 

Mi lie . 135 

66. Review 

Sequence of tenses in subjunctive clauses . . 138 

67. Gerundives expressing purpose 

Dative of possession. 140 

68. Gerunds 

Datives of purpose and reference. 142 

69. Future active participles and infinitives 

Double objectives . 144 

70. Review Lesson . 146 

71. Comparison of adjectives 
Irregular comparatives 

Ablative of comparison . 148 

72. Formation and comparison of adverbs 
Irregular adverbs 

Fourth declension neuters 

lste . 150 

73. Real conditions 

Ablative of measure of difference. 152 

74. Review Lesson. 154 

75. Ideal conditions 

Conjugation of malle . 156 

76. Further uses of the gerundive. 158 

77. Impersonal verbs 

Ablatives of cause and separation. 160 

78. Review Lesson. 162 

79. Locative case 

Ablative of instrument and personal agent . 164 

80. Cum clauses 

Third declension mixed stem nouns 

Rules for /-stem nouns. 166 

81. Five deponents with the ablative 

Optional endings of third declension and of 

Use of the Latin dictionary. 168 

Declensions of Nouns. 171 

Declensions of Adjectives. 171 

Conjugations of Verbs. 173 

Latin Numbers. 177 

Latin-English, English-Latin Vocabularies 178 
Index. 185 


De tertia persona in numero singulari in tempore perfecto 
De casu nominativo et de casu obiectivo in numero singulari 

Maria habuit parvum agnum. 

Mary had a . .. (three guesses) 


Agnus fuit albus. 

parvus-sma//, little 

Maria venit in scholam. 

agnus -lamb 

Agnus venit in scholam. 


Agnus venit cum Maria. 


Marcus vidit agnum in schola. 

venit -came 

Agnus dixit: baa, baa. 

cum -with 
vidit -saw 
dixit -said 

We Are Discovered 

Columbus fuit nauta. Sed Columbus non habuit navem. 
Columbus venit ad Reginam Isabellam. Columbus dixit: 
Mundus est rotundus. Mundus non est planus. Regina 
dedit pecuniam. Columbus non invenit Indiam. Colum¬ 
bus invenit Americam. America non fuit parva. 


dedit -gave 

sed -but 

dixit -said 

agnus -lamb 


mundus -world 

habuit -had 


invenit -found 

navis -ship 

venit -came 

parva -small 


parvus -small 


pecunia -money 


planus -flat 


puella -girl 

in-in, into, on 

regina -queen 

non -not 


Now Let’s Think 

Here is an English sentence: Marcus saw the lamb (Mar¬ 
cus vidit agnum). There are three important words in 
it: Marcus is the subject; it is in the nominative case. 
The verb is saw. The object is lamb\ therefore, it is in the 
objective case. Notice that the Latin verbs above all end 
in-i'f. Notice that the word lamb in English, comes 
after the verb. Lamb is the object. In Latin we do not 

depend on the order of words to show the object—we 
depend on the ending. Notice that many words above 
end in -m. That is the ending for the object. Some have 
-am : some have -um : some have -em. Notice the various 
endings for the nominative case. We need not be con¬ 
cerned about them today. After words like ad, cum, and 
in, we have still other endings. Do not bother about them 
today. We can understand the story without knowing 
about them. 

Notice also that Marcus is just one person. So we say 
the subject is nominative singular. There is also only 
one lamb in school. That is singular too. More than one 
would be plural. More than one lamb would not only 
be plural. It would be too much. So we could say that 
the object in our sentence, agnum, is objective singular. 
And we could say that the subject in our sentence, 
Marcus, is nominative singular. There is no Latin word 
for the, no word for a ox an. Just supply these in English 
when you need them. 

Columbus and Lamb Stew 

Columbus non fuit puella. Maria fuit puella. Columbus 
non fuit planus. Fuit Columbus rotundus? Columbus 
non habuit pecuniam. Isabella habuit pecuniam. Isabel¬ 
la non habuit parvum agnum. Isabella habuit pecuniam. 
Columbus non habuit parvum agnum. Maria habuit 
parvum agnum. Maria non dedit pecuniam. Isabella 
dedit pecuniam. Sed Maria non dedit parvum agnum. 
Isabella non venit in scholam. Columbus non venit in 
scholam. Columbus venit in Americam. Columbus non 
venit in Americam cum agno. Columbus non venit in 
Americam cum Isabella. Isabella non venit in Ameri¬ 
cam cum Columbo. Isabella non venit in navem. Agnus 

albus non venit in navem. Maria non venit in navem. 
Agnus albus non fuit in India. Columbus non fuit in 
India. India non est agnus. India non est navis. Colum¬ 
bus fuit albus. Sed India non fuit alba. Mundus fuit 
rotundus. Sed India non fuit alba. Mundus fuit rotun- 

dus. Sed India non fuit rotunda. 


Find all the English words that are similar to those in the 
vocabulary. This should be done with every vocabulary. 



De tertia persona in numero plurali in tempore perfecto 
De casu obiectivo in numero plurali 

Quinque (5) Porci: or: 

Some get to Market. Some get none. 

Hie (this) parvus porcus venit in forum. Hie parvus porcus remZinsit domi. 
Hie parvus porcus hZibuit carnes bovinas assas. Hie parvus porcus non 
h£buit. Hie parvus porcus exclam&vit: Oui! Oui! Oui! Porci dixerunt: 
Oink! Oink! 

Summary: The Romans didn’t know the truth about the founding of Rome: What 
Romulus and Remus didn’t do, the Etruscans did. 

Roma fuit urbs magna. Romani amaverunt Romam. Roma fuit antiqua. 
Romani dixerunt quod Romulus et Remus fundaverunt Romam. Sed non 
dixdrunt veritfitem. 

In anno millesimo (1000 BC) ante Christum, viri iam fuerunt in terra 
RomZina. Etrusci ( Etruscans ) fundaverunt Romam. Etrusci amaverunt 
Romanos. Romani amaverunt terras Rom&nas. Sed non habuerunt urbes 

forum -market, forum 
remansit -remained 
domi-af home 

carnes bovinas assas -roast beef 



magna -great 




fundaverunt -founded 




iam -already 




annus -year 


lorum-market, forum 

remansit -remained 

magnus -great, large 

domi-af home 





vir -man 

iam -already 


Now Let’s Think 

Verbs: Last time we saw verbs ending in -it. They were 
singular. The subject of those verbs was singular. But 
when the subject is plural, the verbs must be plural too. 
To make the verbs plural, we change the ending -it to 
-erunt. But we do not care if the object is plural. That 
does not affect the verb. 

To sum up: we have two verb endings so far: -it for 
singular: -erunt for plural. 

Nouns: But on nouns we can have four different end¬ 
ings now. We can have singular or plural for the subject 

(nominative case). And we can have singular or plural 
for the object (objective case). We will not bother to 
learn the subject patterns today. But we could look at 
the object patterns. 

We have several different types of nouns. Let us look 
at one of each family. We will give singular and plural 
objective case endings for each. 

1 . 2 . 3 . 

terram terras porcum porcos urbem urbes 

Therefore the endings are: 

-am -as -um -os -em -es 

Notice that some words are much longer in the objective 
case than they are in the nominative: for example 

veritas verit&tem urbs urbem 

Adjectives: Words like magnus and parvus are adjec¬ 
tives. For the present, just be satisfied to get their mean¬ 
ing, which is easy. 

Quod: Notice how quod was used. We have used it only 
in combinations such as these: he says that, or he thinks 
that. We call this one use of quod: the dixit quod pattern 

or the indirect statement. In it we tell, without quote 
marks, and in an inexact way, what someone says or 

A Bit More Stew 

Maria et Marcus viderunt agnum. Agnus fuit in 
schola. Marcus et Maria dixerunt quod agnus fuit in 
schola. Viderunt agnum in schola. Non viderunt Colum- 
bum in schola. Non dixerunt quod Columbus fuit in 
terra Romana. Sed agnus exclamavit in schola. Agnus 

dixit: baa. Columbus dixit quod agnus dixit: baa. Porci 
non fuerunt in schola. Porci fuerunt in terra Romana. 
Porci dixerunt: oink. Porci dixerunt: oui! Porci non 
fuerunt albi. Porci fuerunt rotundi. Hie porcus fuit in 
urbe. Agnus non dixit :oink. Columbus non dixit quod 
agnus dixit: oink. Columbus dixit quod agnus dixit: baa. 
Columbus veritatem dixit. Marcus dixit quod agnus 
dixit: oink. Marcus veritatem non dixit. Columbus non 
habuit porcos. Agni venerunt in navem. Columbus 
amavit agnos. Columbus non amavit porcos. Columbus 
invenit agnos in America. Regina non fuitparva. Regina 
dedit pecuniam. Marcus amavit puellam. 



De ablativo singulari 
De praepositionibus 

Summary: Rome at first was ruled by Etruscan kings. But the last king, Tarquin, 
became arrogant. The Romans drove him out. 

In primis annis Romani habuerunt reges. Reges fuerunt Etrusci. Etrusci 
erant in throno Romano. Etrusci regnaverunt in terra Romana. Primi reges 
fuerunt boni. Sed rex ultimus fuit malus. Hie rex ultimus fuit Tarquinius. 
Romani non amaverunt Tarquinium. Tarquinius fuit rex malus. Non fuit 
rex bonus. Non fuit rex magnus. Rex malus non est rex magnus. Rex 
malus est rex parvus. Tarquinius non fuit magnus. Fuit malus. Ergo 
Romani non amaverunt Tarquinium regem. Ante Tarquinium reges 
fuerunt boni. Sed Tarquinius non fuit bonus. Ergo Tarquinius non re- 
mansit in terra Romana. Tarquinius non amavit veritatem. Romani 
dixerunt quod Tarquinius fuit malus. Ergo non remansit in urbe. Sed 
Romani remanserunt in urbe. 





regnavit -ruled 

bonus -good 






malus-6ad, evil 


primus -first 




ultimus -last 

Cogitemus Nunc (now let’s think) 

Ablative Case: There isn’t much new in this lesson. 
So let us catch up on a bit of old business. Notice the 

in terra Romana, in throno Romano, in urbe. 

They all have the word in. That word is a preposition. 
Notice the endings of the words that come after it: a, o, 
and e. They are in a special case: the ablative case. 

The preposition in often (not always) takes the abla¬ 
tive case. Let us notice what the ablative endings are: 

terra throno urb? 

So we see three families of nouns again in the ablative, 
just as there were in the nominative and objective cases. 
The ablative endings we have here are all singular. They 

-a -o -e 

Let us add up all the noun endings we now know, keep¬ 
ing the three classes of nouns separate (the exact name 
for the three classes or families is DECLENSIONS). 



1 . 

Sing. PI. 

am as 

2 . 







Sing. PI. 

em es 

Now let us turn back to the first two lessons and find 
other prepositions: What case comes after cuml It is 
the ablative which ALWAYS comes after cum. We 
also saw the preposition ad. What case comes after it? 
It is ALWAYS the objective case. 

But our old friend the preposition in sometimes takes 
the objective case. Remember some of the sentences we 
have already seen: 

Maria venit in scholam. Columbus venit in Americ am. 

Now what is the difference between the following two 

1. Maria venit in scholam. 

2. Maria fuit in schola. 

In 1. Mary is going somewhere—she is moving into 

In 2. Mary is going nowhere—she is stuck in school. 

Therefore—sometimes in means into, motion travel¬ 
ling into; it then takes the objective case. Sometimes in 
means in (or on) —no motion: 

it then takes the ablative case. 

If we add up all our prepositions thus far we get: 
ad with objective means to, up to 
ante with objective means before 
cum with ablative means with 
in with objective means into (motion ) 
in with ablative means in or on (no motion). 

Find all examples of prepositions in the text thus far. 

Now for Some Exercise 
Look for ablative patterns. 

Etrusci fuerunt reges in terra Romana. Etrusci venerunt 
in terram Romanam. Etrusci fuerunt in terra Romana 
in anno sescentesimo (600) ante Christum. Columbus 
venit in terram Americanam. Sed Status Foederati 
Americae (guess what) non fuerunt in terra quando 
Columbus venit. Columbus non invenit Status Foede- 
ratos Americae. Fuit Georgius Washington vir bonus? 

Status Foederati Americae fuerunt boni et magni. 
Columbus fuit primus vir albus in America. Columbus 
dixit quod invenit Americam. Columbus veritatem dixit. 
Georgius Washington non dixit quod invenit Americam. 
Georgius veritatem dixit. Maria non dixit quod invenit 
Americam. Maria dixit quod invenit agnum album. 
Dixit quod invenit agnum album in schola. Agnus venit 
ad scholam. Agnus venit in scholam cum Maria. Ro¬ 
mani non dixerunt quod Etrusci fundaverunt Romam. 
Agnus non fuit in America quando Columbus venit. 
Agnus albus non venit in Americam cum Columbo. 
Agnus albus remansit cum Maria. Sed agnus albus non 
remansit domi. Agnus albus venit in scholam cum 
Maria. Hie agnus albus fuit primus agnus albus in 
schola. Hie agnus albus fuit ultimus agnus albus in 
schola. Agnus albus non remansit in schola. Agnus 
exclamavit baa in schola. Ergo Marcus non amavit 
agnum album. Maria non amavit porcos. Porci non 
fuerunt albi. 



Nihil novi hodie: veteribus studeamus 
Nothing new today, let’s study old (things). 

Summary: After the expulsion of Tarquin, there was war with the Etruscans. The 
Romans attempt to burn the bridge leading to the city. The Etruscans try to cross. 
Horatius holds them off. Horatius makes a grand slam. 

Postquam Romani expulerunt Tarquinium bellum habuerunt. Tarquinius 
enim Etruscus fuit. Ergo Etrusci venerunt ad bellum cum Romanis. 
Etrusci dixerunt quod Romani mali fuerunt: expulerunt Tarquinium. 
Romani dixerunt quod Tarquinius malus fuit: ergo expulerunt Tarqut- 
nium. Bellum non parvum fuit. Bellum fuit magnum. Multi viri magni 
fuerunt in bello. Viri Romani amaverunt Romam. Exclamaverunt quod 
Tarquinius malus tyrannus fuit. Viri Romani dixerunt veritatem. Tar¬ 
quinius fuit tyrannus malus. 

Etiam rex Etruscus venit cum Tarquinio ad bellum. Rex Etruscus fuit 
Lars Porsenna. Romani viderunt exercitum Etruscum. Exercitus Etruscus 
magnus fuit. Romani viderunt quod exercitus Etruscus magnus fuit. Sed 
exercitus Romanus etiam magnus fuit. Viri Romani magni fuerunt. Sed 
viri Etrusci etiam magni fuerunt. Non parvi fuerunt. Ergo viri Romani et 
viri Etrusci paraverunt ad pugnam. Viri Etrusci dixerunt: Romani mali 
sunt: expulerunt Tarquinium. Sed Romani dixerunt quod Tarquinius 
malus fuit. Romani non agni fuerunt—viri fuerunt. Romani fuerunt ad 
urbem. Steterunt ad pontem. Etiam Etrusci steterunt ad pontem Romanum. 
Romani iecerunt ignem in pontem. Vir Romanus magnus stetit in ponte. 
Hie vir fuit Horatius. Amavit Romam. Sed Etrusci venerunt in pontem. 
Ignis venit in pontem. Pons cecidit in aquam. Horatius etiam cecidit in 

expulit-e* pelted 
enim -for 
etiam -also, even 
exercitus -army 
paravit -prepared 
pugna -battle 
sunt -are 

ad pontem-near the bridge 

stetit -stood 


iecit -threw 


cecidit -fell 




expulit -expelled 

( conjunction ) 

iecit -threw 


paravit -prepared 

aqua -water 

stetit -stood 


ad-near (with objective) exercitus-nrmy 



etiam -even, also 

pugna -battle 

Videamus Formas Veteres: 

Let us see the old patterns: 

Verbs: Let us review all the verb forms we have learned: 
we have seen only two forms. Verbs that end in -it and 
-erunt. They are third person singular and third person 

plural. They belong to the tense (time) that we call 
perfect. The perfect tense refers to something that is 

Nouns: On nouns we have used three cases: nomina¬ 
tive, objective, and ablative. 

The nominative is the case for the subject. 

The objective is the case for the direct object of a 
verb. It is also used for the object of some prepositions: 
ad, ante, and in (when in means into: motion). The 
ablative case so far has been used only after some 
prepositions: cum and in (when in means in or on —no 

We have not yet bothered to learn the nominative 
patterns. But we do know the objective patterns in 
three declensions: 

1. -am -as 2. -um -os 3. -em -es 
We know the ablative singular endings for these three 
declensions: 1. -a 2. -o 3. -e. 


Constructions: We have learned some kinds of de¬ 
pendent clauses: 

We have seen quod for indirect state¬ 
ments after verbs of saying. 

We have seen quando in the sense 
of when. 

We have seen postquam in the sense 
of after (It never means after¬ 
wards. ) 

Enim: Notice the odd word enim. It means for. But it 
can never be the first word in its own clause. If I want to 
say: For the Romans were great—I may say: 

Romani enim fuerunt magni. But not: Enim Romani 
fuerunt magni. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
(Now let us exercise ourselves) 

Look for object patterns. 

Tarquinius fuit rex malus. Ergo Romani expulerunt 
regem malum. Sed Tarquinius venit cum Etruscis contra 

(against ) Romam. Etrusci paraverunt exercitum mag¬ 
num. Romani etiam paraverunt exercitum magnum. 
Columbus non venit cum Etruscis. Et agnus albus non 
venit cum Etruscis. Agnus enim Tarquinium non 
amavit. Agnus enim dixit baa Tarquinio {to Tarqui¬ 
nius) . Sed Tarquinius non iecit agnum in aquam. Agnus 
enim in ponte non fuit. Fuitne {Note: The little ending 
-ne is often attached to the first word of a question un¬ 
less that word is already a question word.) Tarquinius 
in ponte? Non. Tarquinius in ponte non fuit. Horatius 
in ponte fuit. Sed Horatius non remansit in ponte. Ignis 
enim in pontem venit. Romani ignem iecerunt in pon- 
tem. Etrusci enim in ponte fuerunt. Pons non amavit 
ignem. Pons ergo cecidit in aquam. Horatius etiam in 
aquam cecidit. Horatius enim non habuit navem. Hora¬ 
tius non stetit in ponte cum igne. Pons etiam non stetit. 
Columbus non vidit ignem in ponte. Columbus enim 
non fuit in ponte quando ignis venit. Fuitne Columbus 
in urbe Romana quando ignis venit? Non. Columbus 
etiam non fuit in America quando ignis venit. Columbus 
non dixit quod fuit in America quando ignis venit in 
pontem Romanum. Columbus dixit veritatem. Colum¬ 
bus enim non fuit in mundo in illo {that) anno. 



De ablativo plurali 

Summary: The Romans make two consuls instead of the kings. But there is strife 
between the two classes in the state: Patricians and plebeians. The plebeians walk 
out to the Sacred Mount. But they come back when the patricians create a new 
office: the tribunes of the people, to protect them. 

Romani expulerunt Etruscos. Nunc Etrusci non sunt reges in terra 
Romana. Romani non sunt reges in terra Romana, sed Romani fecerunt 
consules duos (two). Consules fuerunt viri boni. Reges Etrusci fuerunt 
mali. Sed consules non sunt mali—viri magni sunt. Consules habuerunt 
magnam potestatem. In urbe Romana cives pugnaverunt cum civibus. 
Romani patricii fuerunt divites: magnam pecuniam habuerunt. Patricii 
etiam magnam potestatem habuerunt. Sed plebs Romana fuerunt pauperes. 
Plebs non habuerunt pecuniam. Plebs non habuerunt potestatem in urbe. 
Plebs voluerunt potestatem. Plebs voluerunt pecuniam. Patricii non 
dederunt pecuniam. Patricii non dederunt potestatem in urbe. Ergo plebs 
pugnaverunt cum patriciis. Plebs non remanserunt in urbe. Plebs venerunt 
in Sacrum Montem. Patricii exclamaverunt: Venite in urbem! Sed plebs 
remansit in Monte Sacro. Magni patricii venerunt ad plebem. Dixerunt: 
venite! venite in urbem Romanam! Sed plebs remansit in Monte Sacro. 
Ergo patricii creaverunt officium novum. Creaverunt tribunos plebis (of 
the plebs). Fuerunt duo (two) tribuni plebis. Ergo plebs non remansit in 
Monte Sacro. Plebs venit in urbem. Plebs venit cum tribunis. Tribuni mag¬ 
nam potestatem habuerunt. Consules habuerunt magnam potestatem. Sed 
tribuni etiam habuerunt magnam potestatem. 

civis -citizen 
patricius -patrician 
dives -rich 
plebs -plebeian(s) 
voluit -wished 
officium -office 


fecit -made, did 

civis, i- citizen 

sunt -are 

novus -new 

voluit -wished, willed 

potestas -power 


Cogitemus Nunc 

Nouns in Vocabulary: Thus far we have been learn¬ 
ing the nominative singular in vocabularies. Now that 
we have the ablative, we shall learn both the nominative 
and the ablative singular. We can tell what family the 
noun belongs to by the ablative singular. 

Therefore, the ablative singular does two things for us: 

1. It shows which declension a noun belongs to (and so 
we know which set of endings to use). 

2. It shows the base on which we build the endings 
(ablative singular minus ending). 

Now, to help you bring your vocabulary notebook up 
to date, here are the ablatives of all the nouns we have 
learned so far: 

agnus, o 
annus, o 
aqua, a 
bellum, o 
civis, i 
forum, o 
ignis, i 
mundus, o 
nauta, a 
navis, i 
pecunia, a 

pons, ponte 
potestas, potestate 
puella, a 
pugna, a 
regfna, a 
rex, rege 
terra, a 
urbs, urbe 
veritas, veritate 
vir, viro 

(Exercitus is fourth declension, which we shall see later. 
Ablative is: exercitu). 

Ablative Plurals: The ablative plural endings for 
the three families are: 1 . -is (e.g., nautis) 2. -is (e.g., 


agnis) 3. -ibus (e.g., embus). If we add it all up we get 
both the singular and the plural of the ablative thus: 

1. 2. 3. 

Sing, -a Sing, -o Sing, -i or -e 

PI. -is PI. -is PI. -ibus 

Notice that some third declension nouns have -i, while 
some have -e. We shall see more about that fact later 
on. It makes little difference to us. 

Expletive “There”: an introductory word: 
Notice this sentence: Non sunt reges in terra Romdna. 
We could translate it in two ways. 1. Kings are not in 
the Roman land. 2. There are not kings in the Roman 

The word there in the second sentence is an expletive (a 
“filler”). Latin does very well without it. It is used in 
English sometimes to start a sentence which has the verb 
to be (any form) in it. This use of the word there is 
different from the use in which it means “in that place.” 
Latin does have a word that means there in the sense of 
“in the place.” But Latin has no expletive there. So we 
will fill it in in English whenever we need it. 

Plebs: This word is collective: the form is singular, but 
the sense is plural—so—we can use either a singular or 
a plural verb with it. Find examples in the story above. 

Exerceamus Nos 
(Let us exercise ourselves) 

Ubi sunt Romani? Romani sunt inurbeRomana. Suntne 
plebs in urbe Romana? Non. Plebs non est in urbe Ro- 
mana. Plebs est in Monte Sacro. Plebs venerunt ex urbe 
(out of the city). Venerunt in Montem Sacrum. Non 
remanserunt in urbe. Estne Columbus in Monte Sacro? 
Non. Columbus non est in Monte Sacro. Columbus non 
est in urbe. Columbus est in navi. Navis est in aqua. Ubi 
est agnus? Agnus non est in Monte Sacro. Agnus est in 
schola. Marcus non voluit agnum in schola. Sed Marcus 
voluit Mariam. Marcus dixit: O! Maria est agna parva! 
Marcus amavit Mariam. Maria amavit Marcum. Maria 
etiam dixit: O! Marcus est agnus parvus. Estne Colum¬ 
bus agnus parvus? Non. Columbus habuit uxorem 
(wife). Uxor non dixit: Columbus est agnus parvus. 
Uxor dixit quod Columbus fuit porcus magnus. Sed 
uxor amavit Columbum. Et Columbus amavit uxorem. 
Columbus non fuit porcus magnus. Columbus non fuit 
porcus parvus. Columbus non fuit porcus. Sed Colum¬ 
bus fuit rotundus. Mundus etiam est rotundus. Agnus 
etiam est rotundus. Mundus non est planus. Pecunia 
est rotunda. Ergo: mundus est rotundus—et pecunia 
est rotunda: estne mundus pecunia? Non. Mundus non 
est pecunia. Sed viri mali dixerunt quod pecunia est rex 
in mundo. Horatius habuit pecuniam. Horatius etiam 
stetit in ponte. Sed pons cecidit in aquam. Ignis cecidit 
in pontem. Romani pugnaverunt cum Etruscis. Sed 
patricii etiam pugnaverunt cum plebe. Cives pugna¬ 
verunt cum Etruscis. Sed patricii etiam pugnaverunt 
cum plebe. Cives pugnaverunt cum rivibus. 



De nominativo singulari et plurali—in tribus declinationibus 

Summary: The Romans go to war with the Aequi. During this war, the Roman army 
is trapped by the Aequi. The senate appoints Cincinnatus dictator. Cincinnatus 
rescues the Roman army. He goes to the senate and resigns as dictator, and goes 
back to his farm. 

Romani habuerunt bellum cum Aequis. Consul Romanus venit cum 
exercitu Romano ad pugnam. Exercitus Romanus pugnavit cum Aequis. 
Aequi pugnaverunt cum Romanis. Aequi viri fortes fuerunt. Sed Romani 
etiam viri fortes fuerunt. Ergo viri fortes pugnaverunt cum viris fortibus. 
Sed exercitus Romanus venit in magnum periculum. Viri Romani ex- 
clamaverunt: in magno periculo sumus ( we are)! Sed viri Romani fortes 
fuerunt. Et in urbe Romana fuit senatus Romanus. Viri boni fuerunt in 
senatu Romano. Ergo senatus Romanus fecit consilium: Dictatorem 
creaverunt. Cincinnatus fuit vir bonus, vir fortis. In veritate, Cincinnatus 
fuit Romanus bonus. Legati ex senatu venerunt ad Cincinnatum. Cincin¬ 
natus fuit in agris. Legati ex senatu dixerunt quod exercitus Romanus in 
periculo magno fuit. Dixerunt quod senatus creavit Cincinnatum dic¬ 
tatorem. Ergo Cincinnatus non remansit in agris. Cincinnatus fuit dictator. 
Cincinnatus venit cum viris fortibus. Cincinnatus pugnavit cum Aequis. 
Cincinnatus vicit Aequos. Sed Cincinnatus non remansit Dictator. Cin¬ 
cinnatus non voluit magnam protestatem. Cincinnatus voluit agros bonos. 
Ergo Cincinnatus venit in senatum. Cincinnatus dixit in senatu quod non 
voluit magnam potestatem. Cincinnatus venit rursus in agros. Nunc Cin¬ 
cinnatus non est Dictator. 

Aequi-the Aequi 
periculum -danger 
senatus -senate 
dictator -dictator 
legatus -legate 
ager -field 




creavit-created, made 

ager, agco-field, farm 


consilium, consilio-p/an 

e, ex-from, out from 

fortis-brave, strong 

(with ablative case ) 

periculum, o -danger 



Nunc Cogitemus 

Nominative Endings: We have been using the nomi¬ 
native endings for the subject for some time now. So 
let us add them up, for the three declensions that we 



1. -a 




2. -us, -r 










Notice that we did not indicate an ending for the nomi¬ 
native singular of third declension—that is because 
there is so large a variety: we must learn each word as 
it is. Notice also that there are a few words that we have 
already had that do not fit into the table above. Do not 
bother about them now. We will see about them later. 
We can use them easily without knowing all about them. 
But let us be sure to learn the nominative and the abla¬ 
tive singular of each word. Then they will not be hard 
to handle. 

Preposition Ex: Notice the preposition ex has two 
forms: e and ex. E is used before consonants. Ex is used 
before vowels (sometimes before consonants also). 

Exerceamus Nos 

Romani enim fortes viri fuerunt. Quando pugnave¬ 
runt cum Aequis, Romani vicerunt Aequos. Romani 
venerunt ex urbe ad pugnam. Aequi venerunt ex urbe ad 
pugnam. Horatius pugnavit cum Etruscis. Etrusci etiam 
fuerunt viri fortes. Romani fuerunt in magno periculo 
postquam regem Tarquinium expulerunt. Romani fue¬ 
runt in magno periculo quando pugnaverunt cum 


Aequis. Sed Romani vicerunt Etruscos et Aequos. Cin¬ 
cinnatus fuit Dictator Romanus. Sed Cincinnatus non 
voluit potestatem magnam. Cincinnatus amavit Ro- 
mam. Cincinnatus fecit consilium bonum. Cincinnatus 
non remansit Dictator. Plebs non remansit in urbe. 
Plebs non venit in scholam. Marcus venit in scholam 
cum Maria. Agnus venit in scholam cum Maria. Fuitne 
Marcus agnus? Maria dixit quod Marcus fuit agnus. 
Fuitne Marcus rotundus? Tribuni plebis habuerunt 

magnam potestatem. Consules etiam habuerunt mag¬ 
nam potestatem. Sed consules et tribuni plebis non fue- 
runt viri mali. Fuerunt viri boni. In veritate fuerunt Ro¬ 
mani fortes. Exercitus Romanus etiam fuit fortis. Viri 
fortes fuerunt in exercitu. Horatius stetit in ponte. Pons 
cecidit in aquam. Horatius etiam cecidit in aquam. 
Porci non ceciderunt in aquam. Porci non amaverunt 
aquam. Etiam agnus non cecidit in aquam. Sed agnus 
albus fuit. Porci non albi fuerunt. 



De casu objeclivo et casu ablativo in declinationibus iv et v 

Summary: After many wars, the Romans still had no peace. In 390 B.C. the Gauls 
invaded Italy. They conquered many peoples and even defeated a Roman army. 
They entered Rome, and captured all but the Capitoline. There the geese awakened 
the sleeping Romans. 

In rebus humanis, periculum non est rarum. Romani bellum habuerunt in 
multis diebus et in multis annis. Romani bellum habuerunt cum Etruscis. 
Etiam bellum habuerunt cum Aequis. Habuerunt bellum cum multis. Sed 
Romani fortes fuerunt. Viri magni in exerdtibus Romanis fuerunt. Ergo 
Romani vicerunt Etruscos. Etiam vicerunt Aequos. Sed Romani non sem¬ 
per vicerunt. In anno trecentesimo nonagesimo (390) ante Christum, 
barbari venerunt ex Gallia in Italiam. Galli fuerunt barbari. Galli pugna¬ 
verunt cum multis in Italia. Galli vicerunt multos. Galli etiam pugnaverunt 
cum Etruscis. Galli vicerunt Etruscos in pugna. Galli etiam venerunt in 
terram Romanam. Galli pugnaverunt cum exercitu Romano. Galli vice¬ 
runt exercitum Romanum. In exercitu Romano fuerunt multi viri magni 
et fortes. Sed Galli etiam fuerunt magni et fortes. Galli vicerunt Romanos. 
Galli venerunt etiam in urbem Romanam. Galli ceperunt fere totam ur- 
bem. Sed Galli non ceperunt totam urbem. Galli non ceperunt Capitolium. 
In Capitolio viri fortes fuerunt. Sed viri fortes dormiebant (were sleep¬ 
ing) in Capitolio. Viri non audiverunt Gallos in Capitolio. Sed anseres 
fuerunt etiam in Capitolio. Anseres non dormiebant. Anseres audiverunt 
Gallos. Anseres exclamaverunt. Romani audiverunt anseres. Romani 
pugnaverunt cum Gallis. 

rarus -rare 
dies -day 

multus-mwdj, many 
semper -always 
barbari -barbarians 
Galli -Gauls 
fer e-almost 
audfvit -heard 
anser -goose 



dies, die (5)-day 

cepit -took, captured 

multus-mwcli, many 

fere-almost, in general 

res, vt (5)-thing 

semper -always 

totus -whole 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Adjectives Used Alone: Notice the use of multis 
in the sentence: pugnaverunt cum multis. It means: 
They fought with many. Of course, multis means— 
many peoples or nations. We may leave a word under¬ 
stood with an adjective. We must then supply the right 
wordAo English; we usually supply one of these: men, 
things, etc. 

Objective and Ablative of Fourth and Fifth 
Declensions: So far we have been studying only three 
declensions. We have used some words from the fourth 

declension. We must now take a closer look at the new 
forms. They are as follows (endings are underlined): 

















As to the fourth declension—notice that it has the 
same objective singular as the second declension. And 
it has the same ablative plural as the third. 

As to the fifth declension—notice that all four forms 
above are the same as third declension (although the 
third sometimes has ablative singular in -i) except that 
the ablative plural has -ebus instead of -ibus. 

How can we tell which declension? If we want to 


know what family a word belongs to, we take a look at 
the ablative singular: 

1. -a 

2. -o 

3. -e or -i 

4. -u 

5. -e 

Are there any that are alike? Yes, the fifth declension 
has -e, and the third sometimes has -e. But there is no 
real problem—there are very few words that belong to 
the fifth declension. We shall mark them all thus: dies, 

Ablative Used without Prepositions: It is possible 
to use the ablative case without prepositions. It can have 
various meanings then. Study these examples: 

1. Romani non vicerunt pecunia. 

The Romans did not conquer by money. 

2. Romani fuerunt multi numero. 

The Romans were many in number. 

3. Romani exclamaverunt voce magna. 

The Romans shouted with a great voice. 

Notice the English prepositions that we may supply. 
They are: in, by, with. We could fill out the translation 
more if we wanted to: in the first sentence we could say: 
by means of money. In the second sentence we could 
say: in respect to number. But the third sentence could 
not be filled in more. There are a few other uses of the 
ablative without prepositions. We shall meet them later. 
But for the present let us remember to try that list of 

prepositions: in, by, with whenever we see an abla¬ 
tive without a preposition. 

Exerceamus Nos 

Look for ablative patterns 

Galli exercitum Romanum vicerunt. Galli etiam Etrus- 
cos vicerunt. Galli non venerunt in Italiam magnis 
navibus. Galli non venerunt multis navibus. Galli navi- 
bus non venerunt. Galli venerunt multis exercitibus. 
Romani fuerunt magni fortitudine ( abl. sing.-bravery). 
Galli etiam magni fortitudine fuerunt. Galli non 
vicerunt pecunia. Quando Galli venerunt in Capitolium, 
anseres exclamaverunt voce ( voice-abl.sing .) magna. 
Romani etiam exclamaverunt voce magna. Romani 
etiam boni fuerunt consiliis. Galli non fuerunt boni 
consiliis. Galli mali consiliis fuerunt. Senatus Romanus 
fuit bonus consiliis. Senatus creavit Dictatorem. Senatus 
dixit quod Cincinnatus fuit vir fortis. Cincinnatus 
Aequos vicit. Cincinnatus Aequos non vicit pecunia. 
Cincinnatus Aequos non vicit igni. Cincinnatus Aequos 
vicit fortitudine. Sed Columbus etiam fuit magnus forti¬ 
tudine. Columbus enim in Americam venit. Columbus 
venit ad Americam navibus. Agnus non venit ad Ameri¬ 
cam navibus. Agnus ad Americam non venit. Primis 
diebus Romani bellum habuerunt. Romani multis annis 
bellum habuerunt. Romani fere semper bellum habue¬ 
runt. Romani non pugnaverunt aqua. Romani non 
pugnaverunt igni. Romani pugnaverunt magnis exer¬ 
citibus. Roma fuit fortis civibus fortibus. Roma fuit 
magna potestate. Nunc Roma est magna veritate 



Nihil novi hodie; veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Legend tells how the Roman laws came to be written. At first only the 
patricians knew the law—the plebs therefore were at a disadvantage. More civil 
strife resulted. Finally a commission was sent to Greece to study the laws of Solon. 
When the men returned, the laws were written down. This quieted the plebs, and 
civil strife was stopped for the time being. 

Romani narraverunt fabulam de legibus Romanis. In primis diebus Ro¬ 
mani habuerunt leges. Sed soli patricii sciverunt leges Romanas. Plebs non 
scivit leges. Ergo plebs in periculo fuit. Plebs non amavit periculum. Et 
plebs non am£vit patricios. Plebs dixerunt quod patricii non amaverunt 
plebem—patricii non scripserunt leges. Plebs in periculo est quia patricii 
non scripserunt leges. Patricii mali sunt. Non sunt boni. Ergo rursus pugna 
fuit in urbe. Cives pugnaverunt cum civibus. Patricii pugnaverunt cum 
plebe. Plebs pugnavit cum patriciis. In primis diebus, quando plebs pug- 
navit cum patriciis, plebs non remansit in urbe. Plebs venit in Montem 
Sacrum. Sed plebs non remansit semper in Monte Sacro. Plebs rursus venit 
in urbem quando patricii dederunt tribunos plebis. Sed nunc plebs rem&nsit 
in urbe. Plebs non venit in Montem Sacrum. Plebs non remansit in urbe 
quia amaverunt patricios. Plebs remansit in urbe quia amaverunt Romam. 
Ergo senatus Romanus misit viros in Graeciam. Viri Romani viderunt 
leges Solonis (of Solon). Leges Solonis bonae fuerunt. Postquam viri 
Romini viderunt leges Solonis in Graecia, rursus venerunt in terrain 
Romanam. Rursus venerunt in urbem. Senatus scripsit leges. Plebs rursus 
vicit patricios. Patricii enim scripserunt leges. Postquam patricii scripse¬ 
runt leges, plebs non habuit pugnam cum patriciis. Plebs non fuit in pe¬ 
riculo magno. Plebs sciverunt leges. Leges bonae fuerunt. 

d e-about 
narravit -told 
1 ex-law 

solus -alone, only 






fabula, a-legend 


lex, lege-/aw 


solus-a/o/ie, only 

Rursus Videamus Formas Veteres 

We have learned that there are five sets of endings for 
nouns, which we call five declensions. We have learned 
to distinguish one declension from another by means 
of the ablative singular form (we have to add the num¬ 
ber 5 for the fifth since it has -e, and the third declension 
also has -e on some nouns). A noun never changes its 
declension—it always stays in the same family of end¬ 
ings. We have seen nearly all the forms of three cases in 
the five declensions (all except the nominative of 

fourth and fifth declensions). Let us review them all. 
We shall put the singular in one line, the plural in 





naut am 



naut as 

naut is 


agn um 

agn o 


agn os 

agn is 












senat ibus 







Of course, we remember that the nominative singular of 
second declension may have other forms (such as: vir, 
ager) and also, the nominative of third may have various 
forms. In lesson nine we shall learn the nominative 
plurals of fourth and fifth. 

Exerceamus Nos 
Watch for patterns! 

Romani habuerunt leges multas. Romani fuerunt magni 
bello. Romani boni fuerunt consfliis. Romani fuerunt 
boni legibus bonis. Sed primis diebus plebs non scivit 
leges. Plebs leges bonas voluerunt. Columbus scivit 
legem. Sed agnus albus non scivit legem: ergo agnus 
albus venit in scholam. Galli non sciverunt legem Ro- 
manam, quia Galli non fuerunt Romani. Galli ceperunt 
fere totam urbem Romanam. Galli exclamaverunt voce 
magna. Galli Romanos vicerunt magna potestate. Sed 
Galli non ceperunt Capitolium. Viri fortes dormiebant 
in Capitolio. Sed anseres non dormiebant. Anseres audi- 
verunt Gallos. Anseres voce magna exclamaverunt. 
Romani pugnaverunt magna fortitudine. Quando Galli 

fuerunt in urbe, plebs non pugnavit cum patriciis. Et 
patricii non pugnaverunt cum plebe. Plebs enim pug¬ 
navit cum Gallis. Sed Galli exercitum Romanum vice¬ 
runt. Galli non remanserunt in urbe. Romani enim 
Gallos vicerunt pecunia. Cincinnatus non fuit in urbe 
quando Galli venerunt. Senatus non fecit Cincinnatum 
Dictatorem quando Galli venerunt. Senatus non misit 
Cincinnatum in Graeciam. Isabella misit Columbum in 
Americam. Columbus in Americam venit multis navi- 
bus. Sed Columbus non invenit Indiam. Agni albi non 
fuerunt in navibus. Cincinnatus non fuit in schola. Sed 
Cincinnatus bonus consfliis fuit. Primis diebus Romani 
non habuerunt scholas. Sed Romani habuerunt agnos 
albos. Primis diebus agni albi non fuerunt in schola, 
quia Romani non habuerunt scholas. Agni albi in agris 
fuerunt. Marcus non vidit Mariam in Graecia, quia 
Maria non fuit in Graecia. Graeci fuerunt in Graecia. 
Sed Romani etiam fuerunt in Graecia quando viderunt 
leges Solonis. Romani dixerunt quod Graeci fuerunt 
boni legibus bonis. Solon fuit vir bonus consfliis. Fuftne 
Columbus Graecus? Non. Columbus venit ex Italia. 
Graeci fuerunt in Graecia. 



De nominativo in declinationibus quarto et quinto 
De infinitivo 

Preliminary note: Today we are going to begin to use the present infinitive. In 
Latin, these present infinitives all end in -re. Translate them with the word “to” in 
English. For example: servare -to save. 

Summary: The Romans were almost constantly at war—if not with foreigners, with 
one another. The Greeks in Southern Italy, called Magna Graecia, began to fear 
Rome. They invited the King of Epirus, Pyrrhus, to destroy Rome. Pyrrhus scared 
the Romans with the elephants. But he was not successful, and finally returned home. 

Romani fere semper bellum habuerunt. Quando bellum cum aliis nationi- 
bus non habuerunt, patricii pugnaverunt cum plebe. Quando patricii non 
pugnaverunt cum plebe, bellum habuerunt cum aliis. Ergo fere semper 
Roma in bellis fuit. Roma fuit magna bellis. Graeci non solum in Graecia 
fuerunt: Graeci etiam fuerunt in Italia meridionali. Dixerunt quod Italia 
meridionalis fuit “Magna Graecia.” Graeci timuerunt potestatem Ro¬ 
manam. Graeci voluerunt servare urbes Graecas a Romanis. Voluerunt 
defendere terram Graecam a Romanis. Voluerunt servare terrain Graecam 
a Romanis. Ergo Graeci miserunt legatos in Epirum. In Epiro rex fuit 
Pyrrhus. Graeci rogaverunt Pyrrhum venire. Pyrrhus venit in Italiam. 
Venit cum exercitu. Venit etiam cum elephantis. Romani timuerunt ele¬ 
phantos. Romani non viderunt elephantos ante hoc (this) bellum. Multi 
Romani non remanserunt in pugna quando viderunt elephantos. Romani 
voluerunt servare Romam. Romani voluerunt defendere terram Romanam. 
Sed Romani dixerunt quod in periculo fuerunt ab elephantis. Romani potu- 
erunt pugnare cum viris magnis et fortibus. Sed Romani timuerunt pugnare 
cum elephantis. Elephanti magni fuerunt—viri parvi fuerunt. Romani non 
potuerunt stare ante elephantos. Ergo Pyrrhus vicit Romanos. Sed Pyr¬ 
rhus non potuit capere urbem Romanam. Pyrrhus voluit capere urbem 
Romanam. Graeci rogaverunt Pyrrhum capere urbem Romanam. Sed 
non potuit. Romani vicerunt Pyrrhum aliis pugnis. Romani pugnaverunt 
etiam cum elephantis. Voluerunt servare Romam. Ergo Pyrrhus non re- 
mansit in Italia. Pyrrhus venit rursus in Epirum. 

natio -nation 
non solum-nof only 
timuit -feared 
servare-/o save 
a, ab-from 
defender e-defend 
venire-fo come 
potuit-was able 
stare-fo stand 
caper e-to seize 


posse, potuit-6e able 

timere, timuit -fear 

rogare, rogavit-asfc 

non solum-nof only 

servare, servavit-save 

a\ius-other, another 



Infinitives: Notice in the vocabulary above that we 
now give two forms for each verb. It will be necessary to 
learn both forms. The first will be the infinitive. The 

second will be the perfect tense, the form we have been 
accustomed to using. Notice that all regular infinitives 
end in -re (posse is irregular—there are only a few 
irregular infinitives). Notice that each vowel ahead of 
the -re is different. For different verbs you may find an 
-are, -ere or -ire. We shall see about that later on. But 
now we need to pick up the infinitives of the verbs we 
have already learned in the first eight lessons. That is 
not a large task for we have learned only about two 
dozen verbs. We can pick them up a bit at a time: a 
dozen now, a dozen later. They are not hard to learn, 
because they are so obviously similar to the parts we 


already know, and all end in -re, except for a very few 
irregular ones. To make it easy let us list a dozen now: 

amare, amavit-/ove esse, imi-be (notice that 

audire, audwit-hear esse is irregular ) 

cadere, cecidit-/a// exclamare, exclamavit- 

capere, cepit -take, capture shout 
creare, creavit -create expellere, expulit-dr/ve out 

dare, dedit -give facere, fecit-make, do 

dicere, dixit-say habere, habuit-/iave 

Notice that the first letter e in the ending -ere of habere is 
a long e. Therefore we put the accent on that letter thus: 
habere. The accent does not fall on the first e of the other 
-ere endings in this list e.g., capere is accented on the a. 
We shall write the accent on the e of such infinitives as 
habere, to make it easy to pronounce them correctly. 
And besides, that difference of accent will be useful for 
something else later on. Those in -are and -ire are always 
-are and -ire. 

Nominative of Fourth and Fifth Declensions: 
There are only two endings to learn—we already know 
the nominative singulars: fourth has -us; fifth has -es. 
The nominative plurals are the same as the singulars in 
these declensions. Therefore we now know nearly all 
the endings of the five declensions (a few other forms 
to come later). 

Exerceamus Nos 
Watch for infinitive patterns. 

Maria voluit videre agnum. Agnus voluit videre scho- 
lam. Agnus audivit multas res in schola. Sed agnus non 
audivit porcos in schola. Porci non fuerunt in schola. 

Marcus voluit amare Mariam. Maria voluit capere 
Marcum. Isabella potuit dare pecuniam. Romani po- 
tuerunt expellere Gallos ex urbe. Romani Gallos ex- 
pulerunt pecunia. Cincinnatus voluit esse bonus. 
Tarquinius voluit esse rex. Exercitus Romanus potuit 
servare urbem ab exercitu Gallico. Horatius non potuit 
timere—Horatius fortis Romanus fuit. Anseres vol- 
uerunt servare Romam. Columbus voluit habere naves 
bonas. Columbus venit in Americam navibus bonis. 
Pyrrhus habuit multos elephantos. Pyrrhus etiam fuit 
bonus consiliis. Magna Graecia fuit in Italia meridionali. 
Fuitne Magna Graecia magna? Fuitne alia Graecia? Ubi 
fuit alia Graecia? Fuitne alia Graecia parva? Non. Alia 
Graecia fuit maior quam ( larger than ) Graecia Magna. 
Ergo quando Graeci dixerunt quod Magna Graecia fuit 
magna, non dixerunt veritatem. Magna enim Graecia 
non fuit maior quam Graecia. Fueruntne nautae in 
Magna Graecia? CJtique (yes) multi nautae fuerunt in 
Magna Graecia. Multi nautae fuerunt etiam in Graecia. 
Graeci boni nautae fuerunt. Romani etiam boni nautae 
fuerunt. Venitne Pyrrhus solus ex Epiro? Non. Non 
venit solus. Venit cum multis viris aliis. Venit etiam cum 
multis elephantis. Romani non potuerunt amare ele¬ 
phantos. Romani timuerunt elephantos. Romani non 
rogaverunt elephantos venire in urbem. Maria non 
rogavit agnum venire in scholam. Columbus non rogavit 
porcos venire in navem. 

English to Latin 

From now on, we shall take just a few sentences from 
English to Latin. That is, naturally, more difficult than 
Latin to English. It calls for more exactness. But it is 
excellent exercise. 

1. Mary loved the lamb. 2. Mary wanted to find the 
lamb. 3. The Romans conquered Pyrrhus. 



De nominibus neutralibus 

Summary: There was a great mercantile city in north Africa, Carthage, founded 
from Phoenicia in the 9th century B.C. Vergil was wrong in saying Dido founded it 
in the 12th century. Their ships sailed every sea, for trade. Rome was not fond 
of trade at this time. But the Carthaginians were not fond of service in their army. 
Rome preferred agriculture to trade. 

In Africa septentrionali fuit urbs magna—Carthago. Carthaginienses 
fuerunt mercatores. Multas naves habuerunt. Mercaturam fecerunt cum 
multis nationibus. Carthaginienses boni fuerunt mercatura. Multam 
pecuniam habuerunt. Poeta Romanus, Vergilius, dixit quod Dido fundavit 
Carthaginem. Sed veritatem non dixit. Coloni ex Phoenicia fundaverunt 
Carthaginem. (Phoenicia est terra in Asia). Vergilius putavit quod Dido 
fundavit Carthaginem in saeculo duodecimo (XII). Sed Vergilius non 
dixit veritatem. Coloni ex Phoenicia fundaverunt Carthaginem (proba- 
biliter saeculo nono (IX) ante Christum. Ergo Vergilius non*>arravit 
veritatem—narravit fabulam. Quia Carthaginienses venerunt ex Phoe¬ 
nicia, Romani dederunt aliud nomen: Punici. Carthaginienses fuerunt 
Punici. Punici miserunt naves in multa maria, in multas terras. Carthagi¬ 
nienses etiam habuerunt exercitum. Sed viri Carthaginienses non voluerunt 
pugnare—Carthaginienses voluerunt mercaturam facere—voluerunt ha¬ 
bere multam pecuniam. Mercatores Punici venerunt etiam in Siciliam. 
Multae naves venerunt in mari ad Siciliam. Romani non fuerunt magni 
mercatura. Romani amaverunt agros. Romani amaverunt pugnare et 
fortes esse. Romani fuerunt boni fortitudine. 

mercatura -trade 
putavit -thought 
saeculum -century, age 
nomen -name 
mar e-sea 


We include the remaining dozen old verbs, to learn 
the infinitives. In addition, we shall learn only three 
nouns—that makes it easy. 

lacere, iccit-throw 
invenire, invenit -find 
mittere, misit-send 
parare, paravit -prepare 
regnare, regnavit -rule . 
remanere, remansit- 

scire, scivit-fcnow 

mare, i -sea 
nomen, noj 
saeculum, < 

scribere, scnpsit-wr/te 
stare, stetit-^tond 
velle, voluit-wa/i/, will 
( irregular ) 
venire, venit-come 
videre, vidit-jee 
vincere, vicit -conquer 

i- century, age 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Nouns with Nominative and Objective Plural in 
-A: There are some nouns whose nominative and ob¬ 

jective plurals end in -a. These belong to the second 
and the third declension (there are a few in fourth—we 
shall see them later). We have met only seven of them 
so far. Here they are, with their nominative and ob¬ 
jective plurals. Note the identical endings in the nomina¬ 
tive and objective. 





Similarly for: 













All but mare and nomen belong to the second family. 
Notice that the nominative singular is the same as the 
objective singular. That is true of all neuter nouns in all 
declensions. So in second declension, we have some 


nominatives in -um, and in third declension, the ob¬ 
jective singular may be something other than -em. 

Notice that the nominative and objective plurals all 
have -a —both in second and in third declension. But 
some have not merely -a, but -ia. How can we tell when 
to use the -ial It is obvious in second declension—when 
the nominative singular has -ium, the nom.-obj. plural 
will be -ia. But it is easy in third declension. Some third 
declension words use -e for the ablative: these have 
only -a, for example: nomen, nomine has nomina for 
plural. But some use -i in the ablative: these will have 
-ia for nom.-obj. plural of neuter nouns: e.g., mare, -i 
has maria for plural. 

How can we tell which nouns will have one of these 
-a endings? In the second declension, all nouns whose 
nominative ends in -um will have the -a endings. In 
third declension, we have a longer rule: all nouns whose 
nominative ends in: -n, -t, -men, -ma, -e, -al, or -ar are 
neuter and will have the -a endings. But we will 
see more of this in the next lesson. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
Find all neuter patterns. 

Romani multa bella habuerunt primis saeculis. Senatus 
Romanus habuit multa consilia bona. Et Roma etiam 
habuit fora multa. Quia Roma multa bella habuit, etiam 
habuit multa pericula. Romani habuerunt pericula in 
pugnis. Etiam habuerunt pericula in mari. Quia Ro¬ 
mani miserunt naves in multa maria. Carthaginienses 

etiam miserunt naves in multa maria. Carthaginienses 
boni mercatura fuerunt. Sed Romani viri fortes fuerunt. 
Nomen Romanum magnum fuit. Columbus etiam 
habuit nomen magnum. Et agnus albus habuit nomen 
magnum. Agnus albus venit in scholam; multi agni non 
potuerunt venire in scholam. Tarquinius voluit regnare 
in terra Romana. Sed non potuit remanere in terra Ro- 
mana. Romani potuerunt expellere Tarquinium. Exer- 
citus Etruscus venit ad urbem. Sed non potuerunt vin- 
cere exercitum Romanum. Columbus potuit invenire 
Americam. Isabellarogaviteum (him) invenireIndiam. 
Columbus non potuit scire Indiam. Non potuit stare in 
India. Stetit in America. Sed non potuit videre Status 
Foederatos Americae. Status Foederati non fuerunt in 
America quando Columbus venit. Columbus non potuit 
iacere pecuniam in mare—Columbus non habuit pecu- 
niam. Senatus voluit mittere Romanos viros in Grae- 
ciam. Viri voluerunt videre leges Graecas. Leges 
Graecae fuerunt bonae. Elephanti sunt in Africa. Suntne 
elephanti in America? Otique, elephanti sunt in Circo. 
Elephanti sunt animalia magna. Animal magnum est 
bonum. Marcus est vir fortis. Sed non potuit iacere ele- 
phantum. Sed Marcus potuit stare in navi. Marcus 
bonus nauta fuit. Mali nautae non potuerunt stare in 

English to Latin 

1. The Romans were in danger. 2. Marcus was able to 
come to the city. 3. Marcus said that Columbus was 



De concordia adiectivi cum substantivo 

Summary: There were three Punic wars. The Mamertini, a band of brigands in con¬ 
trol of Messana, were at war with Hiero of Syracuse. The Mamertini appealed to 
Rome to help. This meant war with Carthage, whose trade interests were involved 
in Sicily. Carthage, a great sea power, had the advantage. But Rome overcame it, 
and won the war. 

Roma gessit tria (III) bella cum Carthagine. Fuerunt ergo tria bella 
Punica. Bellum Punicum est bellum Carthaginiense. Primum bellum 
Punicum venit in medio saeculo tertio (III) ante Christum. Messana fuit 
urbs in Sicilia. Viri mali regnaverunt in Messana. Nomen eorum fuit 
Mamertini. Mamertini pugnaverunt cum Hierone. Hiero fuit rex in alia 
urbe in Sicilia. Hiero fuit rex Syracusarum. Ergo Mamertini, viri mali, 
pugnaverunt cum rege Syracusarum. Mamertini in periculo fuerunt. 
Mamertini miserunt legatos ad senatum Romanum. Legati rogaverunt 
senatum mittere auxilium. Romani miserunt exercitum ad Mamertinos. 

Sed Carthaginienses non voluerunt Romanos esse in Sicilia. Carthagi¬ 
nienses voluerunt mercaturam facere in Sicilia. Ergo voluerunt expellere 
Romanos. Itaque Romani bellum gesserunt cum Carthaginiensibus. 
Primum bellum Punicum fuit. Punici habuerunt multas et bonas naves. 
Romani non habuerunt bonas naves. Sed Romani fecerunt naves multas. 
Miserunt viros fortes multos in naves. Carthaginienses non habuerunt 
multos fortes viros in navibus. Ergo Romani potuerunt vincere Carthagi¬ 
nienses. Punici non remanserunt in Sicilia. Punici dederunt pecuniam mul- 
tam. Itaque Romani vicerunt Carthaginem in primo bello Punico. Vicerunt 
anno ducentesimo quadragesimo primo ( 241 ) ante Christum. Carthagi¬ 
nienses non amaverunt Romanos. Oderunt Romanos. Sed Romani laeti 
fuerunt. Habuerunt victoriam egregiam. 

gessit -waged 
in medio saeculo 
tertio-m middle (of) 
third century 
eorum-o/ them 
Syracusarum-o/ Syracuse 
auxilium -help 
mercatura -trade 
itaqu e-and so 
laetus -glad 
egregius -excellent 


gerere, gessit-wage, wear 

auxilium, o -help 

-, odit-hate 

egregius, a, um -excellent 

(odit has no present 

laetus, a, um -glad 

infinitive ) 

victoria, a -victory 

ltaque-and so 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Use of Medius: Notice the expression above: in medio 
saeculo tertio : in the middle of the third century. The 
word medius in Latin is an adjective. But when it goes 
with a noun, we must supply the word of in English be¬ 
tween the word middle and the noun: that is, we must 
say: middle of. 

Gender: There are three genders: masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. In English we say a word is masculine if it 
stands for anything male—feminine if it stands for any¬ 
thing female, and neuter if it stands for a thing. But in 
Latin we do not care about the sex of the object that 
the word stands for—Latin has an artificial, grammati¬ 
cal type of gender. For example: a ship is a thing, but 
the word for ship, navis is feminine—a ship is a she. And 
trade, mercatura, is a thing, but the Latin word is femi¬ 
nine. We do not need to memorize the gender of every 
noun in Latin. We have handy rules that cover many 
(not all) words. Here they are: 

1. All nouns of first declension are feminine unless 
they obviously denote a male. For example: nauta 
is obviously masculine (or used to be before the 
Waves came). 


2. In the second declension, nouns in -um are neuter: 
others are masculine. 

3. In the fourth declension, all -us nouns are mascu¬ 
line except domus (feminine—means house ) and 
manus (feminine—means hand or band). 

4. In the fifth declension, all are feminine except dies, 
which is masculine. 

5. In the third declension, neuters have the nomina¬ 
tive singular in: -n, -t, -men, -ma (these will have 
ablative in -e); or in: -e, -al, -ar. (These will have 
ablative singular in -i) . But there is no good rule 
to distinguish masculines and feminines in the 
third declension; hence it is necessary to learn the 
gender with each noun. 

Practical Rule: We shall indicate the gender of all 
third declension nouns (and any others that are not ob¬ 
vious) by means of an adjective in the vocabulary. It is 
easier to learn a pair of words, than to memorize the 
gender separately. The form of the adjective will show 
the gender: for example: (here are all the third de¬ 
clension nouns we have learned thus far) 

bonus civis—the -us ending is masculine (see rule 2 

bona lex—the -a ending is feminine (see rule 1 above) 
magnum mare—the -um ending is neuter (see rule 2 

bonum nomen—neuter 
magna navis—feminine 
bonus pons—masculine 
magna potestas—feminine 
bonus rex—masculine 
magna urbs—feminine 
magna veritas—feminine 

Agreement of Adjectives and Nouns: The list of 
forms we have just seen brings us to study another rule. 
It will not disturb us, as we have been seeing it used in the 
stories all along. Here it is: AN ADJECTIVE MUST 
Take the example: bonus civis. The word civis is 
masculine—so is bonus. The word civis is singular—so 
is bonus. The word civis is nominative—so is bonus. 
But notice that bonus does not agree with civis in 
declension —bonus has second declension endings when 
it is masculine or neuter (and first declension when it is 
feminine)—but bonus never gets a third declension 

There are two classes of adjectives: 

1. The bonus type has three sets of endings— 
second declension for masculine 

first declension for feminine 
second declension for neuter. 

2. Third declension type has all its endings in the 
third declension (for all genders). 

Therefore, the bonus type uses first and second 
declension endings—the third declension type uses only 
third declension endings. We already know nearly all 
these endings. But today we shall review those of the 
bonus type. In Lesson 13, we shall see about the third 
declension type. Here are all the endings of bonus (all 
of which we know). 

Masculine Feminine 
































N.B. In the vocabulary WE SHALL LIST ALL 

And now, to help us get used to this idea of agreement— 

Exerceamus Nos 
Look for agreement patterns. 

Roma habuit cives bonos. Roma vicit Carthaginem 
magnis navibus. Columbus dixit veritatem magnam. 
Senatus Romanus scripsit leges bonas. Naves multae 
fuerunt in mari magno. Carthago magna fuit mercatura 
multa ( the last two words are ablative). Romani ex- 
pulerunt regem malum. Agnus albus venit in bonam 
scholam. Mundus est magnus. Romani gesserunt bella 
multa. Romani oderunt malos cives. Romani voluerunt 
esse magni. Romani habuerunt nomen bonum. Hiero 
non fuit rex malus. Sed Tarquinius non est rex bonus. 
Romani iecerunt ignem in magnum pontem. Romani 


vic6runt potest&te magna. Pu611a non est parva. Sed 
agnus parvus est. Carthagini6nses volu6runt habere 
pecuniam multam. Volu6runt habere mercaturam mag- 
nam. Boni mercatura fu6runt. Bello Punico primo, 
Romani fec£runt multas naves bonas. Bonae naves 
fu6runt in m&ribus multis. Senatus Romanus dedit multa 
egr6gia consflia. Romani ven6runt in urbem magnam. 

Urbs Rom&na bona fuit. Carthago 6tiam fuit bona 

English to Latin 

1. Columbus knew a great truth. 2. Isabella had much 
money. 3. Rome had great citizens. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: After the first Punic War, Carthage was in need of money and trade— 
they had paid a heavy indemnity to Rome. Hamilcar, father of Hannibal, went 
to Spain as general. Hannibal went with him. According to legend, Hannibal put his 
hand on the altar and swore eternal hatred against Rome. When he became general, 
Hannibal attacked Saguntum, a city friendly to Rome. Rome demanded the recall 
of Hannibal. It was refused. War starts. 

Post bellum Punicum primum pax fuit. Sed Carthaginienses non habuerunt 
pecuniam multam. Roma enim accepit aurum multum a Carthaginiensibus 
post bellum primum. Carthago ergo non habuit multum aurum. Necesse 
fuit invenire terras novas. Necesse fuit venire in Hispaniam. Quia in 
Hispania fuit aurum multum. Et mercatores Carthaginienses potuerunt 
facere mercaturam multam in Hispania. Hannibal fuit puer Carthaginien- 
sis. Pater Hannibalis (of Hannibal) fuit imperator Carthaginiensis mag- 
nus. Pater Hamilcar fuit. Hamilcar fuit vir fortis, et imperator bonus. 
Hamilcar fuit bonus consiliis. Romani narraverunt fabulam de Hannibale. 
Dixerunt quod Hannibal, quando in Hispania fuit cum patre, Hamilcare, 
posuit manum in altare et promisit odium aeternum contra Romanos. 
Fuitne veritas in fabula? Nescimus (we do not know). Sed Hannibal, 
quando vir fuit, gessit bellum magnum cum Romanis. Urbs magna fuit in 
Hispania—nomen urbis (of the city) fuit Saguntum. Hannibal voluit 
capere Saguntum. Sed Saguntini amaverunt Romanos. Et Romani ama- 
verunt Saguntinos. Ergo Saguntini miserunt legatos ad Romanos. Legati 
venerunt in senatum Romanum. Legati Saguntini rogaverunt auxilium. 
Rogaverunt Romanos venire exercitu magno. Ergo Romani miserunt 
legatos in senatum Carthaginiensem. Legati Romani dixerunt quod 
necesse fuit revocare Hannibalem. Sed Carthaginienses non revocaverunt 
Hannibalem. Carthago odit Romam. Ergo Romani miserunt exercitum 
magnum contra Hannibalem. Itaque gesserunt bellum Punicum secundum. 

pa x-peace 
accepit -received 
post -after 
necess e-necessary 
imperator -general 
altar e-altar 
contra -against 
revocar e-recall 


accipere, accepit -receive 

manus, u-hand (feminine 

ponere, posuit-pwf, place 


promittere, promisit- 

necesse ( only form ) 



contra (with obj. case) 

odium, o-hatred 


bonus pater, ire-father 

post (with obj. case)-after bona pax, pac e-peace 

aurum, o -gold 
bonus \mperktox-general 

puer, puero -boy 

Iterum Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say: to conquer, to fall, to do, to be, to 
give, to capture, to wish, to send, to know, to throw? 


2. Supply the proper form of magnus to go with each 
of these words: 

a) ablative case: navibus, legibus, potestatibus, 
imperatoribus, urbibus 

b) objective case: reges, maria, pontes, veritates, 
consilia, nomina. 

3. How do you say: they captured, they created, they 
gave, he had, he found, they wished, he put, they 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Hannibal promisit odium aeternum contra Romanos. 
Romani acceperunt victoriam egregiam. Nomen Ro¬ 
manum magnum fuit. Romani non magni fuerunt mer- 
catura. Sed Carthaginienses magni fuerunt mercatura. 
Romani magni fuerunt bello et victoriis. Mercatores 

amaverunt habere multum aurum in manibus. Non est 
necesse habere aurum multum. Aurum est bonum, sed 
non est necesse habere aurum. Romani habuerunt bel- 
lum cum Carthagine saeculo tertio (III) ante Christum. 
Pater Hannibalis fuit imperator bonus. Columbus posuit 
aurum multum in naves. Sed Columbus non posuit 
agnos multos in naves. Agni enim non amaverunt mare. 
Agni non fuerunt nautae. Fuitne Maria nauta? Non, sed 
Marcus fuit nauta. Et Columbus fuit nauta. Columbus 
potuit invenire Americam. Columbus vidit Isabellam 
in Hispania. 

Post bellum, Carthaginienses voluerunt invenire 
pacem. Pax est bona. Rom&ni non potuerunt habere 
pacem aeternam. Ouando fuit pax in terra Romana? 
Fere semper bellum fuit. Romini non oderunt bellum. 
Sed bellum habere fuit necesse. In rebus humanis, pax 
non semper est. Carthaginienses non semper dixerunt 

veritatem. Sed etiam Romani non semper dixerunt 
veritatem. Romani amaverunt verit&tem. Sed Romani 
non semper potuerunt invenire veritatem. Romani mi- 
serunt legatos in senatum Carthaginiensem. Sed Car¬ 
thaginienses etiam miserunt legatos. Volueruntne 
Carthaginienses habere pacem? Habuitne Hannibal 
elephantos? Otique, Hannibal h^buit multos elephintos. 
Hannibal misit multos elephintos contra Romanos in 
pugnis. Sed Rom&ni non timuerunt elephintos. Ro¬ 
mani viri fortes fuerunt. Romani potuerunt vincere 
elephantos. Rom&ni laeti fuerunt quia victoriam 

English to Latin 

1. When did Hannibal come? 2. Hamilcar said that 
Rome was bad. 3. But Rome wanted peace. 



De adiectivis tertiae declinationis 
De tempore plusquam perfecto 

Summary: Saguntum fell. The soldiers plundered the town. They then marched 
through Spain, across the Pyrenees Mountains through Gaul and after much light¬ 
ing came to the Alps. The soldiers started to cross, after Hannibal calmed their 
fears. On the descent they came to a steep cliff. Since it could not be avoided, they 
heated the rock, poured vinegar on it, and then cut paths (so says the legend). Thus 
all, even elephants, came down. 

Saguntum cecidit. Milites Punici venerunt in urbem. In urbe ceperunt 
multum aurum. Etiam ceperunt alia bona. Sed Hannibal non voluit 
remanere. Hannibal voluit venire in terram Romanam. Ergo Hannibal et 
milites fecerunt iter. Venerunt per Hispaniam. Venerunt trans montes 
Pyrenaeos in Galliam. Sed Hannibal non remansit in Gallia. Voluit videre 
Romam. Necesse fuit pugnare fortitudine magna. Hannibal ergo, cum 
militibus, iter fecit per Galliam. Venerunt ad Alpes. Alpes sunt montes 
magni. Milites timuerunt Alpes. Sed Hannibal fortis fuit. Hannibal dixit 
quod non fuit necesse timere Alpes. Milites laudaverunt Hannibalem. Non 
iam timuerunt Alpes. Itaque ascenderunt montes. Exercitus Romanus 
voluit pugnare cum Hannibale in Gallia. Sed non potuerunt, quia Hannibal 
non remansit in Gallia. Hannibal et milites ascenderunt Alpes. Etiam ele- 
phanti venerunt cum Hannibale et exercitu Punico. Sed in Alpibus vene¬ 
runt ad rupem arduam. Milites non potuerunt descendere. Elephanti non 
potuerunt descendere. Historia Romana scripsit fabulam magnam de rupe 
ardua. Fabula dixit quod milites Punici fecerunt viam in rupe: ignem 
posuerunt in rupe—rupes mollitur (is softened) aceto—itaque vias 
fecerunt in rupe. Estne veritas in fabula? Probabiliter non est veritas in 
fabula. Sed—fabula dixit—Hannibal et exercitus Punicus descenderunt, 
cum elephantis per viam in rupe. 

bona -good things 
iter -journey 
trans -across 
non iam-no longer 
ascendit -climbed 
rupes ardua-sfeep cliff 
descendere-^o down 
d e-about 
ignis -fire 
acetum -vinegar 


de- (with ablative) 

acer, acris, acre, acri- 

about, concerning, 

sharp, eager, keen 

down from 

ferox, icroci-fierce 

non iam-no longer 

fortis, e, i -brave, strong 

per (with objective)- 

gradus, u -step 


magnum iter, itiner e-journey 
bonus miles, mi\\\t-soldier 

magnus mons. 


Nunc Cogitemus 

Third Declension Adjectives: Most third declen¬ 
sion adjectives are declined like fortis : 

Singular Plural 




















(Like navis) (Like mare) 

Notice that in the nominative singular, fortis has two 
forms: fortis and forte. If we know that, plus the fact that 
the ablative has -i (as practically all third declension 
adjectives do)—we can figure out the rest. For we will 
know that the nominative plural neuter will be -ia. 

If then we use the old rule, that the nominative is the 
same as the objective in the neuter (both in singular and 
in plural) then we immediately know that the objective 
singular neuter must be forte, and the neuter plural 


must be fortia. The nominative singular form fortis is 
both masculine and feminine. 

But some third declension adjectives have three forms 
in the nominative singular. Such as: acer, acris, acre in 
today’s vocabulary. What then?—no real difference—it 
behaves just like fortis everywhere except in the nomina¬ 
tive singular feminine, for which there is the special form 
acris. Other forms work just as if it were: acer, acre —to 
match: fortis, forte. 

Still other third declension adjectives have only one 
form in the nominative singular: ferox is an example. 
That one form serves for all three genders. How do we 
decline it? Just use our rules and we cannot miss: the 
objective singular masculine and feminine will be: 
ferdcem —but the neuter will be ferox (same as nomina¬ 
tive). Similarly for the objective plurals: ferdces and 
ferdcia (which are also, in this instance, nominatives). 
But to make it easy, let us write it all out: 

Singular Plural 
















Therefore there are three types of third declension 
adjectives—but there is no real difficulty, for the dif¬ 
ferences come only in the nominative singular: they may 
have one, two, or three forms for the nominative 


Pluperfect Tense (Time): How do we say: He had 
come? Very easy. Just take venit, which means: he 
came, he has come, and change the -it to -erat. And, by 
using -erant, we get: They had come: 

venerat—he had come venerant—they had come. 

We can make this change on any verb. We call it the 
pluperfect or past perfect tense (time). It is one notch 
farther in the past than the perfect (dixit). 

Adjectives Used as Nouns: In Lesson 7 we found 
that we could use the masculine form of adjectives, 
WITHOUT ANY NOUN. We then supplied some 
noun in English—such as people, or men. Now we find 
that we can do the same with the neuter form of an 
adjective: therefore 

bonum means a good thing 
bonus means a good man 
boni means good men 
bona means good things 

The possibilities are numerous—but all easy to follow: 

Exerceamus Nos 

Watch for pluperfect “had” patterns. 

Hannibal habuit odium acre contra Romanos. Romani 
vicerant Carthaginem in primo bello Punico. Ergo 
Carthaginienses feroces fuerunt. In primo bello, Punici 
fuerant boni mflites. Hannibal venit cum exercitu trans 
montes. Mflites voluerunt aurum multum accipere. 
Hannibal promfserat multum aurum. Ergo mflites laeti 
fuerunt quando ceperunt Saguntum. Exercitus Ro- 
manus venit contra Hannibalem. Senatus misit mflites 
egregios. Mflites egregii fortitudine fuerunt. In primo 
bello Punico mflites Romani fuerant in navibus—nunc 
sunt in Gallia. Sed non potuerunt invenire Hannibalem 
in Gallia. Quia Hannibal venerat ad Alpes. Hannibal 
fecerat vias multas in rupe ardua. Mflites posuerant 
acetum in rupe. Elephanti laeti fuerunt—elephanti non 
voluerunt remanere in Alpibus. Elephanti amaverunt 
Africam. Elephanti timuerunt ignem. Sed mflites non 
timuerant ignem. Agnus albus non amavit ignem. 
Horatius non amavit ignem. Ignis ceciderat in pontem 
—et Horatius cecidit in aquam. Columbus non odit 
Isabellam. Isabella dederat pecuniam et naves. Maria 
non odit agnum album: agnus albus venerat in scholam 
cum Maria. In schola Maria viderat Marcum. Marcus 
non odit Mariam. Et Maria non odit Marcum. 

English to Latin 

1. Marcus saw the fierce soldiers. 2. The battle was 
sharp. 3. He came with brave men. 



De voce passiva in tempore perfecto 

Summary: After crossing the Alps, Hannibal won a small victory over Scipio at the 
Ticinus river. Sempronius then took command for the Romans. Sempronius was 
rash and impatient, and Hannibal knew it; he made a trap. He fed his men early, 
and sent horsemen across the Trebia river to entice the Romans over. The Romans 
had not eaten—they went through cold water, and then tried to fight. Other 
Carthaginians came up behind them. Hannibal nearly wiped out the Roman army. 

Hannibal et exercitus Punicus descenderant ex Alpibus. Venerant in 
Italiam. In Italia invenerunt exercitum Romanum ad flumen Ticlnum. 
Scipio fuit imperator Romanus. Scipio fuit imperator egregius et acer. Sed 
Hannibal vicit Scipionem et exercitum Romanum. Nunc imperator Ro¬ 
manus est Sempronius. 

Hannibal scivit quod Sempronius fuit impatiens. Hannibal ergo fecit 
insldias. Hannibal dedit cibum milltibus (to the soldiers). Sed mllites 
Romani non acceperant cibos. Hannibal ergo misit equites (postquam 
cibum acceperant) trans flumen Trebiam. Sempronius vidit equites. 
Romani mllites non acceperant cibum. Sed Sempronius misit mllites 
Romanos contra equites Punicos. Romani venerunt per flumen. 

Aqua frlgida fuit—et Romani non habuerant cibos. Equites Punici 
habuerant cibos ante pugnam. Postquam Romani venerunt trans flumen, 
necesse fuit pugnare cum milltibus Punicis. Pugna ferox fuit. Mllites 
Punici acres sunt—sed mllites Romani non acceperant cibos—venerant 
per flumen frlgidum. Alii mllites Punici venerunt post Romanos. Ergo 
Romani non potuerunt vlncere Punicos. Hannibal habuit victoriam 
egregiam. Non multi Romani remanserunt post pugnam. Romani non 
fuerunt laeti. Sed mllites Punici exclamaverunt quia laeti fuerunt. 

ad -near 
flumen -river 
impatiens -impatient 
cibus -food 
equites -horsemen 
trans -across 


trans (with objective 

magnum flumen, flumine- 



cibus, o -food 

frlgidus, a, um-cold 

bonus eques, equite- 

insldiae, is (plural only)- 


ambush, snare 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Perfect Passive: With the verb forms we know thus 
far we can say certain things: thus, for example, we can 

The Roman army conquered. 

The Roman army has conquered. 

In Latin, either one would be: Romanus exercitus vicit. 

But suppose the Roman army loses—we then would 
need to say: 

The Roman army was conquered. 

The Roman army has been conquered. 

Notice how we make the change in English—we have 
to add a word, depending on what form of the English 
we wish to use. We add the words in italics above. 

The forms given first, the ones we have been using 
and translating by forms like vicit, those forms are 
called ACTIVE. They mean that the army (or other 
subject) is acting on someone else. But in the second 
set, the tables are turned: the Roman army is not ACT¬ 
ING—it is BEING ACTED ON. Quite a difference. 
Now although it is not too easy to learn the difference 
of the English active and passive forms, it is much more 
simple in Latin. In Latin, the active is— vicit (or plural 


— vicerunt). The passive is— victus est (or plural— 
victi sunt). 

How do we make these forms in Latin? We need to 
learn a new part of the verb. This part is called the 
perfect passive participle. We use it like an adjective with 
est or sunt. 

For the word participle means sharing in—sharing in 
what? A participle is a half-breed. It is HALF verb—so 
it carries the idea of something being done. It is HALF 
adjective—so its endings are handled just like those of 
an adjective. For example, if I want to say: 

The Roman soldiers were heard— 

it will be 

Milites Romani auditi sunt. 

For one soldier: 

Miles auditus est. 

Audit us, the participle, is half-adjective—so it must 
agree with the subject: milites. But if the subject were 
puellae, girls: 

Puellae auditae sunt. 

Or for one girl: 

Puella audita est. 

Notice that we need two words to make the perfect pas¬ 
sive third singular or plural: 

1. The participle, which is the third part of the verb 

2. est or sunt. 

Participles as Adjectives: Sometimes these parti¬ 
ciples are used, without est or sunt, as merely adjectives 
—for example, exercitus victus could mean the con¬ 
quered army. Or fdbula scripta could mean a written 

Parts of Verbs already Learned: We must pick up 
the passive participles of the verbs we already know. 
For convenience, we add a table of them below. But to 
make it easy, we will assign half the list to be learned 
in Lesson 15, and the other half in Lesson 16—and we 
will not learn any new forms in those lessons. There are 
less than three dozen verbs thus far. Some of them do 
not have a perfect passive participle, usually because 
they cannot be passive. When there is no perfect passive 
participle, we will give the future active participle (if 
there is one) and mark it with an asterisk. You need 
not learn that future active now, unless you want to. 
But we will need it sometime. 


Perfect Active 

Perfect Passive 





















take, capture 




create, make 




















drive out 




make, do 




wage, wear 









in venire 


















put, place 



be able 























Perfect Active 

















Perfect Passive 









wish, will 







You will soon learn to recognize certain patterns in the 
parts of verbs: note especially how many run: -are, 
-avit, -atus. And a fair number have: -ire, - ivit, -itus. 
Pick out all examples of these kinds in the list. It is worth¬ 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Pick out "has been” or "was” patterns. 

Rom&nus exercitus victus est. Columbus missus est in 
Americam. Agnus albus non est missus in scholam. 
Sed agnus venit in scholam. Maria est missa in scholam. 
Porci non sunt missi in scholam. Pecunia posita est in 
naves. Pecunia accepta est. Galli expulsi sunt e terra 
Rom4na. Bellum est promissum. Hannibal non est 

captus. Bellum est gestum in G&llia. Mflites expulsi non 
fuerunt laeti. 

Maria est am£ta. Maria etiam amdvit Marcum. Mar¬ 
cus am£tus est a (by) Maria. Maria am&ta est a Marco. 

Georgius Washington am£tus est a St&tibus Foeder- 
£tis Americae. Cincinndtus am£tus est a civibus Ro¬ 
manis. Cincinndtus Romam serv&vit consiliis bonis. 
Roma serv£ta est a Cincinnati). Pax non promissa est ab 
Hannibdle. Hannibal promisit odium aeternum et bel¬ 
lum. Bellum gestum est ab Hannib41e. Hannibal non 
captus est a Romanis. 

English to Latin 

1. The Punic army was sent into Gaul. 2. Much gold 
was found. 3. The horsemen were heard. 



De participiis passivis 

Summary: The year after Trebia, Hannibal beat Flaminius. Flaminius did not 
think Hannibal would cross the Apennines in the spring. But Hannibal did it, and 
came between Flaminius and Rome. Flaminius pursued, and Hannibal led him 
through a narrow pass by Lake Trasimene into a trap. The Roman army was 

Rom&nus exercitus victus est ab Hannib&le ad flumen Trebiam. In proximo 
anno, Hannibal fecit &liam magnam victoriam. Iam 41ius consul fuit im- 
perator Romanus. Hie consul fuit Gaius Flaminius. Gaius Flaminius dixit 
quod Hannibal non potuit venire trans montes Apenninos, quia nix fuit 
in montibus. Sed Hannibal non timuit nivem. Hannibal venit cum exercitu 
trans montes. Venit inter Flaminium et Romam. Roma timuit. Flaminius 
timuit. Non voluerunt Hannib&lem c&pere Romam. Flaminius ergo venit 
ad pugnam. Sed Hannibal rursus fecit insidias. Hannibal amavit pugnare 
insidiis. Flaminius et exercitus Rom&nus venerunt per angustias. Hannibal 
posuerat milites Punicos post angustias in insidiis. ltaque quando exercitus 
Romanus venit ex angustiis, invenerunt milites Punicos in insidiis. Milites 
Punici fuerunt ante et etiam post exercitum Rom&num. Romani milites 
pugnaverunt. Viri fortes fuerunt. Sed non potuerunt vincere milites Puni¬ 
cos. Punici enim fuerunt ante Romanos. Et etiam fuerunt post Romanos. 
Romani milites vix potuerunt videre milites Punicos, quia nebulae fuerunt 
ad Lacum Trasimenum. Ergo exercitus Romanus fortis victus est ab 
Hannib&le. Hinnibal rursus vicerat Romanos. Hannibal fuit imper&tor 
bonus et fortis. 





inter -between 


angustia e-narrow place 


nebula -mist, haze 

lacus -lake 


Learn the parts of the first seventeen verbs listed in 
Lesson 14. 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Nothing really new today. Let us digest what we learned 
in the last lesson. But we might notice the new meaning 
we can get from the preposition a, ab: when we use it 
with one of these passive forms, it means by. We have 
already seen many samples: e.g., Exercitus victus est ab 
Hannibdle: The army was conquered by Hannibal. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Watch for dixit quod and perfect passive “has been” 

Marcus victus est a Maria. Marcus enim amavit Ma¬ 
riam. Marcus dixit quod Maria fuit agna parva. Dixitne 
Maria baa ? Non. Et Maria etiam dixit quod Marcus fuit 
agnus parvus. Maria amita est a Marco. In schola, 
parvus agnus albus audit us est: dixit enim: baa. Et in 

foro, hie parvus porcus auditus est: Dixit enim: oui! 
Cincinn&tus est creatus Dictator. Sed Cincinn^tus non 
voluit esse Dictator. Multa ( many things ) dicta sunt a 
Cincinn4to. Multa dicta sunt a senitu Romino. Sed 
Cincinn&tus etiam fecit multa et magna. Multa et magna 
facta sunt a Cincinn&to. Cincinn&tus fuit magnus forti- 
tudine et consiliis. 

Tarquinius expulsus est a Romanis. Tarquinius voluit 
remanere in urbe—sed non acceptus est. Pecunia non 
est h&bita a Columbo. Sed pecunia est h&bita ab Isa¬ 
bella. Isabella dedit multas naves bonas. Horatius stetit 
in ponte Romano. Pons factus est a Romanis. Sed ignis 
est iactus in pontem. Et pons cecidit in flumen. Rominus 
exercitus venit in insidias ad Lacum Trasimenum. 
Hinnibal vicit Rom&nos insidiis. Multi Romani iacti 
sunt in lacum. Exercitus Rominus auditus est ab Hanni- 
b&le. Sed exercitus Punicus non est auditus a Rom&nis: 
Punici enim fuerunt in insidiis. Multa bona consilia 
facta sunt a sen&tu Romano. Multi milites feroces 
fuerunt in exercitu Punico. Hannibal et eleph£nti de- 
scenderunt gr&dibus. Eleph&nti non fuerunt animilia 

parva. Elephanti fecerunt itinera magna—venerunt 
enim trans Alpes cum Hannibale. Potuitne Hannibal 
iacere elephantum trans Alpes? Non. Hannibal fuit vir 
fortis. Fuit etiam imperator fortis. Sed etiam imperator 
fortis non potuit iacere elephantos. Sed Hannibal potuit 
iacere agnum in flumen. Et etiam potuit iacere alia 

Mohammed voluit montem venire—sed mons non 
venit. Ergo Mohammed venit ad montem. Potuitne 

Georgius Washington iacere pecuniam trans flumen 
Potomac? Otique—senatus enim Americanus potuit 
etiam iacere pecuniam trans Oceanum Atlanticum. 

English to Latin 

1. Cincinnatus was asked to come. 2. Marcus seemed 
(i.e., was seen—passive of vidire) to love Mary. 3. The 
legend was written. 



Iterum nihil novi hodie: sed studeamus participiis passivis 

Summary: After the disaster at Lake Trasimene, Q. Fabius Maximus was made 
Dictator. He knew he dare not risk a pitched battle, and contented himself with 
small operations. This policy was unpopular: he was labeled “The Delayer.” The 
next year two consuls were elected instead of Fabius. If we may believe Livy (not 
clear) Paulus favored the policy of Fabius—Varro did not. Hannibal, since they 
commanded on alternate days, waited for Varro's day, and enticed him into battle 
at Cannae. The result was another disaster, one of the worst in Roman history. 

Postquam exercitus Romanus victus est ad Lacum Trasimenum, vir mag- 
nus creatus est Dictator Romanus: Quintus Fabius Maximus. Fabius vidit 
quod non potuit vincere Hannibalem statim. Ergo Fabius voluit expectare. 
Quia Fabius semper voluit expectare, Romani dederunt novum nomen: 
vocaverunt Fabium “Cunctatorem.” Romani non viderunt quod Fabius 
bonum faciebat (was doing). Sed necesse fuit expectare. Hannibal voluit 
pugnare magnam pugnam cum exercitu Romano. Cives Romani voluerunt 
magnam pugnam cum Hannibale. Sed bonum fuit expectare. Fabius voluit 
vincere consilio bono. Fabius ergo expectavit. Fabius non pugnavit. Sed 
cives Romani non amaverunt expectare. Dixerunt: Fabius non est bonus 

Ergo proximo anno (277 BC) elegerunt duos (II) consules: Lucium 
Aemilium Paulum, et Gaium Terentium Varronem. Non iam habuerunt 
Fabium Dictatorem. Scriptor Romanus, Livius, dixit quod Aemilius 
Paulus non voluit pugnare cum Hannibale, sed Varro voluit pugnare. 
Dixitne Livius veritatem? Non est clarum. Sed, secundum Livium, Hanni¬ 
bal voluit pugnare—et Hannibal scivit quod Paulus non voluit pugnare, 
sed Varro voluit. Paulus et Varro fuerunt imperatores in alternis diebus. 
Itaque, quando Varro fuit imperator, Hannibal paravit ad pugnam. Et 
Varro fecit pugnam cum Hannibale. Sed Hannibal fuit imperator bonus. 
Et Varro non fuit imperator bonus. Ergo Hannibal iterum vicit Romanos. 
Pugna facta est ad Cannas. 

statim-af once 
vocavit -called 
C unctator -delayer 
elegit -elected 
clarus -clear 
secundum -according to 
alternus -alternate 
iterum -again 


Learn the parts of the rest of the verbs listed in Lesson 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Again nothing new today—isn’t Latin easy! But get 
those participles up! 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Pax non promissa est. Sed pax est bona. Milites Romani 
parati sunt ad pugnam. Imperator enim promisit pug¬ 
nam acrem. Milites etiam acres sunt et fortes. Non volu¬ 

erunt remanere in urbe, voluerunt pugnare cum Han¬ 
nibale. Fabius rogatus est pugnare. Roma servata est a 
Fabio. Primis diebus, Roma servata est ab Horatio. 
Horatius enim pugnavit in ponte. Horatius cecidit in 
flumen, quia ignis cecidit in pontem. Hannibal vicit 
Romanos quia Romani non acceperant cibum. 

Columbus voluit invenire Indiam, sed invenit Ameri¬ 
can!. Itaque India non est inventa a Columbo. Agnus 
albus inventus est in schola. Fuitne necesse habere 
agnum in schola? Non. Non est necesse habere agnos in 
schola. Sed necesse est habere pueros et puellas in 
scholis. Estne necesse habere porcos in foro? Non est 
necesse—Romani sunt in foro. Et Marcus Porcius Cato 
est in foro. Cato fuit Romanus fortis et magnus. Cato 
habuerat magnam potestatem in urbe. Cato pugnavit in 


multis bellis. Cato fuit ferox contra Carth£ginem. Cato 
dixit quod nec6sse fuit vincere Carth&ginem. 

Carthago habuit magnam potest&tem in mari. Car¬ 
thago fuit fortis nivibus. Sed Roma fuit fortis ex6rcitu 
magno. In primo bello Punico Roma vicerat Carth£gi- 
nem. Sed in bello Punico secundo Carthago fere vicit 
Romam. Roma fere victa est ab Hannibale. Milites 
Punici fu6runt in insidiis. Romani venerunt in insidias. 
Romani iacti sunt in lacum—lacus frigidus fuit. Aqua 

frigida fuit. Malum est esse in aqua frigida. Sed 6tiam 
malum est esse in aqua c£lida (hot). 

English to Latin 

1. Hannibal was conquered by the Romans. 2. But he 
had conquered the Romans in many battles. 3. Han¬ 
nibal was a brave general. 



De ablativo absolute 

Summary: Hannibal remained at the height of his power for two or three years after 
Cannae. But then Rome began to have successes. Marcellus took several cities. Scipio 
was especially outstanding. After some victories in Spain, he was made consul. He 
wanted to carry the war into Africa. The senate agreed if he would pay the troops. 
He went and also obtained the help of Masinissa, king of Numidia. They cut off 
Carthage from food supplies. Carthage recalled Hannibal. Scipio defeated him at 
Zama. The war came to an end. 

Postquam victi sunt ab Hannibale ad Cannas, Romani non habuerunt vic¬ 
torias magnas per tres (III) annos. Sed post tres annos Marcellus factus 
est consul Romanus. Marcellus cepit aliquas (some) urbes. Sed Scipio 
Africanus fuit maximus imperator Romanus in ultimis annis. Scipio 
enim vicit exercitum Punicum in Hispania. Post victorias in Hispania, 
Scipio nihilominus voluit mittere exercitum in Africam. Ergo senatus 
Romanus non voluit mittere exercitum Romanum in Africam. Quidam 
(certain) senatores dixerunt: “Non est necesse mittere exercitum in 
Africam: Hannibal enim, maximus imperator Punicus, est in Italia.” Sed 
Scipio nihilominus voluit mittere exercitum in Africam. Ergo senatus 
dedit potestatem mittere exercitum in Africam. Sed non dederunt pecu- 
niam pro exercitu. Ergo alii Romani pecuniam dederunt pro expeditione. 

Scipio posuit milites in naves, et navigaverunt in Africam multis navibus. 
In Africa fuit rex Masinissa. Masinissa fuit rex Numidiae (of Numidia). 
Masinissa dedit auxilia. Scipio et Masinissa intercluserunt Carthaginem a 
frumento. Ergo Carthago pacem rogavit. Etiam Hannibalem in Africam 
revocaverunt. Itaque Hannibal et exercitus Punicus venerunt rursus in 
Africam. Hoc facto (this having been done) Carthaginienses pacem non 

Sed Scipio fuit imperator magnus. Scipio vicit Hannibalem in pugna 
ad Zamam. Ergo pax facta est. Roma vicerat Carthaginem in bello Punico 
secundo. Carthago dedit multam pecuniam et multas naves. 

maximus -greatest 
pro -for 

interclusit-cuf off 


intercludere, interclusit, interclusus-cur off 
navigare, navigavit, navigatus-ra/7 
vocare, vocavit, vocatus -call 
auxilia, is (plural of auxilium)-reinforcements, 
frumentum, o -grain 
maximus, a, urn-very great, greatest 
nihilominus -nevertheless 
pro (withablative)-for 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Ablative Absolute: The Romans had something of 
the spirit of a Scotch telegrapher—there are some very 

handy short-cuts in the language. One of these is the 
ablative absolute. It may seem odd at first, but it is not 
hard to get used to it. Notice—in English we may say: 

This being the case, let us go ahead. 

Now in Latin, we do the same sort of thing, but put the 
pattern in the ablative case (and in a greater variety 
than English): 

Rege expulso, Romani pugnaverunt. 

This pattern is called ablative absolute. Now there is 
a literal—but very crude—translation possible. It is 
useful as a start: 

The king HAVING BEEN expelled, 
the Romans fought. 

Notice how we treat the two words: rege, and expulso. 
Rege, of course, is merely translated: the king. But the 

participle expulso becomes: having been expelled. 
That is crude—but the HAVING BEEN formula is 
a good way to start, to get the sense. 

Please memorize a sentence containing an ablative 
absolute, and its English translation—you may take 
the one just given, or make up one of your own. But if 
you memorize one, it will serve as a pattern. 

Now that starting translation is too crude—and be¬ 
sides, we said that the Romans at times were men after 
the heart of a Scotch telegrapher—so—we can expand 
that cramped, crude translation. We have quite a choice: 

1. When (or after) the king was expelled, the Ro¬ 
mans fought. 

2. Because (or since ) the king was expelled, the 
Romans fought. 

3. Although the king was expelled, the Romans 

4. If the king was expelled, the Romans fought. 

You will find it pays richly to memorize a complete set 
of sentences like the above—or at very least, to memo¬ 
rize the words in italics: when, after, because, although, 
and if. 

But there is a fifth type of expansion—not ordinarily 
necessary to know, but very often handy. In it, we make 
an independent clause out of the absolute and join it to 
the rest of the sentence by the word and. 

For example: 

5. The king was expelled AND the Romans fought. 
N.B. These principles on the ablative absolute are ex¬ 
tremely important—almost every page of a regular 
Latin author will have at least one such absolute. They 

are easy when you get used to them. Do it now. And 

Exerceamus Nos 

Find the ablative absolute patterns. 

Pace facta, milites venerunt in urbem. Romanis victis, 
Carthaginienses laeti fuerunt. Hannibale viso, Fabius 
non voluit pugnare. Agno viso, porci dixerunt: oink. 
Urbe capta, Marcellus misit legatos ad Fabium. Bello 
gesto, pax rursus venit. Pecunia iacta trans flumen Po¬ 
tomac, Georgius Washington laetus fuit. America in- 
venta, Columbus accepit aurum multum. Fabio rogato, 
legati venerunt rursus in senatum. Roma servata, Cin¬ 
cinnati voluit venire in agros. Frumento in naves 
posito, Columbus navigavit in Americam. Porcis captis, 
milites cibos habuerunt. Agno ex schola expulso, Mar¬ 
cus laetus fuit: non enim amavit audire: baa. Amavit 
videre Mariam. Militibus paratis, Fabius iter fecit. Baa- 
Baa dicta, agnus laetus fuit. Scipione misso in Africam, 
senatus accepit pacem. Sagunto capto, milites Punici 
acceperunt aurum multum. 

English to Latin 

1. Columbus sailed into the new world. 2. Carthage 
has been cut off from grain. 3. Masinissa received 
much gold. 4. Much gold having been received, the 
soldiers were glad. 5. Although the Romans were con¬ 
quered, Hannibal was not glad. 6. Because grain had 
been received, the men called the general. 



De casu possessivo 

Summary: The second Punic War left Rome the greatest power in the Mediterranean 
world. But Rome still had many wars—wars with Macedonia, and with Antiochus, 
king of Seleucia. But other powers learned to fear Rome. Thus, when Antiochus IV 
invaded Egypt, a Roman senator, Popilius, ordered him out. Antiochus asked time 
to consider. Popilius drew a circle about him in the sand and demanded an immediate 
answer before leaving the circle. Or again, a mere order from Rome stopped 
King Prusias of Bithynia from taking Pergamum. 

Post bellum Punicum secundum, Carthagine victa, Roma potestatem 
maximam habuit in toto mundo. Sed necesse fuit gerere multa alia bella. 
Romani bella gesserunt cum Macedonia, cum Rege Antiocho (Antiochus 
fuit rex in Seleucia) et cum Graecia. Sed etiam reges sciverunt quod in 
periculo fuerunt quando bellum cum Roma gesserunt. Exempli gratia ( for 
the sake of example) Antiochus rex, in saeculo secundo ante Christum 
voluit capere Aegyptum. Sed unus ex senatoribus Romanis, Popilius 
nomine, venit ad regem Antiochum in Aegyptum. Popilius, in nomine 
Romano, iussit regem Antiochum discedere ex Aegypto. Hoc (this) facto, 
Antiochus dixit quod deliberare voluit. Popilius itaque scripsit circulum 
in arena circum Antiochum. Popilius dixit quod necesse fuit non discedere 
ex circulo antequam daret ( before giving) responsum. Hoc (this) audito, 
Antiochus rex statim discessit ex Aegypto. 

Sed potestas magna est visa etiam quando rex Prusias Bithyniae (of 
Bithynia) voluit Pergamum capere. Roma iussit—et factum est. Prusias 
Pergamum non cepit. Prusias remansit in terra Bithyniae. Prusias scivit 
quod necesse fuit timere potestatem Romanam. Et Prusias veritatem scivit: 
Romani fuerunt maximi potestate in toto mundo. Quando Roma iusserat 
—necesse fuit facere iussa. 

totus -whole 
unus -one 
iussit -ordered 
discedere-fo go out of 
deliberare-/o consider 
arena -sand 
circum -around 
statim-a/ once 


deliberare, -avit, -atus- 

antequam (conjunction)- 



discedere, -cessit, 

circum (with objective)- 



iubere, iussit, iussus- 

arena, a -sand 


responsum, o-answer 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Possessive Case: The possessive case is the “of” case, 
or the “ V’ case. All Latin nouns have endings for the 
possessive case. We form it by substituting the possessive 
endings for the ablative singular endings, thus: 

1. 2. 3. 

nautae naut drum agn i agn drum leg is leg um 

3. 4. 5. 

ci vis civium sena tus senat uum die/' di erum 

So— agni means either: the lamb’s or of the lamb. 

Notice that we have given two words as samples for 
the third declension. In the singular, both have -is. But 
in the plural, one has -um, and the other has -ium. Why 
so? It depends on the ablative singular. Those nouns 
that have ablative singular in -i (and adjectives too) 
will have the -ium possessive plural. 

Those that have the ablative singular, in -e, will have 
only -um in the possessive plural. Simple isn’t it. And 
gender makes no difference—all three genders in the 
third declension use the same endings for the possessive, 
making, of course, the distinction of -um and -ium ac¬ 
cording to the ablative. 


Now, we already saw that neuters in the third declen¬ 
sion that have -/ in the ablative singular, have -ia for 
nominative and objective plurals—now we note that 
the very same nouns have -ium for possessive plurals. 
The -i’s have it! 

As to adjectives, they use the same declensions as the 
nouns. That is, bonus type adjectives will use the endings 

Masculine Feminine Neuter 

-i -orum -ae -arum -a -orum 

As to third declension adjectives, since practically all 
have the ablative singular in -i, we may say that the 
possessive forms of those adjectives are: -is and -ium. 

But some of these possessive endings are duplicates 
of endings of other cases! Thus nautae could be either 
possessive singular or nominative plural. And similarly 
agni could be either possessive singular or nominative 
plural. The way possessive patterns are used will soon 
tell us how to distinguish them. It is not nearly so hard 
as in English, where almost all endings duplicate. 

Participles Used as Nouns: Notice the last sentence 
in the story above: necesse fuit fdcere iussa. 

That word iussa is the neuter nominative-objective 
plural of the participle of iubere. Now—we found that 
bona could mean good things', similarly, iussa can mean 
ordered things. Therefore, fdcere iussa means to do the 
things ordered. 

Exerceamus Nos 
Watch for possessive patterns. 

Magna fuit potestas Romae. Milites Carthaginis fortes 
fuerunt. Pecunia accepta, Columbus navigavit in navi- 
bus Isabellae. Cincinnatus habuit potestatem Dictatoris. 
Sed etiam agri Cincinnati fuerunt boni. 

Mariae agnus venit in scholam. Hie agnus dixit baa. 

Sed in schola fuit etiam alius agnus Mariae—hie agnus 
non dixit baa. Marcus enim fuit etiam agnus Mariae— 
Maria enim vocavit Marcum agnum parvum. Maria 
visa, Marcus laetus fuit. Marcus amavit Mariam. 
Marcus fuit amator Mariae. 

In diebus Horatii, Romani fuerunt fortes. Sed etiam 
fuerunt fortes in diebus Popfli—Popflio audito, Anti- 
ochus discessit ex Aegypto. Rex Antiochus fecit iussa. 
Popilius enim habuit potestatem senatus Romani. Sen- 
atus Romanus magnam potestatem habuit. Etiam potes¬ 
tas exercitus Romani fuit magna. Et potestas tribunorum 
plebis fuit magna. Tribuni plebis fuerunt viri fortes. 
Potestas patriciorum fuit magna. Sed patricii non sem¬ 
per fecerunt bona. Ergo plebs voluit discedere ab urbe. 
Legati patriciorum venerunt ad plebem. Rogaverunt 
plebem venire rursus in urbem. Sed plebs non voluit 
venire antequam potestatem acceperunt. Ergo patricii 
dederunt tribunos plebis. Tribunis acceptis, plebs venit 
in urbem. 

Popilius dixit quod necesse fuit audire responsum 
Antiochi statim. Voluit audire responsum Antiochi 
antequam Antiochus veniret ( should come) ex circulo 
in arena. Popilius accepit responsum Antiochi statim. 
Antiochus statim discessit ex Aegypto. Nonne potestas 
Romanorum fuit magna? In Aegypto fuit frumentum 
multum. Antiochus voluit habere frumentum Aegypti 
—sed Romani etiam voluerunt habere frumentum 

English to Latin 

1. The sailor’s father had come. 2. The senate’s power 
was great. 3. Popilius ordered Antiochus to get out. 
4. Although the ship’s gold had been seized, the general 
did not depart. 5. Before Rome’s sailors came, there was 
no fight. 6. The power of Rome was great. 7. Antiochus 
was king of Seleucia. 



De tribus casibus pronominis: ille 

Summary: Marcus Porcius Cato ended every speech in the senate with the words, 
“Carthage must be destroyed.” Rome feared Carthage, since Hannibal had almost 
ruined Rome. And they hated Carthage. The senate began to believe Cato. Carthage 
made war on Masinissa without Roman permission, a violation of the treaty. Rome 
sent legates to demand that Carthage lay down her arms. Carthage complied. (Con¬ 
tinued tomorrow) 

Marcus Porcius Cato fuit vir fortis. Sed Cato odit Carthaginem. Roma iam 
vicerat Carthaginem in primo et in secundo bellis Punicis. Sed Hannibal 
fere vicerat Romam. Ergo multi Romani timuerant Carthaginem. Hanni- 
bale victo, Romani timuerunt etiam victam Carthaginem. Quia timuerunt 
Carthaginem, et quia Hannibal fere vicerat Romam, facile fuit odisse 
Carthaginem. Cato ergo odit Carthaginem. Cato fuit censor Romanus. 
Cato etiam habuit orationes multas in senatu Romano. Cato dixit multa 
in senatu Romano contra Carthaginem, etiam contra Carthaginem victam. 
In fine omnis orationis, Cato semper dixit: necesse est delere Carthaginem. 
Ergo senatus Romanus saepe audivit: necesse est delere Carthaginem. 
Catone saepe audito, etiam senatus dixit: necesse est delere Carthaginem. 

Carthago fecit bellum cum Masinissa, rege Numidiae. Sed Carthago non 
debuit facere bellum in Africa sine licentia Romanorum. Carthago non 
voluit facere bellum. Sed Masinissa fuit malus. Fere necesse fuit gerere 
bellum cum rege Numidiae. Ergo Carthaginienses fecerunt bellum. 

Romanus senatus audivit quod Carthago fecerat bellum sine licentia 
Romanorum. Ergo senatus dixit: necesse est delere Carthaginem. Itaque 
senatus misit consules cum exercitu ad Carthaginienses. Consules dixe- 
runt: senatus Romanus iussit Carthaginienses deponere arma. Consulibus 
auditis, Carthaginienses fecerunt iussa. Timuerunt enim potestatem 

(Continued tomorrow—continuabitur eras.) 

facil e-easy 
odisse-fo hate 
habere orationem- 
to give a speech 
omnis -all, every 
finis, -end 
deler e-to destroy 
saep e-often 
licentia -perm ission 
deponere-Zay down 
arma -arms 


debere, debuit, debitus- deponere, -posuit, 
owe, ought -positus-pwf down 

delere, delevit, deletus- saep e-often 

destroy sine ( with ablative ) 


facilis, facile, i -easy 
bonus finis, c(poss. pi.-ium)-end 
omnis, omne, i -all, every 
magna oratio, -ione-speech 
orationem haber e-give a speech 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Nominative, Objective, and Ablative of Ille: 
The forms of ille are almost all like bonus, bona, bonum: 

Masculine Feminine Neuter 























Where does ille differ from bonus ? Only in three 
forms (of those given)— ille, nominative singular mas¬ 
culine and illud (twice)—nominative and objective 
singular neuter. So—out of the whole table, we have 
really only two forms to learn. In fact, if we learn the 
top row of singulars: ille, ilia, illud —we have it. For the 
first of the odd forms, ille, is in that list. And the second, 
illud, is also in that list. The third is only a repetition of 
the second, according to the rule that nominative and 
objective are the same in neuters. Not much to learn! 
What does ille mean? It can serve as an adjective: 
ille vir —that man 
illud bellum —that war 
It can serve as a noun (pronoun): 
ille— he, that one 
ilia— she, that one 
illud— it, that thing 
In the plural: 
illi —those men. 

Exerceamus Nos 

Look for samples of the ille pattern. 

In illis diebus, Romani gesserunt bellum cum Antfocho, 
rege Seleuciae. Popilius, senator Romanus venit ad 
ilium regem. Popilius iussit Antiochum discedere ex 
Aegypto. Popilio audito, Antiochus discessit ex ilia 

Ubi est ille agnus albus? Ille est in schola. Sed non 
debuit venire in scholam. Marcus non amavit agnos in 
schola—Marcus amavit Mariam in schola. Ille dixit 
quod ilia est agna parva. Dixitne Marcus veritatem? 
Omnes pueri in schola viderunt Marcum et Mariam. 
Sed non viderunt porcos in schola. Porci fuerunt in foro. 
Illi porci dixerunt: oink. Cur (why) dixerunt porci 
illud? Quia non potuerunt dicere baa. Marcus dedit fru- 
mentum pro agno Mariae. 

Illi reges fuerunt boni. Senatores Romani sunt boni 
consiliis. Omnes senatores habuerunt orationes in se¬ 
natu. Agnus albus audivit illas orationes. Sed agnus non 
dixit baa in senatu. Agnus voluit esse bonus. Ergo illi 
senatores amaverunt agnum. 

Cato in senatu dixit quod necesse fuit delere Cartha- 
ginem. Ergo Carthago venerat ad finem. Finis dierum 
Carthaginis venerat. Carthago deleta est. Hannibal non 
potuit servare illam urbem. Rex Bithyniae non potuit 
servare Carthaginem. Rex Bithyniae non potuit stare 
contra potestatem Romanorum. Debuit facere iussa. 

English to Latin 

1. Where is that man? 2. Mary wanted to find that 
lamb. 3. The men of Rome were brave. 4. Cato wanted 
them (illos) to destroy the city. 5. That man did not 
like the speech. 6. When that speech had been given, 
Cato departed. 7. By a great speech, he destroyed the 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: After the Carthaginians had laid down their arms, the Roman legates 
announced that the senate ordered the destruction of the city: they would be per¬ 
mitted to rebuild, but it must be ten miles inland. This meant ruin for a mercantile 
city. So Carthage, without arms, resisted. The siege lasted three years. Women gave 
their long hair to make ropes for catapults. But it was hopeless. At last the city fell— 
a blot on Rome’s record. In the same year they also destroyed Corinth—the site was 
desolate for a century. 

Heri audivimus de prima parte belli Punici tertii. Marcus Porcius Cato 
saepe insenatu Romano dixerat: necesse est delere Carthaginem. Carthago 
fecerat bellum cum Masinissa, rege Numfdiae. Bello facto, senatus Ro- 
manus miserat consules ad Carthaginienses. Consules iusserant illos de- 
ponere arma. Consulibus auditis, Carthaginienses deposuerant arma. 

Sed quid dixit senatus Romanus? Postquam viri Carthaginis deposue- 
runt arma, senatus dixit: necesse est delere Carthaginem. Licet aedificare 
novam urbem—sed non ad mare. Carthaginienses boni mercatura fuerunt 
—necesse est habere urbem ad mare. Ergo Carthaginienses, sine armis, 
bellum gesserunt cum Romanis. Bellum factum est in anno centesimo 
quadragesimo nono (149) ante Christum. Per tres (III) annos Carthagi¬ 
nienses fortiter pugnaverunt. Feminae Carthaginienses etiam dederunt 
capillos capitis pro catapultis. Etiam feminae Carthaginienses fortes 
fuerunt. Sed non potuerunt vincere Romanos. Romani enim multi fuerunt. 

Romani bona arma habuerunt. Carthaginienses non habuerunt bona 
arma: omnia arma dederant Romanis. Non fuit facile pugnare sine armis. 

Ergo Romani deleverunt Carthaginem. Nihil illfus (of that ) urbis re- 
mansit—omnia deleta sunt. Romani mali fuerunt. Non debuerunt delere 
Carthaginem. Masinissa etiam malus fuit. Non debuit lacessere Carthagi¬ 

Eodem anno, Romani etiam deleverunt Graecam urbem, Corinthum. 

Nemo remansit in illo loco per centum (100) annos. 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Decline two words together (fine practice!): bonus 
vir, ille vir, (omit possessive and dative of ille), illud 
caput, pars magna. 2. Add up all the prepositions with 
the ablative we have seen so far. 3. How do you say: 
of the sea, of the seas, of the citizen, of the citizens, of 
the power, of the powers, of the speech, of the speeches, 
of the lamb, of the lambs. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

New Word Order: The Romans did not always use 
the same word order as we do. Today we are going to 
begin to practice in earnest on one new variety of their 
word order. It will seem a bit strange to you at first, but 
you will get used to it quickly. Here is a sample: 


aedificare, -avit, -atus- licet (present tense)-it is 
build permitted 

lacessere, -cessfvit, ioriiiex-bravely 

-cessftus -harass <\\x\d-what? 

capillus, o-hair 
magnum caput, ckpilz-head 
femina, di-woman 
locus, o (but the plural shifts to 
neuter: loca)-place 
nemo, nemine (has no poss.)-no one 
bona pars, parte (poss. pl.-ium. Most 
one syllable nouns of third declen¬ 
sion have -e abl. sing, but -ium 
poss. pi.)-part 

heri -yesterday 
audfvimus-we heard 
licet-if is permitted 
femina -woman 
capillus-/j< 2 /> 
caput -he ad 
nihil -nothing 
lacesser e-harass 
eodem (abl .)-same 


Maria agnum hdbuit. 

Mary had the lamb. 

Notice that we have the three pieces in this order: 

1. subject 2. object 3. verb 

N.B. But do not rearrange them in your own mind — 
learn to feel them just like the Romans did. It is easy, and 
you will find it fun to try. If you have to rearrange them 
the first few times, all right, but then go back and re-read 
the same sentence several times in Latin, without think¬ 
ing of the English: you will find that you can follow the 
thought easily in Latin. 

Magna pars legatorum Romanorum in urbem vene- 
runt. Romani CartMginem viderunt. Romani arma 
videre voluerunt. Carthaginienses non debuerunt bel- 
lum sine licentia Romanorum gerere. Sed Masinissa, rex 
Numidiae, malus fuit—semper Carth&ginem lacessivit. 

Romani etiam Corinthum deleverunt. Graeci enim 
cum £liis Graecis semper pugnaverunt. Graeci etiam 
cum Roma pugnaverunt. Roma non am£vit semper 
pugn&re. Ergo Corinthum Romani deleverunt. Corin- 
thus fuit urbs magna in Graecia. Corinthus multos mer- 
catores et multos nautas hdbuit. Carthago etiam multas 
naves habuerat. Sed nunc omnes naves Carth&ginis 

deletae sunt. Nunc Carthago non iam est urbs. Nemo in 
illo loco rem£nsit. Ergo Carthago nihil est. Et Corinthus 
non iam est urbs. Corinthus nihil est. Suntne agni in 
ilia urbe? Non sunt: ilia enim urbs non est. 

Ubi est Hor£tius? Hor&tius in ponte fuit. Ergo 
Hor£tius in fl limine est. Sed Hor£tius pugn£verat fortiter 
contra Etruscos. Hor£tius Romam serv£vit. 

Cincinn&tus etiam pro Roma fortiter pugn£vit. Cin- 
cinnatus enim in agris remanere voluerat, sed sen£tus 
Romanus ad ilium leg&tos misit. Dictatorem ilium cre- 
averunt. Sed Cincinn£tus non voluit remanere Dictator: 
in agris esse voluit. Cincinn4tus enim agnos amavit. 
Sed malos viros non amavit: viri mali Romam oderunt. 
Viri mali delere Romam voluerunt. Sed Cincinn£tus 
illos delevit. Viri mali deleti sunt a Cincinn£to. Viris 
malis deletis, Roma pacem hdbuit. Sed non per multos 
annos. Alii enim viri mali venerunt. 

English to Latin 

1. It is necessary to find the woman. 2. A large part of 
the soldiers came. 3. They fought without permission 
of the Romans. 4. That woman is brave. 5. A large part 
of the soldiers was seen. 6. The Romans came with great 
power. 7. The legates of Rome ordered them to put 
down (their) arms (arma). 



De tribus casibus pronominis: hie 
De tempore plusquamperfecto in voce passiva 

Summary: Tiberius Gracchus, though a patrician by birth, was sympathetic to the 
poor—many of them had been farmers, but had lost their lands, being unable to 
compete with large estates and slave labor. In Rome they found little work at little 
pay—slave competition again. The senate opposed the proposed law to give part of 
the public lands to the poor. (Part of their lands were public, but in many cases no 
one remembered which lands were public.) Gracchus however put it through the 
popular assembly. He did a number of things contrary to precedent and the senate’s 
interests. Some senators organized a mob and killed him. 

Tiberius Gracchus fuit patricius nativitate. Sed motus est misericordia pro 
pauperibus. Viri enim pauperes multi fuerunt in urbe Romana. Illi paupe- 
res habuerant agros. Pauperes non potuerant remanere in agris. Habuerant 
enim parvos agros. Sed dfvites habuerunt magnos et multos agros. Dfvites 
habuerunt multos servos. Servi non acceperunt pecuniam pro Iaboribus. 
Ergo pauperes non potuerunt tenere agros suos. Pauperes venerunt in 
urbem. Sed etiam in urbe fuerunt multi servi. Pauperes non voluerunt esse 
servi. Sed fere nihil acceperunt pro Iaboribus in urbe. Et fere nemo voluit 
conducere illos. 

Tiberius Gracchus ergo voluit dare agros pauperibus ( to the poor). 
Itaque proposuit legem novam in senatu. Sed senatores non amaverunt 
novam legem. Per legem novam enim senatores debuerunt dare partem 
agrorum suorum pauperibus. Non omnes agri senatorum re vera erant 
agri senatorum. Senatores enim tenuerunt etiam multos agros publicos. 
Illi agri re vera non erant agri senatorum—erant agri publici. Sed senatores 
non voluerunt dare illos agros pauperibus. Quia senatores non voluerunt 
novam legem, Gracchus venit in comftia tributa. Plebs in comftiis tributis 
voluerunt habere novam legem Gracchi. Gracchus etiam fecit multa alia 
quae (which) senatusnon amavit. Ergoquidamsenatoresfeceruntturbam. 
Ilia turba interfecit Tiberium Gracchum. 

dfvites-f/ie rich 
labor -work 
tenere-hold, keep 
suus- 0 /ie’.s own 
conducer e-hire 
proposuit -proposed 
re vera -really 
erant -were 

comftia tributa -popular 
turba -mob 


erant -were 

interficere, fecit, fectus- 

movere, movit, motus- 

proponere, posuit, 
positus -propose 

tenere, tenuit, tentus- 
hold, keep 

multus labor, labore- 
work, suffering 

misericordia, a -mercy, 

servus, o -slave 
senator, ore, magnus- 

suus, a, um -one’s own, his, 
hers, its, theirs 
verus, a, u m-true; re vera- 
in truth, really 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Nominative, Objective, and Ablative of Hic: 
Hie is the mate to ille. Ille means that ; hic means this. 
The forms of hic are almost as easy: 

Masculine Feminine Neuter 

Nom. hic hi 

Obj. hunc hos 

Abl. hoc his 

haec hae hoc haec 

hanc has hoc haec 

hac his hoc his 

The factor that confuses the picture somewhat is the ad¬ 
dition of the letter c to some of the endings. Without that, 
we could easily see that hunc and hanc once had -um and 


-am. And the ablative singulars hoc and hac are obvious, 
without the c. 

But we must admit that the three nominative singular 
forms: hie, haec, hoc, are just plain odd, as is also the 
neuter plural haec. But we will not find it difficult— hie 
is such a common word, even for the most sober Roman, 
that we shall soon find ourselves used to it. 

Pluperfect Passive: We know how to say: He was 
conquered or has been conquered —we use the last part 
of the verb with the words est or sunt. If we want to say: 
He had been conquered, we use erat or erant. Thus: 

1. Romanus exercitus victus erat. 

The Roman army had been conquered. 

2. Multi milites interfecti erant. 

Many soldiers had been killed. 

Recall that in making the pluperfect active, we also 
used erat and erant —but in the active they became end¬ 
ings, not separate words: e.g., vicerat, vicerant. 

Suus: Recall the sentence in the story: 

Non potuerunt tenere agros suos. 

They were not able to keep their fields. 

Suus may mean: his own, her own, their own (in the 
plural), etc. The word own need not be used, but suus 
really means that. 

But if the expression “their fields” meant 
not—their own fields 

but—someone else’s fields (e.g., the senator’s fields) 

then we could not use suus. We would need a different 
word, which we shall see later. (In case you are curious, 
it is: eius for the singular, and eorum for the plural—but 
those words are not adjectives, they are possessive forms 
of a pronoun. So, they do not agree in gender, number 
and case as suus does. Of course, the gender of eorum, 
earum, eorum can change.) 


They could not keep their own fields—use suus 

They could not keep their (someone else’s) fields— 
use eius, etc. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Hie vir est pater Columbi. Ille vir est pater Mariae. Ubi 
est Marci pater? Marcus in schola est: Mariam videre 
voluit. Ergo cum agno albo in scholam venit. 

Gracchus novam legem proposuit, sad senatores hanc 
legem non amaverunt. Plebs novam legem amavit. Hoc 
est verum. Senatores dixerunt quod non voluerunt dare 
agros suos pauperibus. Sed re vera non omnes agri fue- 
runt agri senatorum. Quando senatores de agris “suis” 
dixerunt veritatem non semper dixerunt. Multi agri 
re vera fuerunt agri publici. Haec veritas est. Ergo 
senatores agros publicos tenere non debuerunt. Hos 
pauperibus dare debuerunt. Nova lex iussit senatores 
dare agros publicos pauperibus. Quidam ( certain ) sena¬ 
tores fuerunt viri mali—Tiberium Gracchum interfece- 
runt. Hie enim novam legem proposuit. Ubi sunt Maria 
et Marcus? Hie in schola est. Sed ilia in schola non est. 
Ilia agnum invenire voluit, sed non potuit. Agnus enim 
in schola cum Marco fuit. Ergo Maria debuit venire ad 
agnum suum parvum. Columbus naves suas amavit. Ad 
Americam illis navigavit. Fuitne nemo in America in 
diebus Columbi? Non. Primi Americani fuerunt in 
America illis diebus. America inventa, Columbus illos 
“Indos” vocavit. Sed Indi in India, non in America fue¬ 
runt. In America est Indiana. Suntne Indi in Indiana? 
Quid voluit Columbus invenire? Indiam invenire voluit. 
Quid voluit agnus in schola invenire? Mariam videre 
voluit. Etiam cibum accipere voluit. Cibi non erant 
habiti ab agno. 

English to Latin 

1. That man has come. 2. What did he want? 3. He 
wanted food. 4. Since Gracchus had been killed, the 
senators were able to keep the lands. 5. The lands of 
the senators were really large. 6. They had great suf¬ 
ferings. 7. Many men were slaves of the patricians. 



De tempore praesenti activo 

Summary: Gracchus had been guilty of some misdeeds, or at least, things contrary 
to custom. But the murder of Gracchus showed that the senate was corrupt. The 
case of Jugurtha showed it still better. Jugurtha had a right to one third of Numidia— 
but he killed one partner and expelled the other. The other, Adherbal appealed to 
the senate. The senate, its palms probably greased, gave Adherbal the poorer part of 
Numidia. Soon, after the siege of Cirta, Jugurtha killed Adherbal. This was an 
outrage, but the senate still wanted to do nothing. 

Diebus Tiberi Gracchi senatus Romanus corruptus erat. Tiberius ambi- 
tiosus fuerat: fecit quaedam mala. Fecit quaedam etiam contra consuetudi- 
nem. Sed senatus non debuit interficere ilium. Hoc re vera monstravit 
corruptionem senatus Romani. Erat etiam alius Gracchus, Gaius nomine. 
Tiberio interfecto, Gaius non timuit. Hie etiam proposuit legem de agris. 
Sed hie etiam non potuit contra senatum pugnare. Sed corruptio senatus 
praesertim monstrata est in bello cum Iugurtha. 

Audivimus de Masinissa, rege Numidiae. Filius Masinissae eratMicipsa. 
Ouando Micipsa mortuus est (died) Hiempsal et Adherbal debuerunt 
accipere Numidiam. Hiempsal et Adherbal erant filii Micipsae. Iugurtha 
erat nepos Micipsae. Iugurtha debuit accipere partem Numidiae, cum filiis 
Micipsae. Sed Iugurtha interfecit Hiempsalem. Hiempsale interfecto, 
Iugurtha expulit Adherbalem ex Numidia. Adherbal rogavit senatum Ro- 
manum mittere auxilium. Sed senatus dedit partem orientalem Numidiae 
illi (to him ) et partem occidentalem Iugurthae (to Jugurtha). Iugurtha 
probabiliter dederat aurum: pars enim occidentalis erat melior. 

Parte occidentali accepta, Iugurtha bellum fecit cum Adherbale. In 
hoc bello, Iugurtha interfecit Adherbalem. Sed senatus Romanus voluit 
nihil facere—probabiliter acceperant aurum ab Iugurtha. (Continued to¬ 
morrow —continuabitur eras.) 

quaedam -certain things 
consuetudo -custom 
praesertim -especially 
audivimus-we heard 
melior -better 


monstrare, monstravit. 

filius, o -son 


melior, melius, meliore- 

praesertim -especially 


bona consuetudo, 

occidentalis, e, i -western 


orientalis, e, i-eastern 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Singular Present Pattern: We learned some time 
ago the forms of the present active infinitive—we noted 
that all such infinitives end in -re. But there is a differ¬ 
ence in the vowel ahead of the -re. This difference indi¬ 
cates jour different classes of verbs. We call these four 
classes, four conjugations. They are identified by the 

infinitive endings (we consider here that the ending is 
the -re plus the letter ahead of the -re). Therefore:—the 
conjugations are as follows: 

1. -are 2. -ere 3. -ere 4. -ire 

Notice that the distinction between two and three is in the 
accent (the e is short in three, long in two). 

Now to form the present active, third singular: 
remove the ending -are, -ere, -ere, -ire and add: 

1. -at 2. -et 3. -it 4. -it 

Notice that the vowel in these endings is, except for 
third conjugation, the same as that in the infinitive end¬ 
ing. Therefore, let us make a set of samples: 

1. parat 2. habet 3. ponit 4. venit 

Meanings?—he prepares 

he does prepare • 
he is preparing 

The Latin will stand any 
of the three translations 
equally well. 


Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
Look for present patterns. 

Marcus scholam aedificat. Marcus vult ( irregular pres¬ 
ent of voluit— memorize please) videre Mariam in 
schola. Agnus albus etiam vult habere scholam. Agnus 
in scholam venire vult. Roma multas consuetudines 
bonas habet. Nemo potest expellere agnum ex schola. 
Servus pecuniam non habet. Miles sine armis pugn£re 
non potest. Habetne Columbus bonas naves? •tique, 
Columbus habet illas. Columbus illis navigat. 

Tib6rius Gracchus novam legem proponit. Nova lex 
agros pro pauperibus dat. Senitus novam legem non 
amat. Sen&tus Gracchum interficere vult. 

Horiitius in ponte stat. Ignis in pontem cadit. Hor£- 
tius in aquam cadit. Sed Etrusci venire in urbem non 

Quid vocat Maria Marcum? Haec vocat ilium “Agnus 
parvus.” Potestne Marcus dicere baal Hie parvus porcus 
carnes bovinas assas (see Lesson 2) habet. Hie parvus 
porcus nihil habet. Hie parvus porcus: oui, oui! dicit. 

Exercitus Rominus Carth£ginem fortitudine vincit. 

Sed Carthaginienses fortiter pugnaverunt. Non est facile 
pugndre contra Carthaginienses. Hannibal enim, im- 
per&tor Carthaginiensis, est vir magnus. 

Columbus uxorem (wife) habet. Quid dicit uxor? 
Voc&tne ilium “parvus agnus.” Non. Uxor Columbi 
habet magnam vocem (voice). Uxor Columbum vocat 
porcum. Porcus enim rotundus est. Er&tne Columbus 

Hamilcar manum Hannibalis in altdre ponit. Hanni¬ 
bal odium aeternum promittit contra Romam et Ro¬ 
manos: fabula Rom£na dicit haec. Suntne haec vera? 
Verum est quod Hannibal bellum cum Romanis gessit. 
Hannibal Romanos fere vicit. Sed Scipio Romam servat. 

English to Latin 

1. Scipio prepares the soldiers. 2. Columbus is show¬ 
ing his ships. 3. Adherbal remains in the eastern part 
of Numidia. 4. He is preparing an army. 5. The king 
of Africa has many slaves. 6. The senate had received 
much gold from Jugurtha. 7. Since it has received gold, 
the senate does not wish to fight against this man. 



De tempore praesenti in persona tertia plurali 

Summary: The senate, probably bribed, did not wish to punish Jugurtha. But the 
plebs forced war. The war was a sham, followed by a sham surrender. But soon 
jugurtha angered even the senate, by committing murder in Rome. War resumed, 
but with little success. Finally the plebs elected Marius consul, and made him com¬ 
mander. Marius gave up the use of unwilling draftees—he got volunteers by promise 
of lands and money. The army was thus more directly loyal to him than to Rome. 

Senatus iam monstraverat corruptionem suam. Iugurtha enim interfecerat 
Adherbalem. Sed senatus, probabiliter quia acceperat aurum ab Iugurtha, 
vult facere nihil. Senatus debet punire Iugurtham. Sed plebs, in comitiis 
tributis, exclamant: senatus iniustus est. Senatus debet bellum movere cum 
Iugurtha. Necesse est punire ilium. Ergo senatus, coactus a plebe, movit 
bellum. Sed exercitus Romanus non pugnavit fortiter contra Iugurtham. 
Et Iugurtha non pugnavit fortiter contra Romanos. Senatus enim non vult 
bellum cum Iugurtha. Et hie non vult bellum cum Roma. Simulaverunt 
bellum. Finis belli venit anno centesimo undecimo ( 111 BC ) ante Chris¬ 
tum. Mox Iugurtha interfecit virum quando in urbe Romana erat. Magna 
audacia erat. Itaque Roma rursus movit bellum cum Iugurtha. Etiam sena¬ 
tus nunc ira motus est contra Iugurtham. 

Sed Roma non habet victoriam statim. Itaque plebs creavit novum im- 
peratorem: facit Marium imperatorem. Marius electus est consul anni 
centesimi septimi {107). Marius non voluit habere mflites ex delectibus. 
Mflites ex delectibus non voluerunt pugnare. Marius voluit habere mflites 
meliores. Itaque promisit agros et pecuniam—hoc modo accepit mflites 
meliores. Hi mflites voluerunt pugnare fortiter. Voluerunt accipere bonos 
agros et pecuniam multam a Mario. Itaque hi mflites amaverunt Marium. 
Speraverunt accipere pecuniam et agros ab illo—non a Roma. Ergo milites 
Marii vicerunt Iugurtham. 

punir e-punish 
iniustus -unjust 
coactus -forced 
simulavit -pretended 
mo x-soon 
audacia -boldness 
delectus -draft 


cogere, coegit, coactus- simulare, avit, atus- 
compel feign, pretend 

punire, punivit, punitus- sperare, avit, atus -hope 
punish mo x-soon 

delectus, u -draft, levy 
iniustus, a, um -unjust 
ira, di-anger 

modus, o -manner, way, measure, limit 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Present Third Plural: Yesterday we learned how to 
make the present third singular in each of the four 
conjugations. Now it is just as easy to make the third 

plural on most verbs—we merely remove the infinitive 
ending {-are, etc.), and add: 

1. -ant 2. -ent 3. -unt 4. -iunt 
For example: 1. parant 2. habent 3. ponunt 4. veniunt 
But there are just a few verbs that cause us a little trou¬ 
ble. These verbs belong to the third conjugation, but use 
the ending -iunt, like the fourth conjugation. However, 
we have not met many of these verbs—to be exact, we 
have met only five of them so far. Here is the third plural 
of those verbs: 






{from accipere) 
{from capere) 
{from facere) 
{from iacere) 
{from interficere) 

But how can we tell when we meet any more of the -iunt 
third verbs? We can make it easy—ahead of the usual 


three parts of a verb, we shall give the -iunt form in the 
vocabulary, if a verb is of that type. Thus, we would 
print accipere: 

[accipiunt], accipere, accepit, acceptus—receive 
But if a verb does not have such a peculiarity, we shall 
keep on giving the usual three parts, just as we have 
been doing. 

Note on Voluit: The verb voluit has some irregular 
forms—we know its infinitive, velle. We have used its 
third singular present— vult. The third plural is easier— 
it is merely: volunt —they wish. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
Look for present patterns. 

Romani Iugurtham punire volunt. Bellum movere 
cum illo volunt. Marius est imperator bonus. Marius 
sperat facere exercitum meliorem. Marius non voluit 
cogere mflites pugnare delectibus—Marius milites vol¬ 
untaries habere voluit. Ille agros et pecuniam multam 
promisit. Quia pecuniam accipiunt, milites amant 
Marium. Multa bona faciunt. Iaciunt Iugurtham ex 
Numidia. Urbes Numidiae capiunt. Exercitus volun- 
tarius melior est. Romani pro Roma pugnare debent. 

Sed Romani non iam pugnare amant. Senatus bellum 
cum Iugurtha simulat. Iugurtha bellum etiam simulat. 
Senatus et Iugurtha pugnare non volunt. Senatus cor- 

ruptus est. Senatus etiam corruptionem suam monstravit 
quando Gracchum interfecit. Gracchus vir bonus erat— 
amavit Romam. Pauperes amavit. Sed senatores vol- 
uerunt pecuniam multam habere. 

Sed Marcus et Maria invicem ( one another) amave- 
runt. Et amaverunt etiam agnum album. Columbus non 
erat iniustus. Columbus invenire Indiam voluit. Co¬ 
lumbus et nautae naves suas amant. 

Cincinnatus non iniustus fuerat. Romani in antiquis 
diebus iniusti non fuerunt. Illi Romani Romam ama¬ 
verunt—non amaverunt pecuniam et aurum. Hoc 
modo servaverunt Romam. Galli Romam vincere volu- 
erunt. Sed Romam non possunt vincere—Roma fortis 
est. Milites Romani ex delectibus in illis diebus erant 
fortes. Illi Romani antiqui pro Roma pugnare volue- 
runt. Pecuniam et agros dare non erat necesse. Sed die¬ 
bus Mari Romani pugnare non voluerunt. Antiqui 
Romani fuerunt meliores. 

English to Latin 

1. They are capturing many cities. 2. What are they 
throwing into the river? 3. Marius and his men ( sui ) 
are coming. 4. Marius and Sulla are fighting bravely. 
5. He spoke with great anger. 6. Jugurtha pretends to 
love the senate, but in reality he does not. 7. By the 
draft they are forcing these men to come into the army. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Mithradates, king of Pontus, a small country in Asia Minor, began to 
overrun the country. He invaded the Roman province of Asia, and killed the legate. 
Sulla, a former lieutenant of Marius, was given command against Mithradates. But 
while Sulla was enroute to Asia, his command was revoked. Sulla marched on Rome, 
and killed those who had engineered his recall. But he could not find Marius 

In Asia Minore est terra parva, Pontus nomine. Rex Ponti erat Mithra¬ 
dates. Sed ille voluit multas terras vincere. ltaque bellum movit cum aliis 
terris in Asia Minore. Mithradates enim voluit expellere Romanos ex Asia 
Minore. In hoc tempore, Romani provinciam habuerunt in parte occi¬ 
dental! Asiae Minoris. Vocaverunt hanc provinciam Asiam. Sed re vera 
“Asia” erat solum pars parva Asiae Minoris. Mithradates etiam interfecit 
legatum Romanum in hac provincia. Mithradates dixit “Romani amant 
aurum.” ltaque Mithradates infudit aurum calidum in guttur Romani. 

Sine dubio necesse erat bellum habere cum Mithradate. Romani ergo 
faciunt Sullam imperatorem contra Mithradatem. Sulla fuerat legatus in 
exercitu Mari in bello Iugurthino. Sulla erat patricius nativitate, et vir 
magni ingenii. Sulla non iam amat Marium: Marius est ex parte plebis. 
Sulla est ex parte senatus. 

Sed Sulla factus est imperator contra Mithradatem. Sulla ergo discessit 
ex urbe, cum exercitu magno. Dum Sulla abest ex urbe, tribunus plebis, 
Sulpicius nomine, proponit novas leges. Una (one) lex revocat Sullam et 
facit Marium imperatorem. Sulla audivit de nova lege. Ergo Sulla venit 
rursus ad urbem cum exercitu suo. Sulla interfecit Sulpicium et multos 
amfcos Sulpici. Sed non poterat invenire Marium. 

(Continuabitur eras) 

provincia -province 
guttur -throat 
dubium -doubt 
pars -party 
abest-6e absent 
amicus -friend 


abesse, afuit, afuturus- revocare, avit, atus -recall 
be absent dum -while 

infundere, fudit, fusus- 
pour in 

calidus, a, um -hot 
dubium, o -doubt 
magnum guttur, ur e-throat 
ingenium, o-talent, natural ability 
longum tempus, tempore-f/me 

Families of Words: It is a great help to our memory 
to notice that many words come in families. For exam¬ 
ple, in today’s vocabulary we have revocare. It belongs 
to the family of vocare : to call. Re means: back or 
again. So, re-voedre means: to call back. What would 

these mean: reponere, recipere, (from capere), reficere 
(from facere) remittere, rescribere? 

A d- means near or to. What would these mean: advo- 
care, adesse, admovere, apponere (ad-ponere), ad- 
venire, adstare? 

A or ab means from or away. What would these 
mean: abesse, avocare, amovere, abs-tinere (from 

It will be very worthwhile to keep a watch for words 
(mostly verbs) that come in families. There are still 
other families, as we shall see later. 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say: he compels, they compel, he shows, 
they show, she asks, they ask, he is absent, they are 
absent, he wishes, they wish, she receives, they receive, 
it sends, they sent, he throws, they throw. 2. Decline 


these combinations as units: magnus rex orientdlis, 
bonus delectus, mala consuetudo, caput calidum. 3. 
How do you say: he had been found, they had been 
found, it had been given, they had been given, it had 
been waged, they had been waged. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Rom£ni aurum amant—hoc dicit Mithradates. Ergo 
Mithradates aurum in guttur dat. Auro accepto, habuit 
ille Rom&nus caput calidum? Estne bonum amare 
aurum? Viri boni aurum amare non debent. Res meli- 
ores amare debent. Estne Asia Minor parva? Non—non 
est parva. In Asia Minore est Asia—Romani enim 
vocant provinciam suam “Asia.” Et haec provincia 
Romana in Asia Minore erat. Ergo Asia in Asia Minore 

Dum Sulla ex urbe abest, quid facit Marius? Marius 
potestatem habere vult. Sed Sulla etiam potestatem 
habere vult. Ergo Roma bellum civfle habet. Milites 
Mari Romam amaverunt. S«d etiam Marium amaverunt 
—agros et pecuniam a Mario, non a Roma, speraverunt. 
Etiam milites Sullae amaverunt Romani. Sed amaverunt 
Sullam, et agros et pecuniam a Sulla, non a Roma, 
speraverunt. Hoc modo Roma poterat bellum civfle 
habere. Si (if) cives amant Romam solam—non pos- 

sunt movere civfle bellum. Roma enim bellum civfle 
non amat. 

Eratne bellum civfle in Statibus Foederatis Americae? 
Otique. In America, Status Confoederati pugnaverunt 
cum Statibus Foederatis. Malum est habere bellum. Sed 
non iam est bellum in America. America habet bellum 
cum 41iis nationibus. America nunc cum Communistis 
pugnat. Communistae Americam delere volunt. 

Primi consules Romani Tarquinium expellere volu- 
erunt. Sed Tarquinius Romam punire voluit, quia Roma 
ilium expulerat. Sed Romani monstraverunt quod Ro¬ 
mam amaverunt: fortiter pugnaverunt. Etrusci in urbe 
non iam remanent. Remanere non licet. Regibus ex- 
pulsis, Romani non habuerunt pacem, quia necesse erat 
semper pugnare cum aliis nationibus. Pax in hoc mundo 
non est aetema. 

English to Latin 

1. Tarquinius having been expelled, Rome had war. 

2. He was a patrician by birth. 3. They say that 
Jugurtha wants peace. 4. While there is doubt, they are 
not willing to recall that legate. 5. He was created dic¬ 
tator not because of (abl. alone means “because of’) 
natural ability, but because of much work. 6. They are 
now fighting with the Communists. 7. Even good men 
do not have eternal peace in this world. 



De tribus casibus pronominum: is et idem 

Summary: Marius had escaped to Africa. After imposing his will through the army, 
Sulla went east. He fought the forces of Mithradates in Greece—but also robbed 
Greece of many treasures. He then went over to Asia and conquered Mithradates. 
But the victory was not decisive. Sulla, however, was in a hurry to get back to Rome. 
In his absence there had been more civil war and murder. On his return there was 
more of the same. 

Sulla in urbem venerat cum exercitu et interfecerat Sulpicium et multos 
amicos Sulpici. Sed Marium non invenerat—Marius enim evaserat in 
Africam. Sulla ergo discessit ad Orientem cum exercitu contra Mithrada- 
tem. Sed antequam venit in Asiam Minorem, Sulla per Graeciam venit. 
Mithradates habuit exercitum in Graecia. Sulla ltaque pugnavit cum illo in 
Graecia. Sulla cepit multas Graecas urbes. Sed Sulla etiam rapuit multas 
res pretiosas ex Graecia. Deinde Sulla navigavit in Asiam Minorem. Ibi 
multa proelia secunda fecit. Sulla vicit Mithradatem, sed non omnino fregit 
potestatem illius. Sulla enim non timuit Mithradatem, sed timuit Marium 
et amicos Mari in urbe. Sulla debuit frangere potestatem Mithradatis, sed 
hoc non fecit. Mithradates enim potuit pugnare postquam Sulla discessit. 

In urbe, dum Sulla erat in Oriente, bellum civile fuerat inter amicos 
Mari et senatum. Multi Romani interfecti erant, Marius enim venerat in 
urbem cum exercitu. Per quinque (V) dies, trucidatio fuerat in urbe. 
Decern millia ( 10,000 ) interfecti erant. 

Ergo quando Sulla venit in urbem, rursus bellum civile venit. Marius 
non iam erat in urbe. Marius non iam erat in hac vita. Sed Sulla quotidie 
posuit in foro nomina proscriptorum: Sulla dixit “licet interficere hos 
proscriptos.” Ergo fere quinque (V) millia interfecti sunt. (Continuabitur 




pretiosus -precious 


proelium -battle 



inter -between 

tr ucid4tio-6 utchery 


quotidi e-daily 




evadere, evasit, evasus- ibi-there 

escape inter (with obj .) - 

frangere, fregit, fractus- between, among 
break omnino-altogether, 

[rapiunt], rapere, rapuit, at all, in all 
raptus -seize, snatch 

Mithradates, e, ma\us-Mithradates 
proelium, o -battle 
secundus, a, um -second, successful 
vita, a -life 

Families of Words: Notice e-vadere in today’s 
vocabulary. It means: go out. For e- or ex-means out. 
What would these mean: emittere, evenire, evocare, 
excludere, exponere, eicere (ex-iacere)? 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Is, ea, id can serve either as a pronoun or as a demon¬ 
strative adjective. As a pronoun it means: he, she, it. 
The plural is they. As an adjective it means this, or that. 
Its forms are not hard to learn: 






























eis (iis) 




Which forms differ from bonus type adjectives? Only 
two: is and id (of course, the neuter nominative and 
objective are the same—but that is usual). Therefore, 
if we memorize just the top three forms: is, ea, id —the 
rest is obvious. Isn’t Latin easy? 

What is the difference between is, ea, id, meaning this 
or that, and hie or illel It is much weaker—it can’t even 
make up its mind whether to be this or that. 

Idem: means “the same.” Its declension is easy—just 
add -dem to is, ea, id: 



















Of course, we notice that we do not keep two d' s. So we 
do not write iddem —but idem. Nor do we ever say: 
isdem, but idem. Sometimes eumdem is spelled: eundem. 
Similarly, eamdem may be spelled: eandem. 

Danger: It is dangerous to know a Latin word—take 
our old friend secundus. We were never formally intro¬ 
duced, but we have taken for granted it means second — 
and it does. But sometimes an old familiar word may 
have talents we do not dream of. Thus secundus can also 
mean favorable or successful. So in Latin we have to 
watch even our friends. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Recognize patterns when you meet them. 

Crbibus captis, Sulla res pretiosas rapuit. Roma 
capta, Sulla multos cives interfecit. Cur ( why ) eos inter¬ 
fecit? Quia amici Mari erant. Amici Sullae pecuniam 
divitum habere voluerunt. Sed Sulla et Marius viri mali 
fuerunt—re vera non Romam amaverunt: se ( them¬ 

selves ) amaverunt. Verus Romanus Romanos non in- 
terficit. Bellum civile in terra sua non movet. Verus 
Romanus contra alias nationes quando necesse est 
pugnat, sed non contra Romam. Sed Sulla Marium non 
interfecit. Sulla Marium interficere voluerat, sed non 
poterat. Cur? Quia Marius non solum in Africam evasit 
—etiam ex hac vita evasit. Ergo Marius ex manibus 
Sullae evasit. 

Agnus albus non evasit ex manibus Mariae, sed in 
scholam venit. Sed porci in scholam non venerunt: 
agnus et porcus non sunt idem. Agnus dicit baa —por- 
cus dicit oink. Agnus etiam albus est, sed porci non albi 
sunt. Porci lutum ( mud) amant. Agni lutum non amant. 
Vita porcorum non facilis est—non semper habent 
carnes bovinas assas—debent esse in luto—debent fere 
semper dicere oink —et postquam discesserunt ex hac 
vita, debent esse cibi pro nobis (us). Ergo Marcus motus 
est misericordia pro porcis. Ergo Marcus porcos amavit. 
Sed amavit etiam Mariam. Ergone fuit Maria porcus? 
NON. Maria, dicit Marcus, est agna parva. Estne agnus 
proscriptus a Sulla? Non. Sulla enim non vult interficere 
agnos; Sulla vult interficere Romanos. 

English to Latin 

1. The same men are coming. 2. Marcus saw him. 
3. There was war among the citizens. 4. Athough the 
power of Mithradates had not been broken, Sulla re¬ 
turned to the city. 5. For Sulla feared Marius and 
wanted to kill many of Marius’ friends. 6. Sulla also 
snatched many precious things from Athens (Athenis). 
7. He then returned ( venit rursus) to Italy in his ships. 

Scramble Exercise 

Sulla in urbem, quia Marium timuit, rursus venit. In 
foro Romano, postquam Sulla urbem cepit, quotidie 
nomina proscriptorum a Sulla sunt posita. Magna cum 
trucidatione multi quia non erant amici Sullae sunt 
interfecti a Sulla. 



De tribus casibus relativi pronominis: qui 

Summary: Sulla’s proscription killed about 5,000. He also became Dictator for life. 
He revised the constitution to strengthen the corrupt senate. He abdicated in 79 
B.C., died in 78 B.C. Pompey had served well under Sulla. He got the title “the 
Great.” In 70 B.C. he was consul with Crassus—together they undid Sulla’s work 
on the constitution. After this consulate, Pompey won further fame in wars against 
the Cilician pirates, Mithradates, Tigranes, and the Jews. 

Sulla ergo et amici Sullae interfecerunt fere quinque mfllia civium Ro- 
manorum. Fecerunt haec in anno octogesimo secundo ( 82) ante Christum. 
Eodem anno, Sulla factus est Dictator. Cincinnatus fuerat Dictator per 
paucos dies. Sulla amavit senatum, sed non amavit plebem. Ergo Sulla 
fecit multas leges. Hae leges fecerunt potestatem senatus maiorem. Sed 
Sulla non debuit facere potestatem senatus maiorem. Senatus enim cor¬ 
rupts erat. Sed Sulla erat caecus. Postquam leges multas (multae ex eis 
erant malae) fecit, Sulla Dictaturam deposuit in anno septuagesimo nono 
(79). In anno septuagesimo octavo (78) discessit ex hac vita. 

In exercitu Sullae fuerat Gnaeus Pompeius. Is fortiter pugnaverat pro 
Sulla contra amlcos Mari. Pro his laboribus acceperat tltulum “Magnus.” 
Pompeius enim humilitatem non amavit. Sed postquam Sulla discessit ex 
hac vita, Pompeius fecerat nomen suum magnum multis bellis. Pompeius 
etiam factus est consul anni septuagesimi (70). Crassus fuit consul 
cum Pompeio. Crassus fuerat legatus Sullae. Sed Pompeius et Crassus, 
quamquam fuerant amici Sullae, deleverunt fere omnes leges novas Sullae. 
Itaque omnes labores Sullae ad nihil venerunt! Post hunc annum sep- 
tuagesimum ante Christum, Pompeius accepit alia imperia extraordinaria: 
pugnavit contra piratas Cillciae, contra Mithradatem, contra Tigranem, 
et contra Judaeos. 



caecus -blind 

d ictat lira-d ictatorsh ip 

tltulus -title 



imperium -power, command 




maior, maius, maiore- 

caecus, a, um -blind 


imperium, o -command, 

pauci, ae, a (plural forms 



Nunc Cogitemus 

The Relative Pronoun: qui, quae, quod means who, 
which, that : 

































The only really strange forms are the top three: qui, 
quae, quod. The others are all familiar enough—only 
difficulty is that they jump about the first three de¬ 
clensions. The feminine behaves, as a lady should, 
mostly first declension only. But the men and animals 

The ablative plural is third— quibus. The neuter 
nominative and objective quod at least obeys the usual 
neuter rule—as does the plural quae. Masculine plural 
qui and quos are normal, as is ablative singular quo. 
But quern is just plain odd, though not so bad as nomi- 


native singular qui. But, with only five words vocabulary 
today, we can afford to memorize a bit. 

How Do We Use the Relatives? Some use relatives 
to borrow money—but notice these examples. 

Marcus vidit Mariam, quae amdvit agnum. 
Marcus saw Mary, who loved the lamb. 

Notice the gender, number and case of quae. It is nomi¬ 
native because it is the subject of amdvit. But it is femi¬ 
nine and singular because it refers back to Mary. We call 
Mary the antecedent. And here is the principle: the 

(masculine, feminine or neuter) and number (singu¬ 
lar or plural) but not in case (nominative, objective, 
etc.). So, for practice, let’s watch the use of the relatives 
and antecedents below. 

Exerceamus Nos 
Look for agreement. 

Marius Mariam amavit. Sulla Sullam amavit. Sed 
Cincinnatus Romam, quae urbs bona fuit, amavit. 
Pompeius, qui in exercitu Sullae fuerat, leges Sullae 
delevit. Agnus, qui in schola erat, dixit: Maria est puella 
bona. Quid dixit porcus qui in foro erat? Dixitne oui 
ouil Otique. Et vidit alium porcum, qui carnes bovinas 
assas habuerat. Sed porcum qui habuit carnes porcinas 
assas non vidit. Quia non est porcus qui habuit carnes 
porcinas assas. Sulla multos Romanos interfecit. Sed is 
qui multos alios interfecerat, non interfectus est. 
Marius e manibus Sullae evasit. Marius in Africa erat. 
Asia est terra quae est minor quam ( smaller than ) 
Asia Minor. Quia Asia est provincia Romana quae in 
parte occidentali Asiae Minoris est. Mithradates Asiam 

Romanam capere voluit. Mithradates erat rex qui mag- 
nam potestatem habuit. Sulla potestatem Mithradatis 
frangere debuit, sed hoc non fecit. Sulla enim amicos 
Mari, qui in urbe erant, punire voluit. Sed non omnes 
amici mali sunt. Marcus enim habuit amicam quae 
habuit agnum qui habuit vellus ( fleece ) album. Marcus 
erat amicus huius (of this ) amicae. Arnica erat Maria. 
Marcus et Maria non mali fuerunt. Agnus non malus 
fuit (quamquam venit in scholam—id quod non debuit 
facere). Et agnus habuit vellus quod non malum fuit 
(album fuit vellus). Ubi est legatus Romanus qui aurum 
calidum in guttur accepit? Ille non iam est in Asia. Auro 
accepto habuit caput calidum et discessit. Sed non in hac 
vita est. Vita enim non est bona quando vir aurum in 
gutture habet. Sed vir qui hoc fecit (qui aurum infudit) 
est vir malus. 

English to Latin 

1. He saw the general who fought with Mithradates. 2. 
Few lambs come to school. 3. The pirates who seized 
Caesar have been killed. 4. Those who hated Sulla were 
killed by Sulla’s men. 5. Pompey was the man whom 
the pirates were not able to conquer. 6. Pompey re¬ 
ceived great power by a new law. 7. Those who were 
blind were not able to see. 

Scramble Exercise 

Nomen “Magnus” quia fortiter pugnavit accepit Gnaeus 
Pompeius. fitiam multa imperia extraordinaria, quia 
dux bonus erat, a senatu Romano accepit. Hoc modo 
contra piratas qui periculum in mari fecerant pugnavit. 
Etiam Iudaeos, qui in terra sancta fuerunt, in imperium 
Romanum idem Pompeius duxit (led). 



De tribus casibus pronominum: quidam et ipse et sui 

Summary: Caesar was born in 100 B.C. He learned from Marius’ and Sulla’s exam¬ 
ple how a strong man could seize power. He was on the side of Marius. He married 
the daughter of Cinna, a Marian chief. Sulla ordered divorce—Caesar refused and 
had to flee. When captured, friends managed to beg him off. Caesar went to the East. 
Later, on another trip to Rhodes to study oratory under Molo, he was captured 
by pirates. He paid the ransom and escaped. But before going to Rhodes, he took 
other ships, captured the pirates, and crucified them all, as he had promised them. 

Sed primo saeculo ante Christum fuerunt multi viri magni. Inter hos erat 
Gaius Iulius Caesar. Caesar venit in hunc mundum in anno centesimo 
(100) ante nativitatem Christi. Bellum civile inter Marium et Sullam 
accidit in iuventute Caesaris. Caesar erat ex parte Mari. Ex exemplo Mari 
et Sullae, Caesar didicit quod vir audax cum exercitu poterat capere Ro- 
mam et facere omnia quae voluit. Anno octogesimo tertio (83), Caesar 
duxit Corneliam, filiam Cinnae in matrimonium. Cinna erat amicus Mari. 
Sulla ergo motus est ira. Sulla iussit Caesarem relinquere hanc uxorem. Sed 
Caesar negavit. Necesse erat fugere ex urbe. Caesar ergo fugit in montes. 
Sed inventus est ab amicis Sullae, et ductus est ad Sullam. Sulla voluit 
punire Caesarem. Amici Caesaris rogaverunt Sullam, et non punivit 
Caesarem. Sed Sulla dixit: “Multi Marii sunt in illo viro.” 

Sed Caesar non remansit in urbe. Postquam autem Sulla discessit ex hac 
vita, Caesar venit rursus in urbem. Sed voluit esse orator magnus. Ergo 
navigavit ad insulam Rhodum, in qua erat magister magnus rhetoricae 
artis: Molo. Sed navis in qua Caesar erat capta est a piratis. Necesse erat 
dare multam pecuniam piratis (to the pirates). Hoc modo Caesar evasit 
ex manibus piratarum. Sed antequam navigavit ad insulam in qua Molo 
erat, Caesar voluit piratas punire. Itaque invenit naves alias et invenit 
piratas. Crucffixit omnes. 

Hoc enim promiserat, quando erat in captivitate piratarum. 

exemplum-ex ample 
didicit -learned 
auda x-bold 
duxit -led 
matrimonium -marriage 

negar e-say no, refuse 
fuger t-fiee 
magister -teacher 
ars -art 
pirata -pirate 


accidere, accidit,- 

ducere in matrimonium- 



discere, didicit,- 

[fugiunt], fugere, fugit. 



ducere, duxit, ductus- 

autem-however, moreover 


(never first word in its 


bona ars, arte (poss. pi. 

is -ium) -art, skill 

audax, audaci -bolfl 

Caesar, Caesar c-Caesar 

bona iuventus, iuventute-yowf/i (time of life) 

magister, magistro-teacher 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Quidam : The English word “certain” is a bad word. For 
sometimes it really does mean “certain,” something defi¬ 
nite: e.g., I am certain that it is true. But at other times 
it is anything but certain—it is indefinite: e.g., a certain 
man is coming. 

Now Latin has two words: it uses certus when it really 
is certain. But when it is indefinite, as in the second ex¬ 
ample, Latin uses quidam. 

Quidam is easy to decline—just add -dam to the rela¬ 
tive qui, quae, quod. Sometimes an m of the ending be¬ 
fore the -dam is changed to n, but not always. However, 
the neuter nominative-objective singular may be either 
quoddam or quiddam. Quoddam is the adjective form 


(when it modifies something). Quiddam is the pronoun 
form (when it stands alone). For quidam may be either 
adjective or pronoun. 

Ipse is declined exactly like ille except for the neuter 
nominative-objective singular which is ipsum. Isn’t 
Latin almost too easy! 

Use of Ipse: Ipse means himself, herself, themselves, 
myself, yourself, etc. In other words, it is a strengthener 
—it adds the suffix-re// to any pronoun in English. 

He himself came. She herself came. 

Ipse venit. Ipsa venit. 

Caesar himself killed them. 

Caesar ipse interfecit eos. 

But what about this: Caesar killed himself? May we 
use ipse for himself here? No. This is different. In this 
sentence we have a pronoun, himself, that refers back 
to the subject. We call it, therefore, a reflexive. 
Himself is not part of the subject (for if it were part 
of the subject, it could not refer back to it). So we need 
a different word here: the different word is se. Caesar 
interfecit se. Compare the other examples above. In 
them the word himself (or herself) does not refer back 
to the subject. It cannot refer back to it, because it is part 
of the subject. But consider this sentence. 

Caesar himself killed himself. 

Caesar ipse interfecit se. 

Now we have one of each. It would pay to memorize that 
sentence (or one like it). 

Forms of SE: Since se has only four forms it would pay 
to learn them now (no nominative): 

No nom.— 

Poss. sui 

Dative sibi (we have not yet met dative, but will soon) 
Obj. se (or sese ) 

Abl. se (or sese) 

The singular and plural are the same on se. Sometimes 
ipse reinforces se: Caesar interfecit seipsum. And now 
that we have had our say, 

Exerceamus Nos 

Learn how ipse and se appear in sentences. 

Quidam viri ad Sullam ipsum venerunt. Dixerunt 
quod Caesar ipse in montes fugerat. Sulla enim Caesa- 
rem punfre voluit, sed Caesar fugit. Non voluit se dare 
Sullae (to Sulla). Caesar erat vir audax qui filiam Cin- 
nae in matrimonium duxerat. Hoc fecerat quamquam 

Cinna ipse erat vir magnus ex parte Mari. Marius ipse 
non est interfectus a Sulla. Et Marius se non interfecit. 
Marius modo naturali discessit ex hac vita. Postquam 
Marius discessit, Cinna ipse erat vir maximus inter 
Marianos. Sulla ergo iussit quosdam viros invenire 
Caesarem ipsum. Sed invenire eum non erat facile. 
Caesare invento, hi viri ad Sullam venerunt. Caesar ipse 
etiam venit. Sulla ira motus est contra Caesarem. Sulla 
eum punire voluit, sed Caesar etiam quosdam amicos 
habuit. Hi amici Sullam ipsum pro Caesare rogaverunt. 
Sulla Caesarem non interfecit. 

Caesar ipse etiam multa bona fecit: non interfecit 
omnes inimicos ( enemies) suos. Sed piratas interfecit. 
Piratae enim navem in qua Caesar erat ceperant. Caesar 
ipse multam pecuniam dare coactus est. Sed postea 
(later) Caesar venit rursus ad piratas qui acceperant 
pecuniam a se. Venit ad eos aliis navibus, et eos inter¬ 

Caesar artem rhetoricam discere voluit—esse orator 
maximus voluit. Molo erat magister bonus artis rhetori- 
cae. Caesar ipse factus est orator bonus. Sed etiam im- 
perator maximus erat. Imperator bonus bonas orationes 
ad milites suos habere debet. Caesar hoc fecit. 

Sed Marcus etiam orator bonus erat: Marcus enim 
multas orationes ad Mariam ipsam habuit. Marcus 
dixit: Maria est agna parva. Et Maria ipsa dixit: O! 
Marcus est orator bonus. Agnus etiam quasdam ora¬ 
tiones quas Marcus ad Mariam habuit audivit. Quid 
dixit agnus ipse? Facile est dicere. Sed agnus ipse amavit 
Mariam. Maria agnum non interfecit. Et agnus sese non 
interfecit. Agnus qui in schola erat voluit accipere suum 

English to Latin 

1. Caesar married Cornelia. 2. Sulla was angry 
(moved with anger). 3. It was necessary to flee into 
the mountains. 4. There are certain men in Italy who 
want to destroy Rome. 5. They themselves want to do 
it. 6. Many men were led into danger by bad men. 
7. Caesar did not want to kill himself—Cassius did that 
for him. 

Scramble Exercise 

Caesar duxit filiam Cinnae, quern Sulla non amavit in 
matrimonium. Caesarem, quia hoc fecit, Sulla interfi- 
cere voluit. Sed non debuit Sulla Caesarem velle inter- 
ficere. In domo sua hie bellum habuit. Uxorem enim 
habuit. His auditis, quid dixit Sulla? Quod multi Marii 
in illo viro sunt dixit. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Caesar was consul with Bibulus in 59 B.C. He formed the first triumvirate 
with Pompey and Crassus. Caesar’s daughter married Pompey. But Caesar wanted 
a greater military reputation—so he obtained Gaul, with four legions, as his 
province. He went there after his consulship. 

Caesar factus est consul anni quinquagesimi noni (59). Collega 
Caesaris erat Bibulus. Sed Bibulus non erat vir magnus. Caesar ergo 
habuit fere omnem potestatem. Caesar, Pompeius, et Crassus facti sunt 
amici. Vocaverunt se “Triumviri.” Id est, fecerunt Primum Triumviratum. 
Hi tres fecerunt omnia quae voluerunt facere in urbe. Pompeius enim et 
Caesar erant viri militares magni. Crassus erat vir divitissimus in urbe. 
Non ergo erat difficile rapere omnem potestatem. Pompeius duxit Iuliam 
in matrimonium. Iulia erat filia Caesaris. Hoc modo novum vinculum 
creatum est inter Caesarem et Pompeium. 

In hoc tempore, Caesar erat bonus imperator, sed voluit facere nomen 
maius. Pompeius enim, multis nationibus victis, erat maximus imperator. 
Et Caesar non habuit magnum amorem humilitatis. Caesar ergo voluit 
accipere magnam provinciam et magnum exercitum post consulatum 

Provincia Caesaris erat Illyricum et Gallia. In exercitu quern accepit, 
Caesar habuit quattuor legiones. Cum his legionibus, Caesar venit in 
Galliam. Pompeius et Crassus autem non venerunt in Galliam: reman- 
serunt in urbe. Exercitu in Galliam ducto, Caesar invenitquod Gallia erat 
divisa in tres partes. Galli pugnaverunt saepe inter se. Caesar etiam scivit 
quod Galli olim ceperant Romam—id est, fere totam urbem—sed anseres 
servaverant Capitolium. 

collega -colleague 



vinculum -bond 
maius -neuter of maior 

consul&tus-consulshi p 
olim -once, long ago 


dividere, divisit, divisus- olim -once (upon a time ) 
divide nondum-nof yet 

magnus amor, amor e-love 
consulatus, u-consulship 
difficilis, e, i-difficult 
quattuor (indeclinable)-four 
tres, tria, tribus (no singular, 
of course ) -three 
vinculum, o -bond, chain 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Decline together: quidam vir, Maria ipsa, quoddam 
vinculum, idem exercitus. 2. How do you say: it hap¬ 
pens, they are learning, they receive, they do capture, 

they are fighting, they come, they do have? 3. How do 
you say: it had been broken, he had been seized, she 
had been recalled? 

Exerceamus Nos 

Gallia divisa in partes tres, Romani pacem nondum 
habuerunt. Caesar ergo Gallos vincere voluit. Post con¬ 
sulatum suum, Caesar exercitum accepit. In exercitu 
erant quattuor legiones. Nomen collegae Caesaris erat 
Bibulus. Bibulus novas leges quas Caesar proposuit non 
amavit. Bibulus ergo domi remansit. Caesar autem in 
senatu erat. 

Caesar filiam habuit: nomen filiae erat Iulia. Pom¬ 
peius Iuliam amavit, et earn in matrimonium duxit. 
Iulia ergo erat uxor Pompei. Pompeius et Caesar inter 
se pugnare voluerant. Sed Iulia prohibuit ( prevented ) 
eos—Iulia enim ipsa cum Pompeio pugnare voluit. Sed 


postquam Iulia ex bac vita disc6ssit, Pomp6ius cum 
Ca6sare pugnavit. Magnum habu6runt bellum. Caesar 
enim magnam potestatem hdbuit sed maiorem potesta- 
tem habere voluit. Pomp6ius 6tiam magnam potestdtem 
habuit, sed maiorem voluit. Voluitne Caesar divfdere 
Romam in duas partes? Non. Non erat nec6sse—quia 
Gdllia iam divisa erat in tres partes. Caesar ipse non 
voluit habere quinque partes. Duo enim et tres sunt 
quinque. Agnus in tres partes non estdivisus. Maria enim 
agnum esse cibum pro se non voluit. Agnus enim multa 
scivit, quia semper in scbola erat. Agnus 6tiam suum 
B.A. acc6pit. 

Columbus 6tiam uxorem in matrimonium duxit. 
Uxor Columbi am&vit eum, sed uxor in Am6ricam cum 
Columbo non venit. Uxor enim non voluit vid6re Status 
Foederdtos Am6ricae. Nec Columbus ipse hos Status 
vid6re voluit. Gedrgius enim Washington nondum hos 
Status fund4verat. Georgius enim Washington nondum 
in America fuit—nondum in hac vita fuit. Sed Colum¬ 
bus didicit quod America non fuit parva. 

English to Latin 

1. Is Caesar the man who divided Gaul into three 
parts? 2. Caesar fled into the mountains. 3. Bold men 
learn from danger. 4. Once upon a time there was a 
little girl who was called Mary. 5. Marcus is the man 
who wants to marry Mary. 6. Marcus was caught in the 
chains of love. 7. Many dangers happened when Caesar 
was consul. 

Scramble Exercise 

Bibulus, dum in senitu Rom&no multas leges novas 
proposuit Caesar, domi remansit. Magnas et bonas 
orationes, quas senatores amav6runt, in sen&tu habuit 
Caesar. Orationibus h&bitis, ex6rcitum accdpit et in 
G&lliam eum duxit. Sed in urbe rem&nsit Pomp6ius. 
Amore Iuliae captus, Pomp6ius nihil hoc t6mpore contra 
Ca6sarem fecit. 



De tempore praesenti in persona tertia vocis passivae 

Summary: Caesar wanted to conquer Gaul to remove the constant threat to Rome. 
But he also, knowing what Marius and Sulla had done, wanted a great army loyal to 
himself. Perhaps he could foresee a conflict with Pompey. He spent nine years in 
Gaul, and even invaded Germany and Britain—but no complete conquests there. 
At Rome, Pompey began to get jealous—Julia had died—and began to plot to 
ruin Caesar. 

Quia Caesar scivit quod Galli olim ceperant Romam, voluit vincere ipsos. 
Romani enim semper timuerant Gallos. Caesar etiam voluit habere exerci- 
tum magnum—scivit ea quae Marius et Sulla f&erant cum exercitibus. 
Marius enim et Sulla habuerunt exercitus qui exspectaverunt praemia ab 
illis, non a Roma, ltaque hi exercitus semper fecerunt omnia quae Marius 
et Sulla iusserunt—etiam ceperunt Romam ipsam. Caesar probabiliter 
potuit praevidere bellum cum Pompeio; ltaque voluit habere exercitum 
virorum qui exspectaverunt praemia ab ipso, non a Roma. Talis exercitus 
pugn£ret ( would fight ) etiam in bello civili. 

Caesar erat in Gallia per novem (9) annos. In his annis vicit omnem 
Galliam. Ante hoc tempus, Romani tenuerant solum parvam partem 
G£lliae—partem quae voc4ta est “Provincia.” Ilia provincia erat in Gallia 

Caesar etiam venit trans flumen Rhenum in Germ6niam. lnsuper navi- 
gavit in Britanniam. Sed non vicit omnem Britanniam. Nec vicit omnem 
Germ6niam. Germ^ni enim et Brit6nni fuerunt viri fortes. Verum est 
quod quidam Brit&nni victi sunt, sed non omnes. Difficile erat tenere 

Sed Pompeius remanserat in urbe. Ille audivit de victoriis magnis 
Caesaris. Victoriis Caesaris auditis, Pompeius motus est invidia contra 
Caesarem. Uxor enim Pompei (quae fuerat filia Caesaris) discesserat ex 
hac vita. Pompeius ergo fecit consilia contra Caesarem; voluit delere 
Caesarem. (Continu4bitur eras) 

exspectdr e-expect 
praemium -reward 
praevider t-foresee 
tenuit -hold 
nec -and not 


exspect£re, 4vit, 4tus- insuper-m addition 

expect nec (nequ e)-and not 

praevidere, vidit, visus- nec ... nec -neither ... 
foresee nor 

invidia, a -envy, unpopularity 
meridion£lis, e, i -south 
praemium, o -reward 
talis, e, i -such 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Present Passive, Third Singular and Plural: We 
have learned how to form the present active, third 
singular and plural. Thus, in the singular: 

Caesar vincit Galliam 
Caesar conquers Gaul 

does conquer Gaul 
is conquering Gaul. 

We must now learn how to say: Caesar is conquered —or 

Caesar is being conquered. 
But it is easy to do so. Simply add two letters -ur, to the 
active endings. Therefore, the third singular endings be¬ 
come: -atur, -etur, -itur, -itur. 

The plural endings become: -antur, -entur, -untur (some 
have -iuntur as in active) and -iuntur. 

Latin is really too easy! 

Present Infinitive Passive: We now know how to 
say: to find — invenire. How do we make it say: to BE 


found ? Simple—in all but the third conjugation, just 
change the final e of the infinitive to /. Thus 

1. parari 2. haberi 3. inveniri 

In the third conjugation, we substitute the letter / for the 
whole -ere, thus: 

4. capere-capi 

The meanings: 1. to be prepared 2. to be had 3. to 
be found 4. to be seized. And now 

Exerceamus Nos 

Check present tense patterns and infinitives. 

Hannibal a Romanis capi non vult. Sed elephanti Han- 
nibalis a Romanis non iam timentur. Romani elephantos 
quos Pyrrhus habuit timuerunt—sed Romani diebus 
Pyrrhi nondum elephantos vfderant. Nunc elephanti 
saepe a militibus Romanis videntur. Multi Romani his 
proeliis interficiuntur, sed Roma non potest deleri. Ro¬ 
mani dicunt quod Roma aeterna est. 

Viri qui in maribus multis navigant a piratis interfici 
possunt. Sed etiam piratae capi possunt. Multi piratae a 
Pompeio capiuntur et interficiuntur. Sed Pompeius ipse 
capitur a Iulia. Cornelia, fflia Cinnae, in matrimonium 
a Caesare ducitur. Quia hoc fecit, Caesar a Sulla non 

Praemia a militibus Caesaris exspectantur. Caesar 
dicit quod pecunia illis {to them) debetur. Itaque milites 
Caesarem amant. Caesar a militibus amatur. Pro eo 
fortiter pugnant. Sed etiam pro Roma pugnant. Sed 
pecunia a Caesare datur. Quidam dicunt quod Roma 

dat pecuniam. Verum dicunt, sed Caesar rogat senatum 
dare pecuniam. Ignis iacitur in pontem in quo Horatius 
stat. Horatius ergo seipsum in aquam iacit. Cincinnatus 
Dictator creatur. Cincinnatus videtur (seems) esse vir 
bonus. Et non solum videtur; re vera est vir bonus, verus 
Romanus. Vir qui bonus est non vult videri bonus: vult 
esse bonus. Omnes tales esse debent. 

Multum aurum a Carthaginiensibus habetur: Car- 
thaginienses enim boni mercatores sunt. Multa pecunia 
a bonis mercatoribus accipitur. Sed pecuniam amare 
non est bonum. Pecunia amari non debet. Amor pecu¬ 
niae est vinculum quod viros in terra tenet. 

English to Latin 

1. Hannibal ought to be killed. 2. The soldiers are 
being led into the city. 3. Good arts are learned in 
school. 4. Because of (abl. alone) great envy, many 
good men are being killed. 5. He seems to be a good 
man. 6. Such men are not found in every country. 7. 
Neither in Africa nor in Italy are they seen. 

Scramble Exercise 

Antiquis in temporibus, Roma, quae etiam in illis diebus 
urbs non parva fuit, fere tota a Gallis est capta. Caesar 
itaque, qui magnam voluit habere potestatem, exercitum 
accepit et in illam terram quam Galli tenuerunt venit. 
Non solum in Galliam, sed etiam in aliam terram in qua 
viri feroces erant venit Caesar. Terra haec Germania 
fuit. Caesar, quamquam omnem, in qua tres partes 
erant, Galliam vicit, non totam vicit Germaniam. 



De casu dativo 

Summary: Pompey’s plan was to get Caesar back to Rome without any office— 
then he could be accused in court. But Caesar had the privilege of running for the 
consulate in absentia. Pompey himself could not come into the senate—he did not 
want to dismiss his army. But he worked through friends. Pompey’s friends got the 
senate to order Caesar to dismiss his army by a certain date. Two tribunes in the 
senate vetoed this measure. But the senate, contrary to the constitution, ignored the 

Hie est modus quo Pompeius voluit delere Caesarem: voluit cogere eum 
redire in urbem sine exercitu et sine magistrate Vir enim qui tenet magis- 
tratum, non potest in iudicium vocari. Pompeius voluit accusare Cae¬ 
sarem. Sed Caesar scivit consilia Pompei—Caesar ergo rogaverat et acce- 
perat privilegium a plebe: Caesar poterat petere consulatum quamquam 
in urbe non erat. Pompeius voluit delere hoc privilegium. Pompeius ipse 
non erat in senatu Romano in hoc tempore. Pompeius enim habuit exerci- 
tum. Necesse erat aut dipnttere exercitum aut non venire in senatum. 
Pompeius non voluit dimittere exercitum, quia praevidit bellum cum 
Caesare. Ergo Pompeius ipse non venit in senatum, sed amici Pompei 
venerunt in senatum pro eo. 

Caesar miserat epistulam ad senatum, in qua explicavit id quod voluit. 
fitiam explicavit privilegium quod habuit a plebe. Quamquam haec vera 
erant, inimici Caesaris in senatu habuerunt orationes multas contra 
Caesarem. His orationibus auditis (et quia multi inimici Caesaris erant in 
senatu) senatus iussit Caesarem dimittere exercitum ante certum diem. 

Sed in senatu fuerunt etiam duo tribuni plebis. Hi erant amici Caesaris. 
Hi duo tribuni intercesserunt pro Caesare. Senatus ergo debuit revocare 
decretum contra Caesarem. Quia tribuni habiierant hanc potestatem ex 
tempore in quo plebs discessit ex urbe in Mon tern Sacrum. Sed senatus non 
voluit revocare decretum. Senatus corruptus erat: non facit id quod debet 
facere. Quid ergo debent tribuni facere? Quid debet Caesar ipse facere? 

redir e-return 
magistratus -office 
iudicium-fr/a/, court 
accusar t-accuse 

aut... aut-either.. .or 
dimittere-d ism iss 
explicavit -explained 
inimicus -enemy 
decretum -decree 


accusare, avit, atus, 

ask, seek 

accuse, blame 

redire, rediit,* rediturus 

dimittere, misit, missus- 

(the third plural pres- 


ent is redeunt )-return, 

explicare, avit, atus- 

go back 


aut -or 

petere, petivit, petitus- 

aut... aut-either.. .or 

inimicus, o -enemy (personal enemy) 

iudicium, o -judgment, court, trial 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Use of Dative Case: The last of the generally used 
cases that we need to learn is the dative—it is the indi¬ 

rect object case. It expresses many ideas which English 
expresses by “to” or “for.” But notice a difference in 
these two sentences: 

1. Venit ad urbem. 2. Dedit praemium 


He came to the city. He gave a reward to 

the soldiers. 

Both sentences have the same word to. But in one we 
use ad, in the other we use the dative. Why? Because in 
the first sentence, someone is going somewhere —there 
is motion from place to place. But in the second sentence 
there is no motion from place to place. Therefore, the 
idea of to is expressed by 

ad with objective—when it involves motion from 
place to place 


dative—when it does not involve motion from place 
to place. 

Forms of Dative Case: Here are the endings for the 
five declensions (gender makes no difference): 

1 . 

nautae nautis 

militi militibus 


2 . 

agno agnis 

senatui senatibus 

diei diebus 

Notice that in the plurals, the datives are the same as the 
ablatives —so out of the ten new endings, five are not 
really new. In the singular, there is some overlapping. 
For exercise, figure out which other forms match 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Word Order Sandwiches: In Lesson 20 we first 
learned a new trick in word order. We learned the type: 
Maria agnum habet. Most of us are probably fairly well 
used to it by now—in a bit more time it will seem posi¬ 
tively easy. But sometimes (not nearly so often) we find 
sandwiches in the word order, such as: 

Caesar magnum habuit exercitum. 

Caesar had a LARGE army. 

Notice what happens: we take the phrase, magnum 
exercitum, and cut it open, and insert another word, 
hdbuit. Some writers use this sort of thing only for 
emphasis—it gives an effect much like the use of the 
capitals in the word LARGE. Others use it often merely 
because they like it. Watch for a few examples of these 
sandwiches in the exercise below: 

Mdrius multa praemia militibus dederat. Sulla ergo 
etiam aurum et agros amicis suis dedit. Caesari non erat 
difficile haec facere. Pompeius est inimicus Caesari. 
Caesaris enim potestdtem delere vult. Pompeius etiam 
exercitum habet. Itaque non licet Pompeio venire in 
senatum. Sed licet Caesari petere consulatum quam- 
quam in urbe non est. Plebs Caesari tale privilegium 

dederat. Tribuni sendtui explicare voluerunt quod 
Caesar hoc privilegium habere debuit. 

Caesar ipse hoc tempore non in Gallia erat. Caesar 
erat in Itdlia: erat in parte meridionali provinciae suae. 
Erat in urbe quae Ravenna vocatur. Caesar sine magis- 
trdtu in urbem Romanam redire non voluit: scivit quod 
Pompeius vocare eum in iudicium voluit. Sed Caesar, 
dum hdbuit magistratum, non poterat in iudicium vo- 
cari. Pompeius invidia contra Caesarem motus est. 
Caesar enim nomen magnum sibi in Gallia fecerat. 
Pompeius etiam nomen magnum hdbuit, sed non voluit 
Caesarem esse maiorem. 

Bonus civis non debet dicere tdlia: bonus civis 
amorem pro urbe sua habere debet. Roma in magno 
erat periculo quia Caesar et Pompeius inter se pugnave- 
runt. Roma Pompeio magnam dederat potestdtem— 
etiam Caesari magnam dedit potestdtem. Hi duo inter se 
pugndre non debent. Nec Caesar nec Pompeius debet 
hoc fdcere. 

Cincinndtus cum sendtu non pugndvit. Agnus cum 
Maria non pugndvit. Sed Marcus pugndvit cum Maria. 
Marcus Mariam amavit, sed Maria dixit quod agnus in 
schola remanere debuit: et Marcus dixit quod non de¬ 
buit. Sed Marcus hoc dicere non debuit. Quia Marcus 
ipse erat agnus (Maria hoc dixit). 

English to Latin 

1. Caesar returned to the city. 2. He learned to fight. 
3. The tribunes explained the letter to the senate. 4. 
Many rewards are being given to the soldiers. 5. They 
are now returning to Italy. 6. That is the city from which 
they sailed. 7. It is easy to explain the matter (res) to 

Scramble Exercise 

Caesari, quia vir bonus fuerat, et multa pro Roma 
fecerat, plebs Romdna magnum dederat privilegium. 
Hoc privilegio potuit Caesar consulatum petere quam- 
quam in Gallia, non in urbe erat. Sed invidia motus est 
vir qui debuit amicus Caesari esse—Pompeius. Hie 
itaque populum Romanum rogavit privilegium delere 
Caesaris. His auditis, Caesar ad sendtum epistulam, in 
qua omnem expliedvit rem, misit. 



De verbis deponentibus 

Summary: The tribunes fled to Caesar. He declared the constitution violated, and 
so crossed the Rubicon. Most towns opened their gates willingly to him. The senate 
and Pompey fled from Rome. Pompey went to Brundisium, and sailed to Greece. 
Caesar could not pursue for want of ships. So he went to Spain, where legates of 
Pompey had an army. Meanwhile ships were made for Caesar. 

Sen&tus fecerat rem malam—egerat contra intercessionem tribunorum. 
His factis, tribuni fugerunt ad Caesarem. Caesar ergo dixit: “Sen&tus egit 
contra leges. Necesse estdefendere leges.” Flumen Rubico erat finis meri- 
dion&lis provinciae Caesaris. Lex dixit quod Caesar non debuit iter f&cere 
trans Rubiconem cum exercitu—sed sen£tus iam egerat contra leges. 
Caesar ergo dixit quod debuit defendere leges. Caesar duxit exercitum 
suum trans Rubiconem. Sed non necesse erat pugn&re statim. Oppida enim 
Mliae aperuerunt portas Caesari sine pugna. 

Pompeius et sendtus audiverunt quod oppida aperuerant portas Caesari 
sine pugna. His auditis timuerunt remanere in urbe. Fere omnes senatores 
et amici fugerunt ex urbe, et venerunt in partem meridion&lem Mliae. 
Sed Pompeius et exercitus venerunt in quoddam oppidum quod voc&tum 
£st Brundisium. Brundisium enim erat portus ex quo naves navigaverunt 
in Graeciam. 

Sed Caesar et exercitus etiam venerunt Brundisium (to Brundisium). 
Voluerunt pugndre cum Pompeidno exercitu. Sed non poterant pugn&re 
cum eis, quia Pompeius posuit milites suos in naves, et navig£vit ad 
Graeciam. Caesar non poterat sequi (to follow) eos, quia nullae naves 
remanserunt in illo oppido. Caesar ergo discessit Brundisio (from Brundi¬ 
sium), et iter fecit in Hisp&niam. In Hisp&nia enim legdti Pompei habue- 
runt exercitum 41ium. Interea naves factae sunt pro Caesare. (Continu- 

egit -acted 
defender e-defend 
finis -end, border 
ap6ruit -opened 
portus -port 
nullus-no, none 


£gere, egit, actus-do, 

loqui, locutus csi-speak 

drive, act, discuss, 

sequi, secutus est -follow 

spend (time) 

interea -meanwhile 

aperire, aperuit, apertus- 

nullus, a, um-no, none 


oppidum, o-town 

con&ri, con&tus est- 

porta, di-gate, door 

Deponent Verbs: We are going to like these verbs— 
they have only two parts, not three. The reason is that 
they have nothing but passive forms. But the usual sec¬ 
ond part is exclusively active— ergo, no second part. So 
we have: 1. the passive infinitive—recognize the con¬ 

jugation as usual, e.g., -ari is first, but -i is third; and 
2. the perfect passive third singular. But— although 

TIVE! Therefore, for example, sequi has a passive form 
—but its meaning is: to follow (not: to be followed). 
And secutus est means: he followed (not: he was fol¬ 

Going to or from Towns and Cities: There is an odd 
thing about the construction to be used with names of 
towns and cities. 

We would expect: venit ad Romam or in Romam or 
ex Roma or a Roma. 

But we get: 

venit— Romam or Romam or Roma or Roma. 

In other words, we use the same case: objective-to go to; 

ablative-to go from—but, as a rule, no preposition. 
Sometimes the preposition is used, especially when we 
mean the vicinity of a town, not the town itself. And 
sometimes it is used when we really do mean the town 
itself—but usually we get no preposition. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Caesar Pompeium secutus est. Pompeius enim venerat 
Brundfsium. Caesar etiam venit Brundisium. Sed Pom¬ 
peius naves habuit. Itaque, Pompeius Brundfsio disces- 
sit. Sed Caesar Brundfsio per mare discedere non 
poterat; nullas habuit naves. Caesar ergo eum sequi non 
conatus est. Quid ergo egit Caesar? Locutus est milfti- 
bus. Dixit quod debent in Hispaniam venire. Pompei 
enim legati in Hispania sunt: necesse est vfncere legatos 
Pompei. Alioquin ( otherwise) illi legati possunt venire 
ad terga (backs) exercitus. Sed non erat necesse loqui 
multa milftibus. Mflites Caesarem statim sequuntur. 
Sperant multa praemia a Caesare accfpere, et Caesar 
multa praemia milftibus suis dare vult. 

Plebs discessit Roma et in Montem Sacrum venit. 
Sed postea (later), tribunis plebis acceptis, plebs Ro- 
mam rediit. Etrusci Romam capere conati sunt, Tar- 
qufnio expulso. Sed non potuerunt. Sed Galli non solum 
conati sunt—re vera ceperunt Romam, id est, omnem 
ceperunt urbem, Capitolio excepto (excepted). Conati 
sunt etiam Capitolium capere, sed anseres magna ex- 
clamaverunt voce. Estne porta urbis aperta? Non. Quia 
Gallos timent. 

Multa oppida portas Caesari aperuerunt—Caesarem 
enim non timuerunt. Caesar erat amicus illorum oppi- 
dorum. Sed fere omnes senatores fugerunt Roma. Hi qui 
fugerunt Roma venerunt Capuam. Capua est oppidum 
in parte meridionali Italiae. Nonne erat perfculum sena- 
toribus in illo oppido? Non. Caesar enim non venerat 

English to Latin 

1. Caesar is coming to Rome. 2. He is sailing from 
Brundisium. 3. Caesar came across the southern border 
of his province. 4. He attempted to speak to Caesar. 
5. Since the gates have been opened, Caesar can come 
into the town. 6. He spoke to his soldiers who had fol¬ 
lowed him. 7. No ships remained for Caesar. 

Scramble Exercise 

Tribunis Roma expulsis, senatus ad bellum paravit. 
Meridionali in parte provfnciae quam habuit Caesar, 
flumen parvum fuit, quod Rubico vocatur. Trans hoc 
flumen suo cum exercitu venit Caesar. Non sunt co- 
nata eum tenere oppida multa sed parva quae in via 
Caesaris erant. Portis apertis, virum quern magnum esse 
dixerunt, acceperunt. Ex his oppidis quae portis apertis 
Caesarem acceperunt, non pauci viri Caesarem sunt 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Caesar defeated the Pompeian armies in Spain, under Petreius, Afranius, 
and Varro. He then returned to Rome, was made Dictator, and then Consul. He next 
sailed to Greece. At first things went rather badly, and he had to retreat into Thes¬ 
saly. But there he defeated Pompey. The latter fled to Egypt, but was murdered by 
Egyptian soldiers. Caesar got into the war between Cleopatra and Ptolemy, and 
then marched through Syria and Asia Minor to Rome. On the way he defeated 
Pharnaces, son of Mithradates. He then sent his famous telegram to the senate. 

Quia non habuit naves in quibus posset (he could) sequi Pompeium, 
Caesar discessit Brundisio, et iter fecit cum exercitu suo in Hispaniam. 
Pompeius ipse cum exercitu navigavit in Graeciam. Sed in Hispania fuit 
exercitus Pompei magnus. Tres legati Pompei duces erant exercitus in 
Hispania: Afranius, Petreius, et Varro. Caesar mox vicit Petreium et 
Afranium. Varro etiam se in deditionem dedit. His exercitibus victis, 
Caesar discessit ex Hispania et rediit Romam. Ibi Lepidus, qui praetor 
erat, creavit Caesarem Dictatorem. Sed post undecim (XI) dies, Caesar 
deposuit dictaturam, et consul factus est. In Ianuario, in anno quadragesi- 
mo octavo (48), Caesar navigavit in Graeciam. Ibi Pompeius magnum 
collegerat exercitum. Caesar fere victus est a Pompeio, et coactus est 
recipere se ad Thessaliam. Thessalia est pars septentrionalis Graeciae. Ibi 
Caesar pugnavit pugnam magnam cum exercitu Pompei. Pompeius habuit 
exercitum maiorem, sed mflites Caesaris fortiores (braver) erant. Pompe- 
iani enim nimiarn confidentiam habuerunt. Pompeius ipse, cum multis ex 
exercitu suo, fugit in montes. Caesar secutus est eos. Pompeius fugit in 
Aegyptum; putavit enim quod habuit amicos in ilia terra. Sed mflites 
Aegyptii interfecerunt eum. Hoc modo Pompeius, olim magnus imperator, 
mortuus est. 

Pompeio mortuo, Caesar pugnavit in Aegypto. Rex enim Aegypti, 
Ptolomaeus, bellum movit cum sorore sua, Cleopatra. 

Post finem belli in Aegypto, Caesar iter fecit per Syriam et Asiam Mino- 
rem. In hoc itinere vicit Phamacem, fflium Mithradatis. Pharnaces enim 
auxilium dederat Pompeio. Sed Caesar vicit eum celeriter. Ergo nuntium 
misit ad senatum. Nuntius dixit, “Veni, Vidi, Vici.” 

(All three words are first person singular perfect) (Continuabitur) 

deditio -surrender 
praetor -praetor 
recipere s e-retreat 
septentrionalis -northern 
colliger e-gather 
nimius -excessive 
putavit -thought 
mortuus est -died 
nuntius -messenger 


[moriuntur], mori, [recipiunt], recipere, 

mortuus est -die (note cepit, ceptus -take 
preliminary part like back 
capiunt) recipere s e-retreat 

putare, avit, atus-think celeriter -swiftly 

magnus dux, due e-leader 
bona mors, mort e-death 
nimius, a, um -excessive 
nuntius, o -messenger, message 
septentrionalis, e, i -northern 
bona soror, soror e-sister 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say: to a brave messenger, for a good 
death, to the greater leader? 2. How do you say: it is 
foreseen, he is expected, it is asked, he is being let go, 
it is being done? Now make same expressions plural. 
3. How do you say: they die, they follow, they attempt, 
they speak (use: loqui). 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Caesar Pompeium celeriter secutus est. Pompeius enim 
a Caesare victus erat in Thessalia (quae est in septentri- 
onali parte Graeciae). His factis, Pompeius in Aegyp- 


turn fugit. Ibi Pompeius interf6ctus est. Quia interf6ctus 
est, necesse erat ex hac vita disc6dere. Itaque mortuus 

Ph£rnaces erat rex in Asia Minore. Pater Ph4rnacis 
fuerat Mithrad£tes. Mithradites fortiter contra multos 
duces Romanos pugn&verat. Sulla cum Mithrad&te 
pugndvit, et eum vicit, sed non omnem potest&tem 
Mithrad&tis del6vit. Sulla enim cel6riter redire Romam 
voluit, quia ibi multos h4buit inimicos. 

Multos in urbe Sulla interfecit. Sulla Ca6sarem inter- 
ficere voluerat, sed non poterat quia Caesar in montes 
fugerat. Sulla non d6buit f&cere potestdtem sen£tus Ro¬ 
mani maiorem. Sen&tus enim nimiam h&buit potest&tem. 
Sed Sulla caecus erat, id est, non poterat verititem vi- 
dere. Sendtus diebus Sullae corruptus fuit. Sendtus non 
semper corruptus fuit—di6bus antiquis sen&tus bonus 
fuerat. F6cerat Cincinndtum Dictatorem, et multa Alia 
bona consflia fecerat. 

Caesar egit suam vitam in primo saeculo ante nativi- 
t4tem Christi, sed mortuus est ante Christum. Caesar ab 
inimicis suis interfectus est. Sulla autem non interf6ctus 
est—ille mortuus est modo natur£li. Marius etiam 
mortuus est modo naturdi. Portae mortis ap6rtae sunt 
M6rio. Marius ergo disc6ssit ex hac vita per has portas. 

Sed agnus non discessit ex hac vita—nemo interf6cit 
agnum. Agnum enim nemo odit. 

English to Latin 

1. It is necessary either to come or to remain. 2. Caesar 
retreated into Thessaly. 3. The men are returning from 
Brundisium. 4. Many men die in battle. 5. They at¬ 
tempted to retreat into the town. 6. He thinks that 
Caesar wants to talk to Marcus. 7. Caesar said that he 
came, he saw, and he conquered. 

Scramble Exercise 

Qui ex hac vita per portas discount mortis moriuntur. 
Ex omnibus bonis quae accipere vir potest, m&xime 
( especially ) bonam pdere mortem a Deo debet. Ex vita 
enim futura, nemo hanc in vitam se recfpere potest. Nec 
con&ri potest. Omnia enim quae f&cere vult, Deus sine 
difficuMte fecere potest. Ea enim quae Deus loquitur 
semper 4ccidunt. Bonum est ergo saepe de hac vita 
futura put4re quae finem non habet. Quid boni est 
Pompdo quod imper&tor magnus fuit, si ( if) non bonam 
mortem h&buit? 



De tempore imperfecto in persona tertia singulari et plurali 

Summary: After defeating Pharnaces, Caesar went back to Rome, but not for long. 
For Scipio and Cato had collected an army in Africa. But he soon defeated them. 
Cato committed suicide at Utica. Caesar then went back to Rome. He forgave his 
enemies. He reformed the calendar. But Pompey’s sons raised an army in Spain. 
He defeated them at Munda. He then entered Rome in triumph. He was offered a 
royal crown by Anthony. 

PMrnace victo, Caesar r6diit Romam. Sed non reiMnsit diu in urbe. Scivit 
enim quod amici Pomp£i, Scipio et Cato, coll6gerant ex6rcitum magnum in 
Africa. Caesar cel6riter vicit eos. Cato, quia non poterat defendere Oticam, 
interfecit se. Caesar ergo rev6rsus est Romam, in fine mensis Iulii, anno 
quadrag6simo sexto (46). Quamquam Caesar Mbuit potest&tem m&xi- 
mam, clementiam ostendit inimicis suis. Non odit eos qui pugn&verant pro 
Pomp6io, sed dixit quod non d6buit esse differentia inter Pompei£nos et 
Caesari£nos. £tiam correxit calend&rium, nam diebus illis erat error 
nonaginta (90) dierum in calend&rio. Fere habu6runt Iunium in Ianu&rio! 

Sad quamquam ost6ndit magnam clementiam inimicis, et fecerat nullam 
differ6ntiam inter Caesari£nos et Pompei£nos, necdsse erat pugMre in novo 
bello. Pompeius enim Mbuit duos filios, Sextum et Gnaeum. Hi duo col- 
16gerant exercitum novum in Hisplnia, contra Caesarem. Caesar ergo pro- 
fectus est in Hisp&niam in fine anni quadragesimi sexti. Sed Caesar cel6riter 
vicit eos. Victi sunt in pugna ad Mundam, in mense M&rtio, anno quad- 
rag6simo quinto (45). Pompei&nis victis, Caesar revdrsus est Romam, et 
venit in urbem mense Sept6mbri. Celebr^vit triumphum magnum. Re vera, 
Caesar h^buit potest^tem regis, sed non Mbuit nomen regis, nec coronam 
reg£lem. Voluitne Caesar accipere coronam regilem? Quidam amicus 
Ca6saris, Marcus Antonius, nomine, voluit dare coronam Ca6sari in 
quodam festo publico. Sed Caesar non accdpit coronam. Quare non ac- 
cepit? Quia non voluit an quia timuit accipere earn? Difficile est dicere. 

diu-a long time 

collegit -collect 

rev6rsus est -returned 




ostendit -showed 


prof6ctus est-jef out 

celebrdvit -celebrated 






colligere, coll6git, 

rev6rti, reversus est- 

collectu s-collect 


ostendere, ostendit, 

an -or (in questions only) 


diu-a long time 

proficisci, prof6ctus est- 


set out 

unus mensis, i-month 

Nunc Cogitemus 

How to Form the Imperfect Tense: Suppose we 
begin with the infinitive, the first part of the verb, as we 
did with the present tense. We remove the last three 

letters (-dre, -ire, -ere, -ire )—of course, in the case of 
a deponent verb, we remove the passive ending, which is 
shorter (-/) in the third conjugation (but we shall see 
the deponents in Lesson 34). 

To the remaining base, we add— 

-dbat in first conjugation 

-ibat or -iibat in the others (verbs that have third 
plural in -iunt take the -iibat form). 

For the third plural forms—merely insert -n before the 
final letter -t. Samples: 

1. par&bat; par£bant 2. hatebat; habdbant 

3. pon6bat; pon6bant capiebat; capiebant 

4. audiebat; audiebant 


Use of the Imperfect Tense: The imperfect and the 
perfect are both past tenses. Therefore, in general, they 
cover the following English translations: 

1. he heard 

2. he did hear 

3. he was hearing 

4. he has heard 

Of the four translations, the fourth is especially typical 
of the perfect, and the third is especially typical of the 
imperfect. The others might serve rather well for either 
of the Latin tenses. But what is the precise difference? 
Merely this. Let us imagine a fight going on. Two men 
both see it. Each has a camera. The one has a movie 
camera. The other an ordinary snapshot camera. Now 
if a man reports an event with a movie camera, he could 
also report it similarly in words by the imperfect. While 
the snapshot camera gives much the same impression as 
the perfect tense. Therefore 

imperfect —views the continuity or repeated char¬ 
acter of an action —movie; perfect —merely reports 
that something happened—snapshot. 

In case of doubt, when writing English to Latin, 
use the perfect. Notice the way the two will be 
used in the stories from now on (up to now, often the 
perfect has been used where the imperfect would have 
been more suitable). 

Imperfect Active of Esse, Posse, Velle: erat, 
erant, pdterat, pdterant, volibat, volibant. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
Look for imperfect patterns. 

Milites ad pugnam parabant. Caesar cum Pompeio 
pugnabat. Quare voluit Caesar cum Pompeio pugnare? 
Caesar pugnare non volebat, sed (Caesar dixit hoc) 
Pompeius et senatus legem Romanam non servaverant. 
Senatus debuit revocare decretum suum post interces- 
sionem tribunorum plebis. Hoc senatus non fecit. His 
factis, tribuni ad Caesarem fugerunt. Lex non est ser- 
vata: ergo Caesar dixit quod necesse erat defendere leges 
Romanas. Sed quodam die Caesar in urbe erat. Iam 
omnes inimicos suos vicerat. Iam re vera potestatem 

regis habebat. Marcus Antonius volebat dare coronam 
regis Caesari. Caesar non accepit. Marcus rogat Mariam 
quare Caesar coronam non accepit. Sed Maria non 
potest dicere. 

Quodam die Marcus erat in schola. Agnus non venit 
in scholam, sed quid accidit? Tres ex illis quinque porcis 
venerunt. Marcus expectabat Mariam et agnum. Marcus 
re vera volebat Mariam videre. Non volebat agnum 
videre, sed necesse erat: agnus enim semper cum Maria 
veniebat. Sed Marcus nec Mariam nec agnum vidit! Tres 
vidit porcos. Quare alii duo porci non venerunt? Res- 
ponsum non facile est, sed unus ex his porcis caput 
calidum habuit: viderat enim Caesarem quando hie 
(Caesar) in foro erat. Hie porcus Caesari oink dixerat, 
sed Caesar nullum dederat responsum. Ergo hie porcus 
caput calidum habuit. Sed quaestio est—quare alius 
porcus (id est, porcus secundus) in scholam cum aliis 
tribus porcis non venit? Causa erat haec: hie secundus 
porcus Marcum Porcium Catonem in foro viderat. Hie 
porcus Porcium amavit, ergo in agros Porci Catonis 
venerat, et remansit ibi. 

English to Latin 

1. He said that Caesar was coming. 2. Cato was col¬ 
lecting an army. 3. The Roman army was retreating 
into Thessaly. 4. Caesar, having returned to Rome, 
soon set out for Africa. 5. Why was he preparing for 
war? 6. Mark Anthony was showing the crown to 
Caesar. 7. But he was not taking it. 

Scramble Exercise 

Multis exercitibus in Africa victis, Caesar in Italia re- 
manere non poterat. Cato enim, qui illis diebus impera- 
tor exercitus erat, Caesarem non amabat. Quamquam 
non malus imperator Cato fuit, semper maior fuit Cae¬ 
sar. Hie ergo celeriter ilium vicit. Mox in Italiam profec- 
tus est Caesar. Ibi conabatur Marcus Antonius regalem 
dare Caesari coronam. Haec faciebat quodam die festo 
quo multi viri in urbe erant. Sed nihil locutus est Caesar 
de corona hac. 



De tempore imperjecto in voce passiva 
De casu possessivo pronominum 

Summary: Many senators began to hate Caesar, though they seemed to be his 
friends. They conspired to kill him. He received many warnings, but ignored them. 
Finally in the senate, on the Ides of March, they surrounded him, and murdered 
him with daggers and swords. Caesar fell at the foot of the statue of Pompey. 

Caesar non accepit coronam ex manibus Marci Antoni. Sed nihilominus 
(nevertheless ) quidam senatores coeperunt odisse Caesarem. Itaque hi 
senatores coniurationem fecerunt contra Caesarem. Volebant enim inter- 
ficere eum. In hac coniuratione erant multi qui videbantur ( seemed) esse 
amici Caesaris. Praesertim Marcus Brutus erat amicus Caesaris. Sed 
oderunt eum, quia putabant quod volebat facere se regem. Hi coniuratores 
paraverunt multas sicas. Quidam scriptores dixerunt quod hi coniuratores 
interfecerunt Caesarem quia amabant Romam. Probabiliter verum est 
quod amabant Romam; sed etiam sperabant accipere potestatem magnam. 
Ergo parabant mortem Caesari. 

Ante diem mortis, multi monuerunt Caesarem de morte. Sed Caesar 
nihil fecit de his monitionibus. Coniuratores voluerunt interficere eum in 
senatu, Idibus Martiis (id est, die decimo quinto mensis Martii). Quidam 
poeta Britannicus, qui vocatur Shakespeare, scripsit de morte Caesaris. 
Ille poeta dixit quod in ipso die mortis, quidam vates vidit Caesarem. 
Vates monuit Caesarem quod debuit cavere Idus Martias. Caesar res- 
ponsum dedit: “Idus Martiae iam venerunt”—et vates respondit: “Idus 
Martiae venerunt—sed non discesserunt, Caesar!” Caesar ergo venit in 
senatum. Coniuratores circumsteterunt eum. Interfecerunt eum sicis. Hoc 
modo Caesar mortuus est. Mortuus Caesar cecidit ad pedes statuae Pom- 
pei. Pompeius ceciderat in bello cum Caesare. Caesar cecidit ad pedes 

coepit -began 
odisse-fo hate 
coniuratio -conspiracy 
sica -dagger 
scriptor -writer 
monuit -warned 
monitio -warning 
Idus -Ides (15th) 
caver e-beware 
respondit -answered 
pes -foot 


cavere, cavit, cautus- 

respondere, respondit, 



-, coepit, coeptus 

mala coniuratio, ione- 

(the last part has 


active meaning)- 

gladius, o -sword 


magnus pes, ped e-foot 

monere, monuit, 

monitus- warn, advise 

bonus scriptor, ore-writer 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Imperfect Passive: This is really too easy! We know 
how to make the imperfect active—just add the letters 
-Mr to the active endings, singular and plural. Of 

course, deponent verbs use these passive endings, with 
active meaning. 

Possessive Case of Pronouns: This is also too easy. 
We are thinking of the pronouns (which are also used 
as adjectives, as we know): hie, ille, ipse, is, idem, and 

The possessive plural pronouns have the same end¬ 
ings as bonus (- orum, -arum, - orum ). 

The singular is still easier—they all have just one 
ending for all three genders—it is -ius. Thus: huius, il- 
lius, ipsius, eius, eiusdem, and cuius (cuius is from qui). 

Notice especially the one little word eius. It (and the 
plurals edrum, edrum, edrum) serve in place of posses¬ 
sive adjectives when we do not want a reflexive. Of 
course, they are not adjectives—they are possessive case 

of a pronoun, so they cannot be made to agree in gender, 
number, and case like adjectives. But they are very com¬ 

The reflexive adjective is suus —we saw it in Lesson 
21 (compare also the reflexive pronoun in Lesson 27). 
For example, take this English sentence: 

Marcus killed his father. 

Whose father? The English is vague—might be Marcus’ 
father—might be someone else’s father. Now if it is 
Marcus’ father, the Latin will have suus: 

Marcus interficit patrem suum (reflexive)—his own 
father. But if it is someone else’s father the Latin will 
have Marcus interficit patrem eius (not reflexive). 

When do we use edrum.7 When we mean their, in a 
non-reflexive way (not their own ). 

Milites interfecirunt patrem edrum (their father— 
non-reflexive)—but— Milites interfecirunt patrem 
suum (their own father—reflexive). 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Caesar, cuius amici coniurationem fecerunt, interfectus 
est. Interfecerunt eum multis sicis. Ad statuam eiusdem 
Pompei quern vicerat in bello civili cecidit. Quare inter¬ 
fecerunt Caesarem? Quia oderunt eum. Potestatem eius 
oderunt. Putaverunt quod Caesar esse rex volebat. 
Eratne hoc verum? Re vera voluit Caesar rex esse? 
Probabile est, quamquam coronam e manibus Marci 
Antoni non accepit. Sed quaestio est haec: quare non 
accepit? Probabiliter quia iram plebis et senatorum 
timebat. Viri enim Romani nomen regis oderunt. Olim 
Romani reges habuerant, sed reges facti sunt mali et 
audaces. Romani itaque eos expulerant. Ex illis tempori- 
bus nomen regium oderunt. Semper cavebant virum qui 
volebat esse rex. 

Quare ergo amici Caesaris eum non monuerunt? Re 
vera, Caesar multas accepit monitiones—brevi (short) 

tempore ante mortem, vates eum vidit. Vates eum 
monuit quod debebat Idus Martias cavere. Sed Caesar 
cavere non volebat. Caesar in senatum venit—et ibi 
interfectus est. 

Senatores laeti facti sunt morte eius. Sed malum pro 
Roma erat—quia bellum civile venit. In hoc bello multi 
cives Romani, multi senatores, interfecti sunt. Et post 
bellum civile quid acceperunt? Augustus, qui filius 
adoptivus Caesaris erat, factus est imperator. 

Diebus antiquis Romae, vir qui vocabatur imperator 
erat solum dux exercitus, sed Augustus non solum 
exercitum Romanum ducebat; erat rex sine nomine 
regis. Gaius Caesar clementiam inimicis suis ostenderat. 
Augustus Caesar etiam hoc fecit. 

English to Latin 

1. He was setting out into Gaul. 2. He fell at the feet 
of the same statue. 3. He was killed with swords and 
daggers. 4. Many men were being killed by the sword. 
5. Others were fleeing on foot. 6. Caesar was being 
warned by the soothsayer. 7. But he fell at the feet of 
Pompey, whose enemy he had been. 

Scramble Exercise 

Caesarem, quamquam ex manibus Marci Antoni coro¬ 
nam non acceperat, senatores non pauci odisse coe- 
perunt. Virum hunc magnum, qui multa et magna in 
Gallia pro Roma fecerat, nonne am are et non odisse 
debuerunt? Eum amare debuerunt. Nihilominus, co- 
niuratione non parva facta, mortem Caesari parare 
sunt conati. Idibus itaque Martiis, quo die in America 
olim tributa colligebantur, interfectus est Caesar sicis 
coniuratorum ad pedes statuae Pompei. Iam erat ad 
pedes Pompei ille ad cuius pedes Pompeius mortuus 



De participiis praesentibus 

Summary: Cicero was born of an equestrian family. Since he and his brother 
Quintus showed ability, their father sent them to Rome—they studied under Scaevola 
and Archias. Cicero also went to Rhodes to study under Molo, as Caesar did. He 
then returned to Rome, and began to give speeches. He defended Roscius. But he 
offended Sulla, and, for reasons of health, went to Greece. There he met Atticus. 

In diebus in quibus vivebant Caesar et Pompeius, vivebat etiam £lius vir 
Romdnus cuius nomen notum est omnibus. Ille vir erat Mcircus Tullius 
Cicero. Cicero natus est in quodam oppido quod vocab&tur Arpinum. 
Natus est anno centesimo sexto (106) ante Christum. 

Pater eius non erat ex sen£tu. Cicero ergo erat vir equestris. Viri eques- 
tres (id est, equites) non erant ex senatoria nobilitate, sed nec erant ex 
plebe. Erant ex ordine inter senatores et plebem. Primis diebus Romae, 
equites re vera habebant equos, et pugn&bant ex equis in exercitibus. 
Sed diebus Ciceronis, equites non debebant habere equos. Equites habe¬ 
bant pecuniam multam. Cicero ergo erat ex ordine equestri. 

Cicero h£buit fratrem qui vocabdtur Quintus. Pater eorum vidit quod 
volebant discere. Itaque misit eos Romam in scholas bonas. Cicero et 
frater eius didicerunt multa in scholis. Habuerunt multos magistros claros. 
Inter hos erant Mucius Scaevola et Archias. Legerunt multos libros bonos. 
Cicero etiam navig&vit in insulam Rhodum. Didicit multa de arte rhetorica 
a Molone (Caesar etiam didicit artem rhetoricam in schola Molonis). 

Post haec Cicero reversus est Romam, et coepit habere orationes claras. 
Defendit Sextum Roscium. Sed etiam offendit Sullam (ille clarus Dictator 
erat in hac vita illis diebus); ergo melius erat Ciceroni disc^dere Roma. 
Navigdvit in Graeciam. Ibi invenit quendam Romanum qui vocabdtur 
Atticus. Cicero factus est amicus eius. (Continuabitur) 

natus -born 
6quites -knights 
ordo -class, order 
frater -brother 
legit -read 
liber -book 
offendit -offended 
m61ius -better 


legere, legit, lectus -read 

vivere, vixit, *victurus- 

nasci, natus est -be born 


noscere, novit, notus- 

clarus, a, um -famous 

learn (But the perfect 


means has learned, 

equus, cquo-horse 

and therefore knows. 

liber, libro -book 

So notus means 

bonus ordo, ordin e-row, 


order, rank 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Present Active Participles: We have already seen 
perfect passive participles. We found that they are half 
verb, and half adjective. Now present participles are 

also half verb and half adjective—but they are present 
and active, instead of perfect and passive. 

The most basic meaning of present participles is: 

Milites pugn£ntes—fighting soldiers 
Note the ending in -ing. 

But first, let us see the endings of the present parti¬ 
ciple, and then consider the details of its use. As to the 
endings, it is too easy again. 

To form a present participle, take the imperfect tense 
of that verb, remove the -bat, and add: -ns. For example: 

par&bat— parans, habebat— habens, ponebat— ponens, 
capiebat— capiens, audiebat— audiens. 

How to decline the participle?—It is merely (as far 
as declension goes) a third declension adjective. Its 
ablative singular may be either e or i (a bit more broad¬ 
minded than other adjectives)—other forms are just 

like third declension adjectives (possessive plural will 
be -ium and neuter plural will be -ia both to match the 
-i ablative, not the -e). 

For example: 

M F N M F N 




parantem parans 
paranti (e) 

parantes parantia 
parantes parantia 

Really nothing new—except that the ablative can have 
e as well as i. 

Use of the Participle : Use it just like the perfect pas¬ 
sive, except that this is present active. Therefore, we 
may use it like an adjective — 

milites pugnantes —the fighting soldiers 
Or we may use it in an ablative absolute (basic meaning 
now, instead of having been -, is merely the Eng¬ 

lish form ending in -ing). For example 

Caesare exclamante, milites vicerunt. 
basic —(With) Caesar shouting, the soldiers con¬ 

Expanded Forms: 

1. When (while) Caesar was shouting, the soldiers 

2. Because Caesar was shouting, the soldiers con¬ 

3. Although Caesar was shouting, the soldiers con¬ 

4. If Caesar was shouting, the soldiers conquered. 

5. Caesar was shouting and the soldiers conquered. 
Compare these to the example given in Lesson 17—they 
are perfectly parallel. Again, it would pay well to mem¬ 
orize one Latin example with a full set of translations. 
Take the one above, or make your own. 

Ablative Absolutes without Participles: The 
Latin verb to be (est ) has no present participle (nor 
perfect passive). So, when we want to use the verb to be 
in an ablative absolute, we just leave the participle out. 
For example: 

Caesare duce, milites pugnaverunt fortiter. 
(With) Caesar (being) leader, the soldiers fought 

Or, more freely—use any of the five expansions given 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 
Now look for these ablative absolute patterns; then 
watch for other active participle patterns. 

Caesare imperatore, milites laeti erant. Coniuratori- 
bus venientibus, Caesar non timebat. Audivit vatem 
monentem se, sed in senatum venit. Ibi senatores ex- 
clamantes audivit. Exclamantes interfecerunt eum. 

Cicero et Quintus fratres (brothers) erant. Audive- 
runt oratores magnos habentes orationes magnas in 
foro. Volebant esse oratores. Cicero re vera orator mag- 
nus factus est. Cicero etiam erat vir equestris. Sed 
equum non habuit. Non erat necesse habere equum. 
Nunc autem, pueri et puellae Americani orationes Ci¬ 
ceronis in scholis legunt. Et quamquam Cicero equum 
non habuit, pueri et puellae, legentes orationes eius, 
equos habent. Sed Cicero ipse non habuit equum—ipse 
enim has orationes scripserat. Senatores, audientes has 
orationes, non fecerunt coniurationem contra Cicero- 
nem. Cicero enim non voluit esse rex. Senatoribus 
facientibus coniurationem contra Caesarem, Cicero 
nihil fecit. Non amavit Caesarem, sed interficere eum 
non voluit. 

Sed porcis exclamantibus oink, Marcus non fecit 
nihil. Marcus etiam exclamavit. Marco exclamante, 
quid fecit Maria? Maria magna voce agnum vocavit. 
Agno veniente, Maria laeta erat, Maria in schola non 
remansit. Maria duce, agnus laetus erat. 

Sempronius erat impatiens. Sempronio consule, Han¬ 
nibal Romanos vicit. Carthaginiensibus pugnantibus, 
Romani victi sunt. Sed Scipione consule, Hannibal ipse 
victus est. Hannibal vidit exercitum Romanum venien- 
tem. Venientes Romani viderunt exercitum Punicum. 
Romanis vincentibus, Hannibal non laetus erat. 

English to Latin 

1. Marcus saw the lamb coming. 2. Did he hear the 
lamb saying baal 3. Marcus being the teacher, Mary 
is glad. 4. While Caesar was alive, Brutus was not 
happy. 5. They saw him coming into the senate. 6. He 
heard the commander reading the commands. 7. It was 
better for Caesar to depart from Rome. 

Scramble Exercise 

Quia multam pecuniam habuerunt, diebus Ciceronis 
equites non debuerunt habere equos. Romani audientes 
orationes huius Ciceronis non habuerunt equos. Potu- 
erunt intelligere (understand) has etiam sine equis. 
Itaque Romanis exclamantibus Cicero habebat orati¬ 
ones multas et vehementes. Ciceronem, quamquam 
multi ex his qui audiverunt orationes eius amaverunt 
eum, Sulla amavit nec ipsum nec orationes eius. Cice¬ 
roni ergo melius erat Roma proficisci in Graeciam. 


Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Cicero returned to Rome in two years. He wanted to become consul, a 
difficult thing for a novus homo (one not born in the senatorial class). He was 
filled with great pride, disgusting even to the Romans, who were no lovers of 
humility. He was elected consul for 63 B.C. with Antonius. In that year came the 
conspiracy of Catiline, an evil character, sunk in debt, and greedy for power. 

Post annos duos, Cicero reversus est Romam, anno septuagesimo septimo 
(77). Sulla enim mortuus erat anno septuagesimo octavo. Multas orationes 
claras habuit. Sed voluit esse consul Romanus. Via ad consulatum erat dif- 
ficilis homini qui non erat natus in ordine senatorio. Tales homines, qui 
facti sunt consules, sed non nati sunt in ordine senatorio, vocantur “homi¬ 
nes novi.” Id est, novi sunt in consulatu et in ordine senatorio. Cicero erat 
vir equestris. Propter hoc, difficile erat Ciceroni consul fieri. 

Christiani habent magnum amorem virtutis humilitatis. Sed Romani 
non habuerunt magnum amorem huius virtutis. Romani erant superbi. 
Romani fere amaverunt superbiam. Sed, quamquam Romani erant su¬ 
perbi, videntur esse humiles, si comparantur cum Cicerone. Quamquam 
Romani non amaverunt humilitatem, tamen non amaverunt superbiam 
Ciceronis. Et re vera, Sacra Scriptura dicit quod superbia est initium 
omnis peccati. 

Cicero electus est consul anni sexagesimi tertii (63). Erat coniuratio in 
hoc anno. Catilina erat princeps coniurationis huius. Catilina erat vir 
malus. Catilina debebat multam pecuniam multis hominibus. Voluit 
habere maximam potestatem. Catilina conatus erat consul fieri, sed non 
potuit. Cicero et Antonius facti sunt consules. Catilina ergo voluit inter- 
ficere Ciceronem et rapere omnem potestatem. Quid accidit? (Continu- 
abitur eras) 

via -way, road 
homo -man 

propter -on account of 
virtus -virtue 
superbia -pride 
comparar e-compare 
tamen -nevertheless 
initium -beginning 
peccatum -sin 
princeps -chief 
fieri -to become 


[hunt], fieri, factus est- be made” means the 
become, happen (the same as “to become”) 

infinitive is irregular — nescire, ivit, itus-no/ 
factus est is really the know 
last part of facere—“ to propter ( with obj.)- 

on account of 

bonus homo, homin e-man (vir is “man” in 
the strictly masculine sense, almost 
meaning hero; homo is more general, 
and means merely “human being ”— 
may include women and children 
initium, o -beginning 
peccatum, o-sin 

magnus princeps, princip e-chief 
superbus, a, um -proud 
via, a -way, road, means 
magna virtus, virtute-v/rtae, courage, 
manliness (of vir) 


1. Decline together: vir pugnans, peccdtum maius, 
fort is equus. 2. Give possessive singular and plural of: 
hie liber, eadem via, ilia virtus, magnus pes. 3. Give five 
translations of: Caesare legente librum, milites non 
pugnaverunt. 4. How do you say: he was warning, she 
was attempting, he was setting out, they were warning, 
they were attempting, they were setting out. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Humilitas est virtus magna. Estne humilitas virtus 
maxima? Non. Amor Dei est virtus maxima. Quare 
Romani humilitatem non amaverunt? Quia nesciebant 
quod humilitas erat bona. Nesciebant quod virtus erat. 
Ergo multi Romani superbi erant magna superbia (abla¬ 
tive) . Quare erat Cicero superbus? Quia coniurationem 
Catilinae fregit. Eratne hoc magnum? Magnum erat, 
sed non maximum. Multi alii Romani res magnas f6ce- 
rant, etiam res maiores fecerant. 

Multi RomAni (quamquam humilitAtem non amavA- 
runt) non amavArunt supArbiam Cicer6nis. 

Cicero Atiam in exilium (exile) missus est, sed non 
propter supArbiam. Cicero enim multos hAbuit inimicos. 
Sed inimici Ciceronis eum non interfecArunt. Catilina 
interficere Ciceronem conAtus est—sed non potuit. 
Cicero enim scire omnia quae Catilina fecit pdtuit. Ini¬ 
mici CaAsaris eum sicis in senAtu interfecArunt. Catilina 
Atiam sicam hAbuit. Sed Catilina ipse ad Ciceronem cum 
ilia sica non venit: Catilina duos Aquites RomAnos ad 
Ciceronem misit. Hi Aquites cum Cicerone loquebAntur, 
sed eum interficere non poterant. Cicero enim consilia 
eorum sciebat. Catilina ergo ira motus est. 

Catilina Atiam hAbuit exercitum in montibus. PutA- 
bat quod hoc modo Romam cApere poterat, sed Roma 
servAta est. Cicero enim multas orationes claras contra 
Catilinam in senAtu hAbuit. Postquam Catilina primam 
harum orationum audivit, ex urbe discessit. Sed Cicero 
multos viros qui erant in coniuratione cum Catilina 
cepit. Cicero sen^tum rogdvit quid d6buit f^cere his 
viris captis. Senatus dixit quod eos interficere d6buit. 
Cicero ergo hos viros captos intertecit. (Re vera, Cicero 
ipse eos non interfecit, sed Alios viros interficere eos 

English to Latin 

1. Catiline attempted to kill Cicero with a dagger. 

2. He said that he hated Cicero. 3. He wanted war be¬ 
cause he owed money to many men. 4. Why did not 
Caesar become king? 5. He is a man whose courage is 
great. 6. On account of his sins he was being punished. 
7. He saw Isabella giving money to Columbus. 

Scramble Exercise 

Hominibus qui non in ordine senatorio nati erant, ad 
consulAtum via difficilis erat. Quidam nihilominus re 
vera, inter quos erat ipse Cicero, ad hanc venArunt 
dignitatem. Qui hoc fecArunt novi homines vocab&ntur. 
Anno quo Cicero consul erat, Accidit etiam clara ilia 
Catilinae coniurAtio, quam vicit Cicero. Quam propter 
causam, quamquam ante hoc tempus non humilis 
fuerat, iam in supArbiam nimiam venit Cicero. Quod 
initium omnis peccAti supArbia est, dicitur in Sacra 
Scriptura. Chris tiAnis am Antibus hanc virtutem, earn 
non amAvit Cicero, qui non ChristiAnus erat. 



De tempore juturo in tertia persona 

Summary: One of Catiline’s fellow conspirators, Curius, had a lady friend, Fulvia. 
Fulvia reported what she heard to Cicero. But Cicero did not want to arrest Catiline 
for want of legal evidence. However, by a forceful speech, he scared Catiline into 
leaving the city. He then, on evidence of Gallic spies, arrested other conspirators. 

Vir quidam bonus ex Gallia dixit: Cherchez la femme —id est, necesse est 
cavere feminas. Et dixit verit&tem. Catilina ipse potest dicere Ciceroni: 
necesse est cavere feminas. Unus enim ex viris qui fuerunt in coniuratione 
Catilinae h&buit arnicam. Nomen huius feminae fuit Fulvia. Q. Curius, vir 
in coniuratione Catilinae, am£bat Fulviam. Curius scivit omnia consilia 
Catilinae. Sed Fulvia semper rogibat eum: “Quid facit meus vir magnus 
nunc?” Et Curius narribat omnia Fulviae. Fulvia celeriter narribat omnia 
quae audiverat Ciceroni. Hoc modo Cicero sciebat omnia consilia Catili¬ 
nae. Sed Cicero non poterat prob&re haec in foro. Itaque Cicero non voluit 
comprehendere Catilinam. Cicero ipse in magno periculo erat. Catilina 
enim con&tus est interficere Ciceronem. Sed Cicero, monitus a Fulvia, 
semper poterat serv£re seipsum. 

Quodam die Catilina venit in sen&tum. Cicero h£buit magnam et vehe- 
mentem orationem contra Catilinam. Cicero ostendit Catilinae quod ipse 
semper poterat scire, sine ulla difficult&te, consilia quae Catilina faciebat. 
Cicero dixit quod Catilina debuit discedere Roma, cum omnibus sociis 
suis. Catilina, putans quod erat in magno periculo, discessit ex urbe. Sed 
non solum Fulvia narribat consilia Catilinae Ciceroni. Etiam quidam viri 
ex Gallia (non dixerunt cherchez la femme ) nairaverunt multa de coniura¬ 
tione. Hoc modo Cicero sciebat viros qui erant in coniuratione. Cicero ergo 
comprehendit multos ex eis. (Continu&bitur) 

Gallia -Gaul, France 
arnica-friend (fern.) 
meus -my 
prober e-prove 
comprehender e-arrest 
monitus -warned 

socius -ally 



meus, a, um-my, mine 

prehendit, prehensus- 

socius, o -ally, companion 

grasp, arrest 

ullus, a, um-any 

narrire, £vit, atus-tell 

vehemens, vehementi- 

probire, 6vit, &tus -prove, 



Nunc Cogitemus 

Future Active and Passive : We have learned how to 
form the imperfect tense from the infinitive, by dropping 
the -are, etc., and adding -abat (first conjugation) or 
-ebat (all others, except that -iunt verbs have - iebat). 
Now, using the same vowels as we use ahead of the -bat, 
we can form the future tense, with the future endings: 

-bit, -bunt (first and second conjugations) and -/, -nt 
(third and fourth conjugations). 

1 2 3 3 (-iunt) 4 

Thus: paribit hab6bit ponet c&piet audiet 

paribunt habebunt ponent c&pient audient 

These endings are, of course, active—they mean e.g., 

he will prepare 
or: he will be preparing. 

But it is just as easy to make the forms passive—just add 
-ur to any of the above! 

e.g., habebitur, habebuntur or capietur, capientur 

The meanings of the passive are easy too: 

he will be captured 
they will be captured 

Future Active of Esse, Posse, Velle: erit, erunt, 
poterit, poterunt, volet, volent 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Look for future tense patterns. 

Catilina Ciceronem capere vult, sed Catilina ipse 
capietur. Etiam omnes alii qui in coniuratione sunt 
capientur. In carcerem (jail) mittentur. Erunt in car- 
cere sine ulla spe (hope). Sed in magno erunt periculo. 
Cicero enim alios viros ad eos mittet in carcerem. Hi 
alii viri illos coniuratores interficient. Hi coniuratores 
enim magnum fecerunt peccatum: Romam delere vol- 
uerunt. Catilina est princeps huius coniurationis. Sed 
Cicero non comprehendit eum. Quare? Quia voluit eum 
discedere ex urbe cum omnibus sociis. Catilina re vera 
discedet, sed non omnes socii eius evident quia com- 
prehendentur a Cicerone. Hi socii Catilinae in carcere 
interficientur. Et Cicero ipse fiet (from fiunt) superbus. 
Cicero ipse non amat humilitatem. Cicero non poterat 
scire quod humilitas virtus magna est. Cicero superbiam 
maximam habuit. Romani alii humilitatem non ama- 
verunt, sed superbiam maximam Ciceronis non ama- 
verunt. Cicero enim saepe de sese loquebatur. 

Sacra Scriptura dixit quod superbia est initium omnis 
peccati. Cicero etiam multa poemata (poems) de se 
ipse scripsit. Romani haec poemata non amaverunt. 
Cicero non erat poeta bonus. Et poemata eius non erant 
bona. Insuper, Cicero semper de se in his poematibus 
loquebatur. Haec poemata non habentur nunc. Bonum 

est quod non habentur nunc: non est necesse legere ea. 
Agnus albus, qui erat in schola, Ciceronis poemata non 
legit. Agnus ea non amavit. Quid dixit agnus de his 
poematibus? Dixit baa. Sunt enim baad. Agnus autem 
de Marco Porcio Catone legere voluit. Quinque porci 
etiam voluerunt de Porcio audire. Unus ex his quinque 
porcis in agris Porci fuit. 

English to Latin 

1. These men will be found. 2. Cicero will send them 
to prison. 3. Many of those who are in the conspiracy 
will be arrested. 4. He will talk about himself. 5. They 
will not be seen in the city after this day. 6. They will be 
killed by servants of Cicero. 7. How will Cicero prove 
that they are in the conspiracy? 

Scramble Exercise 

Narrante Fulvia omnia quae a Curio de coniuratione 
audiverat, Cicero coniuratores comprehendere et in 
carcerem (jail) mittere non voluit. Cicerone sciente 
haec omnia, necesse erat posse probare haec in foro: id 
quod Cicero voluit sed non potuit facere. Aliis ergo 
modis agere necesse erat Ciceroni. Conlra Catilinam 
ergo in senatu, multis senatoribus exclamantibus, 
habuit Cicero orationem vehementem. Hac oratione 
habita, timere coepit ille Catilina, et Roma non sine 
multis sociis discessit. 



De pronomine: quis 
De tempore perfecto infinitivi 

Summary: Cicero now has written proof of the conspiracy. He consulted the senate 
about the case. Caesar favored life imprisonment. Cato called for death—and won. 
But Catiline himself was free with an army. He met the army led by Petreius, legate 
of the consul Antonius. He died fighting. 

Cicero nunc, quia Galli dederunt epistolas quas acceperunt a coniuratori- 
bus, potest probare ea quae sciverat de coniuratione. Itaque mittit multos 
coniuratores in carcerem; non omnes mittit in carcerem, quia multi erant 
cum exercitu Catilinae. Cicero nunc consulit senatum. Multi senatores 
habuerunt orationes in senatu de hac re. Caesar voluit tenere coniuratores 
in carcere per reliquam vitam. Sed multi timuerunt facere hoc. Dixerunt: 
“Forsan evadent ex carcere. Amici enim eorum venient et liberabunt eos.” 
Oratione Caesaris habita, Cato habuit orationem suam. Cato voluit inter- 
ficere coniuratores in carcere. Senatus ergo consilium dedit Ciceroni. 
Consilium enim Catonis placuit senatui. Cicero ergo iussit hos coniura¬ 
tores interfici in carcere. Et factum est. 

Sed Catilina ipse non erat in carcere. Erat cum exercitu suo. Catilina 
sperabat capere Romam. Sed Cicero et senatus etiam habuerunt exercitum 
magnum. Consul Gaius Antonius erat dux huius exercitus. Sed Antonius 
aegerpedibus erat. Ergo Marcus Petreius (qui erat legatus Antoni) duce- 
bat exercitum. Catilina habuit orationem magnam. Dixit militibus suis 
quod necesse erat pugnare fortiter, “Mors enim exspectabit eos qui capi- 
entur.” Exercitus ergo Catilinae et Catilina ipse fortiter pugnaverunt in 
magno proelio, sed non poterant vincere. Multi interfecti sunt in proelio, 
inter quos erat Catilina ipse. 

reliquus-res/ of 
placuit-wai pleasing 


consulere, consuluit, placere, placuit, 

consultus -consult *placiturus-6e pleas- 

liberare, avit, atus -free ing to ( dative) 

aeger, aegra, aegrum-^/cfc 
magnus career, career e-prison 
epistola, di-letter 

reliquus, a, um -rest of (used like 
medius: middle of—see Lesson 2) 

Nunc Cogitemus 

The Interrogative Quis, Quid: The words mean: 
Who? What? They are pronouns, that is, they stand 
alone, and do not modify anything. (If we want an inter¬ 
rogative adjective, e.g., “which thing?”—we merely use 

the same forms as the relative pronoun, qui, quae, 
quod). But how do we decline quis, quid'! Again, Latin 
is easy. All forms are the same as the relative, except 

quis instead of qui 
quid instead of quod 

And, in addition, the masculine and feminine are the 
same in the singular (as in omnis). Therefore we use 
quern and quo for both masculine and feminine (not 
quam and qua). In the plural, everything is exactly the 
same as qui, quae, quod. 

Therefore the singular is: 













Plural same as qui, quae, quod 


Perfect Infinitives: The perfect active infinitive is 
made by substituting -isse for the third singular ending 
-it. Thus: 

paravisse —to have prepared 
habuisse —to have had 
cepisse —to have taken 

The perfect infinitive passive is made by using the 
infinitive “to be”— esse —with the proper form of the 
perfect passive participle, e.g.: 

interfictus esse —to have been killed. 

Catilina dicitur interfictus esse —Catiline is said to 
have been killed. 

Multi dicuntur interficti esse —Many are said to 
have been killed. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Quis est ille vir? Ille est Cicero, quern Catilina interfi- 
cere voluit. Sed Cicero dicitur interfecisse multos socios 
Catilinae in carcere. Et re vera interfici debuerunt. Viri 
enim mali erant: Romam delere voluerunt. Quid fece- 
runt? Coniurationem fecerunt. Quo tempore coniurati- 
onem fecerunt? Diebus Ciceronis, id est, in anno sexa- 
gesimo tertio (65) ante Christi nativitatem. Cicero ergo 
senatum consuluit. Quid dixit senatus? Senatus dixit 
quod coniuratores interficere debuit. Qui erant hi 
coniuratores? Erant viri mali qui Romam delere volu¬ 
erunt. Multam pecuniam debebant multis. Bellum civile 

Cuius porci sunt in foro? Suntne porci Mariae? Non. 
Maria agnum, non porcos habet. Sunt Marci Porci 
porci. A quo accipiunt cibum? A Marco Porcio cibum 
accipiunt. Ille enim amat eos. 

Quern vidit Cicero in foro? Catilinam vidit. Catilina 
sicam parvam habuit. Catilina Ciceronem interficere 
volebat. Sed hoc non placuit Ciceroni. Cicero enim in¬ 
terfici non volebat. Et reliqui viri, qui cum Cicerone 
erant, eum interficere non voluerunt. Cicero in medio 
foro erat. Fulvia Ciceronem monuit quod Catilina coni¬ 
urationem faciebat. Sed Cicero non poterat probare 
haec in foro. Epistolas habere erat necesse. A quibus 
accepit Cicero epistolas? A Gallis. Hi Romam amave- 
runt. Insuper, sperabant accipere praemium maius a Ro¬ 
manis quam ( than ) a coniuratoribus. Et verum erat; re 
vera, praemia maiora a Cicerone accipient. 

English to Latin 

1. From whom will the soldiers receive money? From 
Marius, not from Rome. 2. Who warned Cicero about 
what? 3. Catiline is said to have killed many men. 4. He 
seems to have consulted many men. 5. Who has done 
what? 6. Does he know what they have done? 

Scramble Exercise 

Verbis motus Fulviae, Cicero contra Catilinam oratio- 
nem habuerat vehementem qua ilium ex urbe discedere 
coegit. Nunc autem, quibusdam Gallis etiam scripta de 
coniuratione dantibus, in senatum venit Cicero et sena- 
tores rogavit quid facere de coniuratoribus captis debe- 
bat. Illos coniuratores in carcere interfici placuit senatui. 
Nec Catilina ipse nec alii forsan coniuratores pauci qui 
in urbe erant, illis qui in carcere damnati erant auxilium 
dare potuerunt. Magno proelio contra Marcum Petrei- 
um, ipse Catilina fortiter pugnans interfectus est. 



De oratione obliqua in modo infinitivo 

Summary: Cicero was praised for his work, but had many enemies. He had offended 
Clodius, a patrician by birth, who was adopted by plebians, so that he could become 
tribune. He charged Cicero with illegal action for not allowing the conspirators a 
trial before the people. Cicero defended himself by saying the conspirators were 
public enemies. 

Catillna interfecto, Cicero multos honores accepit. Sed non omnes Ro¬ 
mani amaverunt Ciceronem. Multi enim, quamquam in coniuratione ipsa 
non fuerant, non oderunt consilia Catilinae. Praesertim quidam tribunus 
plebis, Clodius Pulcher nomine, odit Ciceronem. 

Clodius fuit patricius nativit&te. Sed Clodius vir malus erat—anno sex- 
agesimo secundo (62) profan£verat mysteria cuiusdam deae quae voca- 
b£tur “Bona Dea.” Quia Clodius hoc fecerat, Cicero accusdvit eum. Sed 
Clodius dixit quod non fuerat in urbe illo tempore—dixit quod 61ibi fuerat, 
in 61ia urbe. Cicero autem poterat probdre quod Clodius re vera fuerat in 
urbe illo tempore. Propter hanc causam Clodius odit Ciceronem, et voluit 
habere vindictam. 

Itaque, quamquam iam vir adultus erat, Clodius rog&vit familiam ple- 
beiam adoptdre se, quia voluit esse tribunus plebis. Sed patricii (et Clodius 
erat patricius nativit&te) non poterant fieri tribuni plebis. Propter hanc 
causam Clodius adoptiri voluit. Hoc modo Clodius factus est plebeius. 
(Nomen Clodi fuerat Claudius—sed plebeii semper dicebant litteram o, 
pro au. Ergo se vocdvit Clodium, non Claudium. Itaque Clodius, iam 
plebeius factus, non iam patricius, poterat esse tribunus plebis—et re vera 
factus est tribunus in anno quinquagesimo oct&vo (58). 

myster \a-mysteries 
dea -goddess 
causa -cause 
vindicta -revenge 
adultus -adult 
adopter e-adopt 
plebeius -plebeian 
pro -in place of 
iudicium -trial 
coram -before 
hostis-ene/ny (national) 


profan£re, ivit, 4tus- coram (with abl.)-in the 
defile presence of, before 


causa, a -cause, case, reason 
Deus, o -God (dea, a -goddess) 
magnus hostis, hosti -enemy 
mysterium, o -mystery, rite 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Indirect Statements: Take the sentence: He says 
that Caesar is coming. 

Dicit quod Caesar venit. 

There is another way to say the same thing: Dicit 
Caesarem venire. Notice what we have done, we have 
made Caesar, the subject, to be in the objective case. 

We have made the verb venit (is coming) into an in¬ 
finitive: venire. What are the rules for this structure? 




Since we use the objective with the infinitive here, we 
sometimes speak of this structure as the “objective with 
the infinitive.” 

Is the infinitive always in the present? No—some¬ 
times we use the perfect: 

He says that Caesar has come. 

Dicit Caesarem venisse. 

Now—suppose the English, instead of starting out “He 
says" had read “He said.” Well that is a bit tougher in 
English, but no trouble in Latin. Here is what happens 
to the English: 


He says that Caesar is coming—(Latin: Dicit Caes- 
arem venire) becomes:—He said that Caesar was com¬ 
ing—(Latin: Dixit Caesarem venire). But as for the 
Latin: Dixit Caesarem venire—we merely changed the 
dicit to dixit. (There are a few other combinations pos¬ 
sible—but we shall see them later). Did the Romans 
often use this queer structure? Yes they did—most old 
writers use it almost always, rather than the quod venit 
type. Later Latin writers use both kinds rather freely. 
So we need to know both types. It would be well worth¬ 
while to memorize the following samples:— 

1. Dicit Mariam agnum amare. —He says that Mary 
loves (does love, is loving) the lamb. 

2. Dixit Mariam agnum amare. —He said that Mary 
loved (did love, was loving) the lamb. 

3. Dicit Mariam agnum amavisse. —He says that Mary 
has loved (did love, loved) the lamb. 

4. Dixit Mariam agnum amavisse. —He said that Mary 
had loved (or: that she loved) the lamb. 

To translate, compare the sentence (Latin or English) 
with these patterns. Notice first the dicit (dixit) or Eng¬ 
lish equivalent. Then check the rest of the sentence, and 
model it on the pattern given. Then it will be easy. 
Note: this indirect statement structure comes 


Exerceamus Nos 

Watch carefully to see how objective-infinitives are used. 

Cicero dicit Catilinam esse virum malum (Cicero dicit 
quod Catilina est vir malus). Dixit Catilinam venire 
cum exercitu magno (Dixit quod Catilina veniebat cum 
exercitu magno). Clodius dixit se alibi fuisse (Clodius 
dixit quod alibi fuerat). Cicero probavit Clodium in 
urbe fuisse. Clodius non dixit veritatem. Cicero dixit 
Clodium non dixisse veritatem. Cicero dicit Clodium 
profanavisse mysteria “Bonae Deae.” Et re vera Clodius 
fecerat hoc. Clodius odit Ciceronem. 

Clodius dixit Ciceronem fecisse malum quia coni¬ 

uratores interfecerat sine iudicio coram populo. Dixitne 
Clodius verum? Difficile est dicere. Sed senatus consi¬ 
lium dedit Ciceroni. Senatus dixit Ciceronem debere 
interficere coniuratores. Et Cicero fecit id quod senatus 
voluit. Cicero dixit se non velle comprehendere Catili¬ 
nam statim. Dixit se velle Catilinam discedere ex urbe 
cum omnibus sociis. Catilina ergo discessit, sed non 
omnes socii eius discesserunt cum eo; quidam ex eis 
comprehensi sunt a Cicerone. Cicero, epistolis a Gallis 
acceptis, poterat probare illos esse coniuratores contra 
Romam. Itaque iecit illos in carcerem. Consulit sena- 
tum de eis, et placuit senatui interficere eos in carcere. 
Multi coniuratores interfecti sunt in carcere, sed reliqui 
coniuratores erant in exercitu Catilinae. Catilina dixit 
eis necesse esse pugnare fortiter pro vita ipsa, et re vera 
hoc fecerunt. 

Antonius erat consul in illo anno cum Cicerone, sed 
Antonius dixit se non posse pugnare. Dixit se esse 
aegrum pedibus. Et veritatem dixit. 

English to Latin 

1. Was Antonius really sick? 2. The rest of the men 
tried to free them. 3. Cicero says that he is warning 
Catiline. 4. They said that Clodius had profaned the 
mysteries of the Bona Dea. 5. Catiline says that he has 
seen Curius. 6. Cicero says that a public trial is not 
necessary. 7. Catiline says that they are fighting for 
their lives. 

Scramble Exercise 

Romani dicebant hanc deam esse “Bonam Deam.” 
Clodium profanavisse mysteria huius deae dixit Cicero. 
Sed historia dicit etiam hanc “Bonam Deam” non fuisse 
bonam. Nihilominus, Romani non sine veritate Clodium 
virum malum esse dixerunt. Fuit enim talis. Iam vir 
adultus factus, Clodius dixit se velle adoptari a familia 
plebeia. Haec quia tribunus plebis fieri voluit dixit. 
Idem Clodius dixit Ciceronem debuisse dare coniura- 
toribus iudicium coram populo—id quod Cicero re vera 
non dederat. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Summary: Cicero was forced into exile by the charges of Clodius. He groaned much 
over this. He was recalled in the next year. But he did not take much part in public 
life on his return, though he had to take a term as governor of Cilicia. He returned 
to Rome just in time for the start of the civil war between Caesar and Pompey. 

Clodius, olim patricius, iam plebeius et tribunus plebis, accusabat Cicero- 
nem quia Cicero iusserat coniuratores interfici sine iudicio coram populo. 
Cicero re vera hoc fecerat, sed quaestio erat: feceratne hoc iure an non? 
Multae leges Romanae iam scriptae erant, sed lex fundamentals, quae 
vocatur hodie lex constitutionals—haec lex nullo modo scripta erat in 
diebus Ciceronis. Difficile erat ergo scire de hac re. Sed certum erat quod 
Clodius odit Ciceronem, et propter hanc causam aggressus est eum. Tri- 
buni plebis habebant magnam potestatem in illis temporibus, et Clodius 
non solum conatus est mittere Ciceronem in exsilium, verum etiam poterat 
mittere eum. Cicero ergo per legem novam coactus est ire in exsilium. Hoc 
accidit anno quinquagesimo sexto (56). Cicero ergo affectus est maximo 
dolore. Amavit enim Romam magno amore. Sed lex iussit eum exire et 
Cicero exivit. Multas epistolas scripsit ex exsilio ad amicum suum Atticum. 
Hae epistolae etiam nunc habentur et legi possunt. Sed Cicero habuit 
multos bonos amicos in urbe. Hi amici multa fecerunt pro eo. Per labores 
eorum, Cicero revocatus est ab exsilio in anno quinquagesimo quinto (55). 

Cicero, reversus ab exsilio, non iam dedit se vitae publicae. Nihilominus, 
iussus est ire in Ciliciam anno quinquagesimo secundo (52). Ibi erat 
gubernator Romanus. Reversus est in Italiam in fine anni quinquagesimi et 
venit Romam in initio belli civilis inter Caesarem et Pompeium. Bellum 
enim civile coepit in Ianuario anni quadragesimi noni (49). 

ius, iur e-right, law 
hodi e-today 
certus -certain 
aggressus est -attacked 
verum etiam-6w/ also 
ire-/o go 
dolor-grief, pain 
exir e-go out 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say: Whose (of whom)? of the same 
man, of the pain, of the mystery, of Caesar himself, of 
this man. 2. Decline together: malus hostis, homo aeger, 
reliqui milites. 3. How do you say: He will be affected, 
he will be freed, he will warn, he will arrest. Now make 
all these plural. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Word Order: We have already studied two tricks in 
word order: the type, Maria agnum habet (we saw it in 
Lesson 20), and the sandwich style, magnum habuit 
exercitum. The possibilities are numerous—but now 
that we are fairly well used to the above two types, we 



ire, iit, *iturus-go (pres¬ 
ent tense is irregular : 
it and eunt: 3d sing, 
and pi. pres.: ibat and 
ibant: imperf.: ibit 
andibunt: future, 
present active par¬ 
ticiple: iens, eunti). 
hodi e-today 

[afficiunt], afficere, 
affecit, affectus -affect 

[aggrediuntur], aggredi, 
aggressus est -attack 
non solum ... 
verum etiam: 
not only ... 
but also 

certus, a um -certain 
magnus dolor, dolore-grief, pain 
exsilium, o -exile 
verum ius, iur e-right, law 

can become a bit more free—actually, we could take the 
three words: Maria agnum habet, and put them in 
absolutely any order, and they would mean the same. 
We now begin to experiment just a bit. It may seem 
strange at first, but we will not do too much of it, and 
we will soon be used to it. 

Amici Catilinae in carcerem ibant. In carcere mori- 
entur. Ergo magno affecti sunt dolore: non enim mori 
volunt. Sed non possunt dicere se fuisse alibi. Cicero 
enim epistolas habet ab eis scriptas. Debuitne Cicero 
dare illis iudicium coram populo Romano? Clodius 
Ciceronem debuisse dixit. Sed hoc non fecit Cicero. Quid 
est verum in hac re? Non est facile veritatem invenire. 
Quamquam enim multae leges Romanae iam scriptae 
erant, lex constitutionalis scripta non erat. Quia in 
exsilium ire debebat, Cicero maximo affectus est dolore. 
Dixit neminem umquam (ever) talem dolorem ha- 
buisse, sed veritatem non dixit. Cicero enim non erat vir 
fortis; superbus vir erat. Sed ab exsilio revocatus est in 
anno quinquagesimo quinto ( 55 ). Non ergo in exsilio 
per annum totum fuerat. Malum est in exsilio esse, sed 
maximum malum non est. Itaque Cicero exclamare non 
debuit quod nemo umquam tale habuit malum. 

Quare voluit Clodius adoptari? Quia esse tribunus 
plebis voluit. Tribuni plebis creati sunt in saeculo quinto 
ante Christum. Plebs enim Romana Roma exiverat et in 
Montem Sacrum venerat. Non voluerunt reverti Ro- 
mam. Sed nuntii ex patriciis rogaverunt eos in urbem 
rursus venire. Plebs non venit. Ergo tribunos patricii 
dederunt. Tribunis acceptis, plebs reversa est. Hi tribuni 
defendere plebem contra patricios poterant. Tribuni 
enim magnam habebant potestatem. Nunc autem Clo¬ 

dius vult magnam habere potestatem. Vult vindictam 
habere quia Cicero eum accusaverat. Sed esse tribunus 
non poterat, quia patricius erat nativitate. Ergo adoptari 
a familia plebeia voluit. 

Agnus albus etiam adoptari voluit. A Maria adopta- 
tus est. Eratne ergo Maria agnus? Non. Eratne ergo 
agnus Maria? Non. Sed Maria agnum amavit: agnus 
enim non solum in scholam venit, verum etiam suum 
BA accepit. Magnus honor erat agno. Talem honorem 
quinque porci non acceperunt. Sed quinque porci in 
lingua Gallica ( French ) loqui poterant: dixerunt enim, 
oui, oui. 

English to Latin 

1. They will go into prison. 2. They will be very sad 
(affected with great grief). 3. It is hard to go into exile. 
4. Why do they attack Rome? 5. Cicero says that he is 
in great pain. 6. Did Catiline have a right to (use ad) a 
public trial? 7. Because he did these things, great grief 
will come to him. 

Scramble Exercise 

Legem Romanam fundamentalem, quae vocatur lex 
constitutionalis, non fuisse scriptam in diebus Ciceronis 
dicit historia. Et verum est. Sed etiam in his temporibus 
modernis non omnes terrae legem constitutionalem 
scriptam habent. Multi dicunt hanc legem in Britannia, 
quae est insula magna, non scriptam esse. Quam propter 
causam, Clodius poterat dicere Ciceronem, qui consul 
erat, contra legem egisse. Dixitne veritatem Clodius? 
Difficile dicere est. 



De modo subiunctivo in tempore imperfecto activo 
De clausulis ftnalibus 

Summary: Cicero hesitated for a long time, but finally joined Pompey’s side (and 
did almost nothing). After Pompey’s defeat, Caesar generously pardoned him. But 
Cicero retired and turned to writing. After the death of Caesar he delivered several 
violent speeches against Anthony. Octavius, the adopted son of Caesar, defeated 
Anthony, and became consul. 

Cicero venerat Romam in initio belli civilis inter Caesarem et Pompeium. 
Caesar et Pompeius nullum auxilium dederant Ciceroni quando Clodius 
aggressus est eum. Cicero non voluit pugnare in hoc bello. Sed Pompeius 
dixerat: “Si vir non pugnabit pro me, putabitur esse inimicus meus.” 
Cicero ergo venit in castra Pompei, sed fere nihil fecit. Pompeius, sicut 
iam dictum est, victus est in hoc bello et coactus est fugere in Aegyptum. 
Ibi interfectus est a quibusdam militibus. Sed Caesar misericordiam mag- 
nam habuit; celeriter ignovit Ciceroni et etiam dedit licentiam reverti 
Romam. Sed Cicero non voluit se dare vitae publicae post hoc bellum. 
ltaque, per tres vel quattuor (3-4) annos, scripsit multos libros de rebus 
philosophicis et rhetoricis. 

Annus quadragesimus quartus (44) venit, et, in mense Martio, Idus 
etiam venerunt. Caesar monitus est a multis. fitiam vates monuit eum: 
“Necesse est cavere Idus Martias!” Sed Caesar respondit: “Idus Martiae 
venerunt!”—“Sed non discesserunt,” dixit vates. Caesar nihil fecit de his 
monitionibus sed—venit in senatum. Ibi interfectus est a coniuratoribus. 
Caesare mortuo, Cicero venit rursus in vitam publicam. Multas orationes 
vehementes habuit contra Marcum Antonium, amicum Caesaris. 

Bella civilia venerunt post mortem Caesaris. Caesar filium non habuit. 
Sed adoptaverat Gaium Octavium (qui postea vocatus est Augustus). 
(Iulius Caesar etiam erat avunculus magnus huius Gai Octavi.) Post 
mortem Caesaris Octavius venit in Italiam, et pugnavit contra Antonium. 
Antonius victus est, et fugit trans Alpes. Octavius reversus est Romam, et 
factus est consul. (Continuabitur eras) 

si -if 

castra -camp 

ignovit -forgave 







ignoscere, ignovit, postea-afterwards 

ignotus -forgive (with si -if 
dat. and obj. Caesari sicut, -as, just as, as if 
multa ignovit -He for- ut -that (with subj.), so 
gave Caesar many that, in order to, in 

things.) order that 

n t-lest, so that . . . not 

avunculus, o -uncle (on mother’s side: on 
father’s side is patruus) 
licentia, a -permission 
bona monitio, monitione-adv/ce, warning 
bonus vates, i -soothsayer, prophet 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Imperfect Tense of Subjunctive Mood: So far we 
have been using infinitives and indicative forms of the 
verb (we have not called them indicative mood). We 
must now learn some subjunctive forms. The imperfect 
tense is wonderfully easy to form; merely add -t or -nt 
to the present infinitive active. Thus: 

1. pararet pararent 3. poneret ponerent 

2. haberet haberent 4. audiret audirent. 

But how to translate the subjunctive? The translation 
varies according to use. Hence we must observe each 
use separately (sometimes we translate just like an in¬ 
dicative, but other times we use English forms with 


may or might). Therefore we must learn just a few uses 
of the subjunctive. 

Purpose (final) Clauses: They have chiefly two 
forms in English: 

He went out to see Caesar. 

He went out that he might see Caesar. 

In Latin purpose clauses are easy; here are two ex¬ 

1. Exivit ut videret Caesarem. He went out that he 
might see Caesar. 

2. Imperavit ut milites pugnarent. He ordered that 
the soldiers fight. 

The negative form (lest or that... not) uses ne instead 
of ut: 

Discessit ne videret mortem coniuratorum. 

He left, lest he see the death of the conspirators. 

(or: that he might not see ...) 

(or: so that he would not see ...) 

As to the Tenses of the Subjunctive : we ordinarily 
use the imperfect (in a purpose clause) after a past 
tense of the main verb (in the sentence above— he 
came). Again it would be worthwhile to memorize one 
Latin example of a purpose clause. 

Note: We never use ut in place of quod for an indirect 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Notice the ut and subjunctive patterns. 

Cicero discessit Roma ut iret in exsilium. Cicero non 
voluit ire in exsilium. Sed Pompeius non dedit auxilium 
ne deberet ire in exsilium. Consuluerat senatum ut sciret 
de legibus. Et placuit senatui ut Cicero interficeret 
coniuratores. Cicero ergo iusserat eos interfici. Ducti 
sunt in carcerem ut alii viri possent interficere eos. 
Magno dolore affecti sunt. 

Sed Cicero non voluit agere contra leges, contra id 
quod ius erat. Cicero dixit se habere ius ut faceret haec. 
Non remansit in exsilio per totam vitam suam; revoca- 
tus est anno quinquagesimo quinto. Cicero etiam erat in 

bello civili. Sed remansit in castris Pompei. Non enim 
voluit pugnare. 

Pompeius victus est et etiam interfectus. Pompeio 
victo, Caesar ignovit Ciceroni. Rogavit Ciceronem ut 
veniret ad se. Cicero in vita publica non remansit. 
Discessit ut multa scriberet. Scripsit de philosophia et 
de arte rhetorica. 

Post mortem Caesaris Cicero habuit multas orationes 
vehementes. Has habuit ut deleret potestatem Antoni— 
sed non potuit. Re vera, Antonius delevit non solum 
potestatem Ciceronis, verum etiam vitam eius—Sed 
bonum est audire etiam de antiquis amicis—Columbus 
voluit habere naves ut navigaret in Americam. Isabella 
pecuniam dedit ut posset habere naves. Isabella rogavit 
ut inveniret Indiam. Columbus etiam voluit invenire 
Indiam—nihil scivit de America. Et Maria non rogavit 
agnum album ut veniret in scholam—et agnus non 
rogavit Mariam ut licentiam haberet ire in scholam. 
Agnus venit in scholam sine licentia! Sed Maria non 
accusavit agnum—amavit enim eum. Marcus non voluit 
habere agnum in schola. Sed nihil dixit Mariae de hoc, 
ne Maria exclamaret. 

English to Latin 

1. He came to see Caesar. 2. They were led into prison, 
so that men might kill them. 3. Cicero was sent into 
Cilicia, to be governor (gubernator) there. 4. Caesar’s 
uncle sent him to find Cicero. 5. Caesar forgave Cicero 
many things. 6. Cicero gave many speeches to destroy 
the power of Anthony. 7. He said nothing to Cicero, 
lest Cicero arrest him. 

Scramble Exercise 

Ut cogeret omnes venire in castra sua, Pompeius dixit: 
“Si vir non pugnabit pro me, punietur.” Historia Ro- 
mana dicit Ciceronem venisse in castra Pompei—sed 
ibi fere nihil fecisse. Quia Caesarem non amavit et ne 
puniretur a Pompeio, in castra venit Pompei. Nihilomi- 
nus, historia dicit Caesarem ignovisse Ciceroni post 
bellum. His factis, ex vita publica discessit Cicero et 
laborabat ut multos de rebus philosophicis libros scri¬ 
beret. Ex quibus libris multos viri in nostris (our) 
temporibus legunt. Hi libri etiam imprimuntur (print). 



De modo subiunctivo in tempore imperjecto passivo 
De dativo casu pronominum 

Summary: Octavius became reconciled to Anthony, and, with him and Lepidus, 
formed the second triumvirate. Proscriptions followed, in which Cicero died. 
Augustus and Anthony next defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi, in 42 BC. Some 
years later, in 36, Augustus defeated Sextus Pompey in Sicily. 

Octavius (qui postea vocatus est Augustus) iam vicerat Antonium. Sed 
brevi tempore factus est amicus Antoni. Caesar, Pompeius, et Crassus 
fecerant “Primum Triumviratum,” et vocati erant “Triumviri.” Iam An¬ 
tonius, Octavius, et Lepidus fecerunt “Secundum Triumviratum.” Sulla 
quotidie posuerat in foro nomina proscriptorum. Hoc modo Sulla inter- 
fecerat multos homines. Simili modo hi triumviri, id est, Antonius, et 
Octavius, et Lepidus, interfecerunt multos, in quibus erant fere duo millia 
equitum (2000) et trecenti senatores (300). Cicero, sicut iam dictum 
est, habuerat multas et vehementes orationes contra Antonium. Propter 
hanc causam Antonius voluit nomen Ciceronis esse inter proscriptos. 
Cicero auxilium dederat Octavio, sed nihilominus, Octavius permisit 
Antonio ut scriberet nomen Ciceronis inter proscriptos. Milites Antoni 
ergo venerunt ut invenirent Ciceronem. Cicero conatus est fugere; sed 
milites secuti sunt eum, et ceperunt eum. Servi Ciceronis voluerunt de¬ 
fender eum—Cicero enim bonus fuerat servis suis—sed Cicero noluit. 
Cicero enim dixit necesse esse mori. Milites decollaverunt eum. Itaque 
Cicero mortuus est, die septimo Decembris, in anno quadragesimo tertio 
(43) ante nativitatem Christi. Habuerat fere annos sexaginta et quattuor 

Augustus et Antonius navigaverunt in Graeciam, et vicerunt Brutum et 
Cassium in proelio magno ad Philippos. (Brutus et Cassius fuerant in 
coniuratione quae interfecit Caesarem.) Hoc proelium factum est in anno 
quadragesimo secundo (42). In anno trigesimo sexto (36) Augustus vicit 
Sextum Pompeium (ille erat filius Gnaei Pompei Magni, victi a Caesare 
in bello civili). Sextus Pompeius post mortem Caesaris, cepit Siciliam 
classi magna. Sextus Pompeius, victus ab Octavio, fugit in Asiam, sed ibi 
interfectus est in anno trigesimo quinto (35). (Continuabitur eras) 

similis -similar 
noluit-wu^ not willing 
decollavit -beheaded 
classis -fleet 


decollare, avit, atus- 

(permisit hoc Marco) 


proscribere, scripsit, 

nolle, noluit,- be 


unwilling (forms are 


like those of voluit, 

quotidi e-daily 

except that third sing. 

brevis, breve, i-short 

is non vult, instead of 

magna classis, i -fleet 


similis, simile, i-like. 

permittere, misit, 



Nunc Cogitemus 

Imperfect Subjunctive Passive: To form the pas¬ 
sive, just add the letters -ur to the active forms of the 
third singular and plural. Thus: 

pararetur pararentur 

With deponent verbs, we use what looks like an active 
infinitive form, and then add endings: e.g., conaretur 
(1), loqueretur (3). 

Dative Case of Pronouns: We remember how easy 
it was to form the possessive case of the pronouns; the 
singulars all ended in -/its, and the plurals were like 


bonus. Now, in the dative, the singulars all end in -/. 
Thus (all genders same): 

huic, illi, ipsi, ei, eidem, cui, cuidam. 

The plurals are not all the same as bonus now—but they 
are the same as the ablative plurals of the same words. 
Thus (all genders same): 

his, illis, ipsis, eis, eisdem, quibus, quibusdam 
As for the interrogative quis —it also has cui and quibus, 
for all genders. 

Possessive and Dative Case of Some Adjectives: 
There are nine adjectives that behave like the pronouns 
in the possessive and the dative singulars (otherwise 
they are normal): 





alius (rare— 

alii-some, other, another 


usually use: 

soli -alone, only 









toti -whole 

null us 


nulli-none, no 



alteri-one, the other 



utri -which (of two) 





neutri -neither 

Notice that we have two words whose meaning is almost 
the same: alius and alter. They both mean: one . . . 
another —but— alter . . . alter is used when we have 
only two to talk about— alius is used when we have 
more than two. Notice the way the list of nominatives 
forms a sort of jingle—best to memorize them in that 
order (we have already seen all but the last three). 

As for the accent of the possessive singulars—all are 
accented on the letter i except altirius, which is accented 
on the letter e. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Look for the dative case patterns. 

Omnis potestas data est soli Augusto. Estne bonum 
uni homini omnem potestatem dare? Difficile est dicere. 
Lepidus et Antonius etiam fuerunt in secundo trium- 
viratu, sed neutri horum data est potestas suprema. Sine 
ulla difficultate Augustus factus est imperator Roman us. 
Antiquis temporibus imperator erat vir qui exercitum 

Romanum ducebat. Sed diebus Augusti, imperator 
omnes Romanos ducebat. 

Cicero Augusto auxilium dederat, sed Antonius 
milites misit ut Cicero decollaretur. Decollatio fit 
(happens ) quando caput viri movetur de collo (neck) 
eius. Hoc factum est Ciceroni—ergo necesse erat ut ex 
hac vita discederet. Cicero enim sine capite non poterat 
loqui; orationes vehementes habere voluit. Sed difficile 
erat orationes sine capite habere. Cicero ergo, nolens 
hoc facere, ex hac vita discessit. Sed hoc accidit non 
solum Ciceroni, verum etiam multis aliis hominibus. 
Alii enim Antonium oderunt, alii Augustum oderunt, 
alii Lepidum oderunt. Hi omnes proscripti sunt. Erat 
res nullius difficultatis interficere eos. Triumviri enim 
maximam habuerunt potestatem. Magnum habuerunt 
exercitum. Sed etiam classem magnam habuerunt. 

In classi erant multae naves. Nos sumus (we are) 
etiam in classi nunc. Sumus ergo naves? Non. Sed naves 
sunt in mari—et quidam dicunt quod nos sumus etiam 
in mari. Ergo dicunt quod nos sumus in classi. Fuit qui¬ 
dam magnus (sed malus) vir in Russia. Ille vir non 
amavit Status Foederatos Americae. Multas habuit 
naves, et magnum exercitum. Americam delere voluit. 
Libertatem delere voluit. 

English to Latin 

1. He sent soldiers to speak (use a form of loqui) to 
Cicero. 2. After the soldiers departed, Cicero could not 
speak. 3. Not only the soldiers, but Cicero also had 
departed. 4. This man is not similar to that man. 5. The 
man to whom he gave the names is not his friend. 
6. Because of Anthony’s hatred, Augustus sent soldiers 
to kill Cicero. 7. The names were written in the forum 
that they might be killed. 

Scramble Exercise 

Triumviris inter se pugnantibus, Cicero contra Anto¬ 
nium, qui unus ex triumviris erat, orationes multas et 
vehementes habuit ut populum Romanum contra An¬ 
tonium moveret. Itaque, ne posset alias tales orationes 
habere, Antonius Octavium rogavit ut licentiam haberet 
interficere Ciceronem. Quern decollari permisit Octa¬ 
vius, quamquam Cicero pro ipso multa bona fecerat. 
Militibus venientibus ut Ciceronem decollarent, servi 
Ciceronis eum defendere conati sunt. Dixerunt enim 
eum virum non malum fuisse; bonum servis fuisse. 



De subiunctivo activo in tempore plusquam perfecto 
De cum causali, concessivo, et temporali 

Summary: Augustus not only defeated Sextus Pompey, but deprived Lepidus of his 
power. Thus there were only two triumvirs left. Anthony fell in “love” with Cleo¬ 
patra, queen of Egypt. He therefore divorced Octavia, sister of Augustus. Augustus 
defeated Anthony near Actium in a sea battle. He then pursued Anthony and Cleo¬ 
patra to Egypt. There, in the next year, they committed suicide. Augustus surrendered 
power to the senate, but soon received it all back. 

Lepidus erat unus ex triumviris. Navigavit in Sidliam cum Augustus 
pugnaret cum Sexto Pompeio ut auxilium daret Augusto. Augustus vicit 
Sextum Pompeium (sicut iam dictum est), sed etiam privavit Lepidum 
potestate. Lepidus enim, cum Sextus fugisset, conatus est maiorem po¬ 
testatem capere. Sed milites Lepidi deseruerunt eum. Augustus non inter- 
fecit Lepidum; misit eum Romam. Ibi Lepidus remansit per reliquam 
vitam suam. Erat pontifex maximus. Iam erant duo soli qui habebant 
potestatem in mundo Romano: Augustus et Antonius. 

Antonius duxerat Octaviam in matrimonium. Octavia erat soror Augusti 
(qui erat Octavius). Sed Antonius navigavit in Aegyptum. In Aegypto vidit 
Cleopatram, quae erat regina Aegypti. Videns Cleopatram, Antonius 
putavit se am are earn. Antonius putavit Cleopatram esse pulchram; sed re 
vera erat pinguis. Antonius ergo dimisit uxorem suam, Octaviam. Octavia 
ira affecta est contra Antonium, et locuta est cum fratre suo, Augusto. Ille, 
motus dolore et ira, movit bellum cum Antonio. In anno trigesimo primo 
(31), ad Actium, classis Augusti pepulit classem Antoni. Sed Antonius ipse 
(et Cleopatra cum eo) evasit ex manibus Augusti, et iit in Aegyptum. 

Augustus ltaque, in proximo anno (id est, in anno trigesimo) navigavit in 
Aegyptum. Antonius et Cleopatra, audientes Augustum venire, inter- 
fecerunt se. 

Omnibus inimfcis victis, Augustus reversus est Romam. Habuit multas 
potestates extraordinarias, a senatu acceptas. In anno vigesimo septimo 
(27), venit in senatum Romanum, et reddidit omnem potestatem senatui. 

Sed, non post multos annos, senatus et populus Romanus reddidit omnem 
potestatem Augusto. 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Pluperfect Subjunctive Active: We have already 
learned how to make the perfect active infinitive —just 
substitute -isse for the third singular ending -it. Thus we 
have, for example, paravisse. Now, to make pluperfect 

Just add -t or -nt —third singular and plural, active— 

paravisset paravissent 

Cum Clauses: We have been using the preposition 
cum with the ablative to mean with. But the word cum 



pellere, pepulit, pulsus- 
drive, rout 
privare, privavit, 
privatus -deprive 
(with abl. privare 
Mariam agno -deprive 
Mary of the lamb ) 

magnus pontifex, pontifice-pr/eyf 
proximus, a, um-next, nearest 
pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum -beautiful 

reddere, reddidit, 
redditus-g/ve back, 

cum-when, after, 
although, because 
pinguis, pingue-/af 

cum-when, although, because 

privavit -deprived 


esset- subj. of esse 

pontif cx-priest 

pulcher -beautiful 


pepulit -rout 

can also be a conjunction meaning: when (while), 
after, although, or because. 

A conjunction starts a whole clause 
A preposition starts a phrase 

For example: Venit cum militibus. He came with the 

This cum militibus is a prepositional phrase. 

Cum Augustus pugnaret, Lepidus venit. When 
A ugustus was fighting, Lepidus came. 

Cum Augustus pugnaret is a clause. 

Notice that cum can have three quite different mean¬ 
ings: when (or while or after) although, and because 
(or since). For example: 

1. Cum Lepidus venisset, Augustus misit eum in 

When Lepidus had come, Augustus sent him into 

2. Cum Lepidus auxilium dedisset, Augustus priva- 
vit eum potestate. 

Although Lepidus had helped, Augustus deprived 
him of power. 

3. Cum Antonius vidisset Cleopatram, putavit se 
amare earn. 

Because Anthony had seen Cleopatra, he thought 
that he loved her. 

How do we know which English meaning to use for 
cum ? We know merely by the general sense of the story, 
but when in doubt, try when or while first (they are 
the most vague, and so most likely to work). Some¬ 
times more than one meaning would work. Try out 
other meanings on the examples given above. 

Rules for Using Cum: When cum means because or 
although, always use the subjunctive. 

When cum means when (while or after) sometimes use 
the subjunctive sometimes the indicative. There will be 
more on this later. Meanwhile, notice the usages in the 

Tense of Subjunctive: If the verb of the main 
clause is a past tense, we will always find an imperfect 
or pluperfect subjunctive (if any subjunctive at all). 
(We shall see later what happens if the main verb is 
other than past tense.) What is the difference between 
imperfect and'pluperfect? Obvious—merely notice the 

Cum A. pugnaret, L. venit—When A. was fighting, 
L. came. 

Cum L. venisset, A. misit eum—When L. had come, 
A. sent him. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Antonius Ciceronem proscrfpsit, cum Cicero fufsset 
amicus Augusti. Cum mflites Antoni Ciceronem in- 
venfssent, decollaverunt eum. Sed Antonius ipse non 
est decollatus, Antonius se interfecit. Antonius enim 
regfnam Aegypti vfderat, quae Cleopatra vocabatur. 
Antonius putavit se amare earn, sed verum amorem non 
habuit. Antonius uxorem suam Octaviam dimfsit. 
Octavius ira motus est, et bellum movit. 

Eratne Cleopatra pulchra? Antonius putavit earn esse 
pulchram. Sed homines in his temporibus (id est, sae- 
culo vigesimo) non putarent ( would not think) earn 
esse pulchram. Erat enim pinguis. Puellae quae nunc 
pulchrae putantur non debent esse pingues. Sed quid est 
verum? Vera pulchritudo non est in corpore solo. Sed 
homines in tempore Augusti putabant quod puellae 
pingues erant pulchrae. 

Quinque porci etiam pingues sunt. Suntne illi etiam 
pulchri? Quinque porci sese esse pulchros putant. Si 
quaestio rogatur: “Suntne hi porci pulchri?” quid res¬ 
pondent porci? Respondent: Oui, oui. (Sunt enim ex 

Lepidus, cum Augustus privavfsset eum omni potes¬ 
tate, erat pontifex maximus. Augustus voluit esse 
etiam pontifex maximus; post mortem Lepidi, pontifica- 
tum accepit. Sed non decollavit Lepidum. Noluit hoc 
facere, ne multi homines odfssent eum. In antfquis die- 
bus, cum Romani reges ex urbe pepulfssent, Etrusci 
bellum moverunt, ut reges Romae redderent. Sed Ro¬ 
mani accfpere reges noluerunt. Propter hanc causam 
fortiter pugnaverunt. Voluerunt libertatem habere. Sed 
patrfciisoli plenam (full) libertatem habuerunt. Plebefi 
pugnare debuerunt ut iura a patriciis accfperent. 

English to Latin 

(Use cum wherever possible) 

1. Although Cicero had given help to Augustus, Augus¬ 
tus did not help Cicero. 2. Anthony hated Cicero, be¬ 
cause Cicero had made speeches against him. 3. Al¬ 
though Cicero was not an enemy of Rome, he was killed 
by the sword. 4. Although Cicero had been his friend, 
Augustus allowed him to be killed. 5. Anthony said that 
Cicero had been an enemy of Rome. 6. Since he saw that 


he was defeated, Anthony killed himself. 7. Caesar gave 
back all rights to Cicero. 

Scramble Exercise 

Cum Ciceronem interfecisset, Antonius ipse interfectus 
est. Cum quidam vir ex Gallia dixisset necesse cavere 
feminas, Antonius non audivit. Antonius enim put&vit 

se am£re Cleop£tram, reginam Aegypti. Quae femina 
non re vera pulchra fuit—pinguis enim sicut quinque 
porci, amici nostri (our), fuit. Sed quidam vir dixit 
amorem esse caecum, et verMtem dixit. Antonius enim, 
classi magna facta, pugn&vit cum Oct&vio. Classi magna 
victa, Antonius et Cleopatra, ne caperentur, sese inter- 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Augusto imperatore, Christus natus est in Bethelehem in Iudaea. Sed nunc 
tempus est ut relinquatur historia Romana. Bonum erit legere historiam 
sacram veteris testamenti. Liber primus veteris testamenti vocatur Genesis. 
In hoc libro narratur historia creationis mundi totxus. 

In princfpio enim, solus Deus erat; nulla creatura adhuc facta erat. 
Scriptor huius libri Geneseos scripsit de septem diebus creationis, vel 
potius de sex diebus creationis—in septimo enim die Deus requievit ab 
op6ribus suis. S«d sacer scriptor huius libri non voluit dicere quod Deus re 
vera fecit omnia in septem diebus. Forsan illi dies erant re vera multi anni. 
Sed bonum erat docere hoc modo quod fecit omnia. Itaque, dixit quod in 
primo die Deus creavit coelum et terram. Sed adhuc nihil erat in terra; nulla 
alia creatura erat facta. Sed Spfritus Dei erat super aquas. Deus iussit lucem 
fieri. Et lux facta est. Et Deus vidit lucem esse bonam. Deus etiam separa- 
vit lucem a tenebris. Vocavit lucem diem. Et vocavit tenebras noctem. 
Haec Deus fecit in primo die creationis. Sed Deus non fecit haec cum 
magno labore. Homines, quando faciunt opera sua, faciunt ea saepe cum 
magna difficultate vel cum labore magno. Deus loquitur—et res fit. Si 
Deus solummodo dicit: “Fiat”—statim factum est. Hoc modo ergo Deus 
fecit mundum et omnia quae in eo sunt. Iussit: “Fiant hae res,” et factae 
sunt. Deus etiam .vidit quod ea quae fecit erant bona. Hoc necesse est, 
Deus enim non potest facere malum. 

vet us-o W 
sacer -sacred 

Geneseos -poss. sing, of 
Genesis {Greek) 
vel -or 

requievit -rested 
super -above 

tenebra e-darkness 
fiat -let it be 


docere, docuit, doctus- 

requiescere, requievit, 
relfnquere, relfquit, 

adhuc-yet, still 
super ( with obj.)-above, 

coelum, o ( but plural is masc.\ coeli) — 
heaven, sky 
magna lux, \uce-light 
longa nox, nocte-night 
magnum opus, oper e-work 
vetus, veter t-old 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Give imperfect subjunctive, active and passive, of: 
docire , decolldre, nolle, esse, pillere. 2. Give pluperfect 
subjunctive active of: permtttere, proscribe re, privdre, 
riddere, igndscere. 3. Give dative singular and plural 

of: hie, ille, ipse, idem, quis, qui, is. 4. Give possessive 
singular and plural of: hie, ille, ipse, idem, quis, qui, is. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Diebus antiquis Romae, Romani multa gesserunt bella. 
Sed non solum antiquis diebus, sed fere omni anno 
Romani bellum gesserunt. Inter alia bella, bella cum 
Albanis habuerunt. Sed in hoc bello Albano, duces 
Romani venerunt ad duces Albanorum. Romani locuti 
sunt: “Non est necesse ut multi viri ex exercitu Romano 
interficiantur, et etiam multi ex exercitu Albano. Ro¬ 
mani mittere volunt solummodo tres viros bonos et 
fortes in pugnam, si Albani idem facient.” Hoc consi¬ 
lium Albanis bonum visum est. Itaque Romani tres viros 
fortes miserunt. Hi tres Romani Horatii vocabantur. 
Albani etiam tres viros fortes miserunt, ut cum tribus 
Romanis pugnarent. Hi tres Albani Curiatii voca¬ 

In prima parte pugnae, duo ex tribus Horatiis inter- 
fecti sunt. Romani mflites qui pugnam videbant, magno 
affecti sunt dolore. Sed etiam ille unus Horatius qui 


remAnsit mAximo affectus est dolore. Dixit enim, “O! 
O! NecAsse est timAre. Sed adhuc spes (hope) rAmanet. 
... Quamquam difficile est interficere tres—unus solus 
intArfici potest!” ltaque celAriter currere (run) coepit. 
Tres CuriAtii venArunt ut eum cAperent. Post breve 
tempus, RomAnus vidit quod tres CuriAtii adhuc se- 
quebAntur—sed sequebAntur intervallis magnis (at 
large intervals). RomAnus ltaque stetit. Primus ex 
CuriAtiis venit; RomAnus celAriter eum interfAcit. Sed 
duo Alii adhuc veniAbant. RomAnus itaque currere celA- 
riter coepit. Post breve tempus, vidit duos CuriAtios 
sequi intervallo magno. Stetit ergo. Unus ex rAliquis 
Curiatiis ad eum venit. Romdnus celeriter eum inter- 
f6cit. Post breve tempus Alius Curiatius solus venit ad 
unum Romanum. Romanus fortis erat; etiam tArtium 
interfAcit CuriAtium. Hoc modo RomAni AlbAnos vi- 
cArunt. RomAni servi non sunt facti AlbAnis. RomAni 
adhuc libertAtem habent. 

English to Latin 

1. It was not necessary that many Romans and Albans 
be killed. 2. The Roman departed lest the Curiatii cap¬ 
ture him and kill him. 3. Although he was alone, the 
Roman did not fear. 4. The Old Testament teaches that 
the world was created by God. 5. After He made all 
things, God rested on the seventh day. 6. The work of 
God is still being done. 7. When Christ was born, a 
great light came in the sky. 

Scramble Exercise 

HorAtius unus, cum Alios HorAtios duos interfecissent 
CuriAtii, nihilominus pugnAre voluit. Quamquam enim 
in perfculo sunt magno, boni RomAni fortes erunt sem¬ 
per. Ut Roma servarAtur, multi ex his fortibus et bonis 
viris sunt mortui. Hac ergo in pugna, propter unius 
RomAni virtutem, non sunt facti AlbAnis servi RomAni. 
LibArtas enim Romae adhuc rAmanet. 



De subiunctivo passivo in tempore plusquamperfecto 
De clausulis consecutivis 

Sacer scriptor docet nos quod Deus omnia fecit. Narrationem suam 
divisit in sex dies. Non est necesse credere quod sacer scriptor voluit dicere 
omnia facta esse hoc ordine. Forsan in alio ordine omnia facta sunt. Sed 
bonum est audire narrationem libri sacri. Dicit quod Deus fecit lucem in 
die primo. Quid fecit in secundo die? Secundo die fecit firmamentum, id 
est, coelum. Deus fecit firmamentum ut divideret aquas quae super firma¬ 
mentum erant ab aquis quae sub firmamento erant. Deinde Deus iussit 
aquas, quae sub firmamento erant, colligi in locum unum. Et factum est 
sicut Deus iusserat. Hoc modo terra facta est, et maria facta sunt. Deus 
etiam iussit terram proferre herbas. Et terra profert herbas sicut Deus 
iusserat. Haec facta sunt die tertio. Et Deus vidit omnia esse bona quae 

Proximo die, id est, die quarto, Deus fecit solem et lunam, ut essent 
signa dierum et temporum et annorum. Sed adhuc erant nulla animalia in 
toto mundo. Quinto die ergo Deus fecit animalia in aquis, id est, pisces, 
et fecit etiam aves. Hi omnes etiam boni erant, quia Deus fecit eos. Sexto 
die Deus fecit animalia quae vivunt in terra. Sed adhuc homo non erat 
factus. Deus dixit se velle facere hominem ad imaginem suam. Ergo fecit 
hominem de limo terrae et inspiravit in faciem eius spiraculum vitae. Et 
Deus vocavit hunc primum hominem Adam. 

In lingua enim Hebraica, terra vocatur “adamah.” Sed primus homo 
Adam factus est de “adamah.” Ergo nomen eius erat Adam. Sed adhuc 
nullus alius homo erat in terra; Adam solus erat. Deus dixit: “Non est 
bonum quod homo solus est.” Deus ergo fecit sociam pro Adam. Fecit 
primam feminam, cuius nomen erat Eva. Deus posuit Adam et Evam in 
paradiso. In paradiso habuerunt omnia bona quae voluerunt habere. Sed 
Deus imperavit eis ne comederent de ligno scientiae boni et mali. 

Indeclinable Names: Notice the name Adam in to¬ 
day’s story. The name Adam cannot be declined—it has 
the same endings in every case. But the name Eva can 
be declined. Soon we shall meet other indeclinable 
names, such as Cain and Abel. But if we watch the way 
they are used in the stories we can catch on easily; 
there is no need to memorize any. Some names will be 
declinable, but have unusual combinations; thus, we 
will see the name Abraham, which has the following 
forms: Abraham, Abrahae, Abrahae, Abraham, Abra¬ 
ham. But again, just watch how such names are used, 
and they will cause no trouble. 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Pluperfect Subjunctive Passive: To form it is 
simple: we merely use esset or essent (imperfect sub- 



comedere, comedit, 
imperare, avit, atus- 
proferre, protulit, 
prolatus-fcring forth 
( present: profert, 
proferunt —note ir- 

pounds of the simple 
verb ferre, to bear, 
are thus ) 
deind e-then, next 
sub -under (cases are 
like in— obj. for mo¬ 
tion; abl. for rest) 
tam -so 

regularities. All com- 

bona imago, imagine-image 
lignum, o -wood 
lingua, a-tongue, language 
luna, a -moon 

signum, o -sign, signal, standard 
bonus sol, sole-sun 

sub -under 
deinde-then, next 
pwitTie-bring forth 
herba -vegetation 
sol -sun 
imago -image 
piscis -fish 

inspiravit -breathed in 
facies -face 
lingua -language 
socia -companion 
imperavit -ordered 
comeder e-eat 
lignum-wood, tree 
scientia -knowledge 

junctive of esse) with the perfect passive participle. 

factus esset facti essent 

Result (Consecutive) Clauses: The usual form in 
English is: 

He was so good that all loved him. 

Tam bonus erat ut omnes amarent eum. 

Notice that the English form does not use may or might 
combinations, as purpose clauses do (but the negative 
for result clauses is ut. . . non, not ne). Notice the word 
so (tarn ) in the example—it does not always come in re¬ 
sult clauses, but is frequent. Or some similar expres¬ 
sion is often used. Another form often seen is this: 

Accidit ut Caesar veniret in castra. 

It happened that Caesar came to the camp. 

Note here we have no word so, or anything like it—yet 
it is clearly result. In case of doubt insert the words “so 
that as a result”—if they fit, it is a result clause (but if 
they do not fit, it still might be one, like the accidit ut 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Cum omnia animalia facta essent, Deus hominem 
creavit. Deus tarn bonus erat ut ad imaginem suam 
hominem faceret. Sacra Scriptura dixit Deum fecisse 
hominem ex limo terrae. Estne ergo verum quod Deus 
manus duas habet, et limum ex terra accepit, et imagi¬ 
nem ex limo fecit et spfritum in eum inspiravit? 

Sanctus Augustinus dixit quod Deus manus duas non 
habet; Deus enim spiritus est. Et spiritus manus non 
habet. Spiritus corpus non habet. Ergo, dicit Sanctus 
Augustinus, necesse est dicere Deum re vera hominem 
fecisse, sed non est necesse dicere Deum physice ( physi¬ 
cally ) fecisse imaginem ex limo et inspiravisse in imagi¬ 
nem ut homo fieret. 

Sacer enim scriptor huius libri scripturae docere 
voluit homines quod Deus hominem fecit. Similiter, 
Deus feminam fecit, et earn ex primo homine fecit. Sed 
non est necesse dicere Deum physice, manibus physicis, 
fecisse haec omnia; Deus sicut iam dictum est, manus 
physicas non habet. Deus enim spiritus est. 

Quidam homines in his temporibus dicunt hominem 
descendisse ex simio (ape). Estne hoc verum? Adhuc 
non clarum est. Deus enim hoc modo hominem facere 
poterat, si voluit. Deus permittere potuit ut corpus homi- 
nis fieret ex corpore simii. Deinde spiritum inspirare in 
hoc corpus simium potuit, ut homo fieret homo, habens 
corpus animale, et animam (soul) spiritalem. Quidam 
viri hodie putant quod iam probatum est hominem 
venisse ex simio; sed veritatem non dicunt: possibile est, 
sed nondum probatum est. 

Verum est quod quidam homines agunt sicut simii 
agunt. Hoc non probat hominem descendisse ex simio, 
sed fere probat quosdam nondum descendisse. 

English to Latin 

1. Catiline was so bad that Cicero did not love him. 

2. Caesar forgave Cicero, although he had fought 
against him. 3. When all things had been made, God 
saw that they were good. 4. God ordered the earth to 
bring forth vegetation. 5. When the sun and moon had 
been made, there were still no animals on the earth. 

Scramble Exercise 

Herbis die tertio creatis, die quarto solem et lunam fecit 
Deus. Hos fecit ut in caelo essent, ut lucem toti darent 
mundo. Multis itaque bonis creatis, nulla adhuc in mun- 
dum venerat creatura quae Deum bona voluntate 
amare posset. De terra ergo primum creavit Deus homi¬ 
nem; et e primo homine feminam. Quos in paradisum 
deinde posuit Deus. 



De subiunctivo activo et passivo in tempore praesenti 

Cum creavfsset primos homines, Adam et Evam, Deus imper£vit eis ne 
comederent de fructu ligni scientiae boni et mali. Hoc lignum stetit in 
medio paradfso. Adam et Eva obediverunt Deo. Sed non semper obedive- 

Quodam die, dtebolus venit ad Evam. Eva non erat cum Adam illo 
tempore. Adam enim erat in £lia parte paradfsi. Eva non timuit didbolum. 
Di&bolus enim venit ad earn in forma serpentis. Di£bolus ergo, sub forma 
serpentis, locutus est cum Eva, et interrog&vit earn num Deus imperavisset 
eis ne comederent ex omni ligno quod in paradfso erat. Eva respondit quod 
licebat eis comedere ex omni ligno—sed non ex ligno sci6ntiae boni et mali. 
Eva etiam dixit quod Deus promfserat eis mortem si non obedfrent. Dfa- 
bolus defnde respondit: “Deus non dixit verit£tem. Deus enim novit quod 
si homo comedet ex hoc ligno, fiet sicut Deus. Homo enim sciet bonum et 
malum. Homo non morietur si comedet ex hoc ligno.” 

Eva credidit di^bolo. Vidit enim fructum huius ligni esse pulchrum. 
Accepit ergo de fructibus huius ligni et comedit. Defnde Eva dedit partem 
huius fructus ad Adam. Adam 6tiam comedit. Sed di&bolus non dfxerat 
verMtem. Adam et Eva non facti sunt sicut dei; re vera senserunt se esse 
nudos, et timuerunt. 

Audiverunt vocem Dei in paradfso. Deus voc£bat eos. Voce Dei audita, 
Adam et Eva con&ti sunt abscondere se. Sed Deus invenit eos. Nihil enim 
absconditum est a Deo. Deus interrog&vit eos ubi essent. Adam respondit 
quod timebat cum nudus esset. (Continu&bitur) 

obedfvit -obeyed 






fructus -fruit 

sensit -felt 

nudus -naked 




abscondere, abscondit, 

obedfre, obedfvit, 


obedftus-ofrey ( with 

credere, credidit, 


cr6ditus-6e//eve( Marfa sentfre, sensit, sensus- 

credit Marco: Mary 

feel, realize, perceive 

believes Marcus.) 


interrogate, £vit, £tus- 

di£bolus, o-devil 

question, ask 

magna vox, voc e-voice 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Present Subjunctive Active: Study these forms: 

1 . 


amet ament 

teneat teneant 




ponat ponant capiat c^piant audiat audiant 

Notice that they all have the same -t and -nt as in the 
indicative. But the vowels are different. Notice that the 
first conjugation has e, while the others have a. The 
verbs that have -iunt for the third present indicative, 
keep the / in the subjunctive: -iat, -iant. But we would 
not expect the e before the a in the second conjugation. 
The easiest way is merely to memorize the above set of 

Present Subjunctive Passive: Simply add -nr to the 
above endings: 

paretur parentur 

habe£tur habe£ntur 

pon£tur pon4ntur 

capi4tur capi&ntur 

Use of the Present Subjunctive: We have seen that 
in dependent clauses, the imperfect and pluperfect sub¬ 
junctive appear only when the principal verb is in a past 
tense. The present subjunctive appears only after a 


present or future tense of the main verb (there is only 
one more tense of the subjunctive, the perfect, which we 
shall see later—then there will be a pair, present and 
perfect, when the main verb is present or future—and 
another pair, imperfect and pluperfect, when the main 
verb is in any past tense). But the present subjunctive 
also has another use: 

Hortatory Subjunctive: 

Veniat— Let him come (or May he come.) 

Audiatur —Let him be heard (or May he be heard). 
Notice that this use is independent —it may be the main 
verb. Remember the translations given above. It would 
be good to memorize a pair of samples. If we need a 
negative, it is ne : Ne veniant... Let them not come. 

Indirect Questions: Notice this example from the 
reading above: 

Interrog&vit earn num Deus imperavisset.... 

He asked her whether God had ordered.... 

We call it an indirect question because of the question 
word “Whether.” But we call it an indirect question, 
because it does not ask a question—only reports (or sug¬ 
gests) one. But there is no problem about it; we mention 
it merely to state that indirect questions most commonly 
have the subjunctive. But sometimes a Late Latin writer 
will use the indicative. Find another example in the 
story above. 

Subjunctive of Irregular Verbs: 









Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

In initio omnium rerum, Deus coelum et terram credvit. 
Quo modo omnes res credvit? Deus locutus est. Deus 
dixit: “Fiat terra.” Et terra facta est. Etiam iussit: “Fiat 
lux.” Et lux facta est. Secundo die imperat ut sit firma- 
mentum, id est, coelum. Et coelum factum est. Tertio 
die Deus dixit: “Veniant aquae in unum locum, ne terra 

semper sit in aquis.” Aquae ergo in unum locum vene- 
runt, et fecerunt m&ria. Deus etiam dixit: “Proferat 
terra herbas.” Et terra protulit herbas. Dixit etiam: 
“Herbae fdciant fructus suos.” Et factum est. Etiam 
imperat ut sol et luna sint in coelis, ut dies et nox divi- 
dantur. Deus imperat aquis ut proferant pisces. Et pisces 
in aquis coeperunt esse. Imperat ut aves fiant. Et factae 

Deus etiam primum hominem, cuius nomen erat 
Adam, fecit. Etiam feminam, uxorem pro Adam, cre¬ 
dit. Nomen huius feminae erat Eva. Deus eos in para- 
disum posuit. Permittit eis ut ex omni ligno paradisi 
comedant, sed non permittit ut comedant ex ligno 
scientiae boni et mali. Quodam ergo die didbolus ad 
Evam in paradiso venit. Interrogat num permitt£tur eis 
ut comedant ex omni ligno paradisi. Eva dicit quod 
permittitur comedere ex omni ligno, sed non ex ligno 
scientiae boni et mali, ne mori&ntur. Deinde di&bolus 
dicit Deum verit&tem non dixisse. Sed Deus non potest 
non dicere verit£tem. Di6bolus dicere id quod non 
verum est potest. Id quod non verum est voc£tur “men- 
dacium.” Et didbolus est pater mend&cii. Eva non 
obedit Deo; comedit ex ligno scientiae. Adam idem 
facit. Sed audiunt vocem Dei interrog&ntis eos ubi sint. 
Voce Dei audita, timent respondere. 

English to Latin 

1. Let them obey God, lest they die. 2. The devil asks 
whether they know good and evil. 3. He does not permit 
them to eat it. 4. He asks why Adam and Eve are not 
obeying God. 5. May they never (numquam) believe 
the devil. 6. Let them not attempt to hide from God. 
7. Let them not eat of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil. 

Scramble Exercise 

Primis hominibus iam credtis imperat Deus ne ex fructi- 
bus ligni scientiae boni et mali comedant. Cum iussis 
Dei obedirent Adam et Eva, in paradiso haWntes bona 
multa remanserunt. Sed serpens qui olim ex coelis 
superbia cecidisset eos tempt£vit. “Homines erunt sicut 
dii,” dixit sub forma serpentis di&bolus. 



De prima et secunda persona in subiunctivo activo 

Adam et Eva non obediverant Deo. Propter hanc causam timuerunt, et 
conati sunt abscondere se a Deo. Sed Deus ommpotens est; tanta est 
potestas eius ut nulla creatura possit abscondere se a scientia Dei. Deus 
ergo interrogavit Adam cur non obedivisset. Adam dixit quod femina 
dederat ei malum, id est, fructum ligni scientiae boni et mali. Deus ergo 
interrogavit feminam, id est, Evam, cur comedisset malum. Eva respondit 
se comedisse propter serpen tern. Dixit enim serpen tern fefellisse ipsam. 
Serpens enim dixerat: “Homo fiet sicut Deus si comedet de fructu huius 
ligni scientiae boni et mali.” 

Deus ergo expulit Adam et Evam ex paradiso. Sed promisit Redemp- 
torem, id est Christum. “Ille Redemptor enim conteret caput serpentis.” Et 
etiam quaedam femina promittitur a Deo, quae semper inimica erit ser- 
penti. Haec femina est Virgo Maria, quae est mater Christi. Ergo Deus, 
propter suam magnam misericordiam, dedit spem primis hominibus 
etiam post peccatum originate. 

Adam et Eva habuerunt multos filios et filias. Inter hos erant Cain et 
Abel. Cain erat agricola, et labor eius erat in agris. Accepit multos fructus 
terrae. Ex his fructibus, Cain offerebat sacrificia Deo. Abel autem erat 
pastor. Abel ergo offerebat animalia Deo in sacrificiis. Probabfliter Abel 
offerebat agnos. Sacrificia Abel placuerunt Deo. Sed sacrificia Cain non 
placuerunt Deo. Cain ergo motus est ira. 

Quodam die Cain rogavit Abel ut iret in agros secum. Abel ergo in agros 
iit cum Cain. Sed cum essent soli in agris, Cain interfecit Abel. Deus ergo 
vocavit Cain, et rogavit ubi Abel esset. Cain dixit se nescire. Sed Cain non 
poterat fallere Deum. Cain ergo iit in exilium. 

omnipotens -omnipotent 
tantus-jo great 
malum -apple 
conterer e-crush 
virgo- virgin 
spes (5th) -hope 
agricola -farmer 
offerr e-offer 
pastor -herdsman 
secum-CMwi se 
nescire-no/ know 


fallere, fefellit, falsus- bona mater, matr e-mother 

deceive bonus pastor, pastore- 

offerre, obtulit, oblatus- shepherd, herdsman 

offer (compare tantus, a, um-so great, so 

proferre in Lesson 45 ) large 

bonus agricola, a -farmer bona virgo, \kgine-virgin, 
malum, o -apple maiden 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Preview of all First and Second Person Active 
Forms: It is very easy to learn to recognize the first 
and second person active in indicative and subjunctive 
forms except for the perfect indicative. There is a simple 
set of personal endings. Learn these endings at once— 

they have many uses. Learn first to recognize a form 
when you see it in the book—gradually you will learn 
to make forms. Here are the endings: 

Singular Plural 

1. m or o (/) mus (we) 

2. s (you) tis (you) 

3. t (He, she, it) nt (they) 

Most of these endings merely substitute for the t of the 
third singular. We shall see the application of these 
endings a bit at a time, including the distinction of the 
o and m in the first person (all but present indicative 
and the future indicative of first and second conjugation 
use m). 

But now we apply the new endings to: all active sub¬ 
junctives: Here we merely take the third singular 


form, which we already know, and apply a magic stick, 
































And so on for absolutely any active subjunctives, of all 
tenses. Pretty simple! 

Subjunctive of Irregular Verbs: It is really com¬ 
pletely regular. Just take the third singular— sit, possit, 
velit, nolit —and use the above stick. 

catum originate commiserunt. “Ante hoc peccatum,” 
dixit Deus, “non erat necesse ut vos discederetis ex hac 
vita per portas mortis, sed nunc mortem videbitis.” 
Adam ergo interrogavit Deum, “Videbimus mortem, 
quia peccavimus. Sed videbuntne etiam filii nostri four) 
mortem?” Deus dixit, “Otique—et vos et filii vestri 
debetis mori. Et nunc, discedatis ex paradiso.” Deus 
etiam angelo magno imperavit ut staret ad portam ne 
Adam et Eva possent rursus venire in paradisum. Deus 
dixit angelo, “Stes in hoc loco, ne homines possint 
venire in paradisum.” 

Cain et Abel fuerunt filii Adam et Evae. Nati sunt in 
primis diebus mundi. Sed etiam erant multi alii filii 
Adam et Evae. Scriptura enim Sacra non dat nomina 
omnium hominum qui in illis temporibus nati sunt. 
Non enim necesse est ut omnia ilia nomina sciamus. Et 
Scriptura id quod non necesse est non dicit. Sanctus 
Augustinus dicit quod Sacra Scriptura vult ostendere 
quod erant duae urbes; una est urbs Dei, id est, urbs 
bonorum hominum, qui Deum amant. Sed altera urbs 
est urbs huius mundi. In hac urbe sunt homines mali, 
qui se ipsos plus quam ( more than) Deum amant. Sanc¬ 
tus Augustinus etiam multa alia de his duabus urbibus 
dixit. Sed non est necesse ut omnia scribamus in hac 

Second Plural Pronoun: vos, vestrum, vobis, vos, 
vobis (you, of you, to you, you, etc.) (The adjective is: 
vester, vestra, vestrum —“your”—referring to more 
than one person). 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Deus dixerat ad Adam et Evam: Ne comedatis ex 
fructu ligni scientiae boni et mali. Sed Adam et Eva 
Deo non obediverunt. Serpens Evam fefellit dicens, “Si 
ex hoc ligno comedes, eris sicut Deus.” Et Eva fefellit 
Adam. Deus ergo vocavit Adam et Evam, et dixit: 
“Necesse est ut puniam vos.” Malum enim fecerunt non 
obedientes Deo. Malum enim erat comedere malum ex 
ligno scientiae boni et mali. Comedere malum non erat 
malum in se, sed malum erat non obedire. Deus ergo 
interrogavit: “Cur non obediebatis?” Adam dixit, 
“Diabolus locutus est tarn bene (well) ut crederemus.” 
Etiam Eva conata est excusare se. Sed excusationes non 
erant bonae; peccatum committere non debuerunt. Pec- 

English to Latin 

1. He is sending you (plural) that you may capture 
Catiline. 2. Since (cum) you had committed a sin, God 
sent you out of paradise. 3. The devil speaks so well 
that we believe him. 4. May you not believe the devil. 
5. God’s power is so great that you cannot hide your¬ 
selves from Him. 6. Cain cries out with so loud a voice 
that we hear him. 7. Since Abel was a shepherd, he 
offered lambs. 

Scramble Exercise 

Dmnium qui nunc in terra vivunt hominum mater Eva 
est, et pater Adam. Ut fierent sicut dii, Deo non obedi¬ 
verunt. Sed fefellit eos diabolus. Oblatum ab uxore 
malum Adam comedit: quam propter causam a para- 
dfso missi sunt. His factis, Deus adhuc eis misericordiam 
dare volebat. Redemptor ltaque promittitur a Deo. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Adam et Eva habuerunt multos fflios et filias. Et filii eorum habuerunt 
etiam multos filios et filias. Multi ex his vixerunt per annos plurimos. Sed 
non omnes homines boni erant; plurimi erant mali, et pecc&ta multa com- 
miserunt contra Deum. Illi homines erant magni corpore, sed parvi virtute. 

Deus ergo irfitus est illis et voluit delere genus hum&num de terra. 

Sed nihilominus unus homo erat qui placuit Deo. Ille homo vocabfitur 
Noe. Noe erat vir iustus in omnibus operibus suis. Noe erat pater trium 
filiorum. Nomina horum filiorum sunt: Sem, Cham, et Japheth. Sed quia 
Noe erat iustus, et pl&cuit Deo, Deus non irfitus est ei, nec irfitus est ffliis 
Noe propter Noe. Itaque Deus dixit Noe: “Finis universae carnis est in 
mente mea. Omnes enim homines facti sunt pessimi. Necesse est ergo ut 
deleam eos. Itaque magnum diluvium veniet super omnem terram. Omnes 
homines delebuntur. Sed etiam omnia anim&lia in quibus est spiritus vitae 
non iam vivent; omnia delebuntur diluvio.” 

“Sed fac arcam tibi et ffliis tuis et uxoribus filiorum. Et due in arcam 
animalia ex omnibus generibus animalium ut servfiri possint in area.’’ Noe 
ergo fecit omnia quae Deus imperfiverat ei. Deinde Deus dixit ei: “Venias 
in arcam cum ffliis tuis et cum omnibus animfilibus sicut imperfitum est 
tibi. Post septem dies enim imber mfiximus veniet super omnem terram. 

Et omnia anim&lia quae sunt super terram, insuper et omnes homines 
delebuntur de terra.” 

Noe ergo venit -in arcam, et cum eo venerunt tres filii eius, id est Sem, 

Cham, et Japheth, et cum eis venerunt uxores eorum. Insuper venerunt in 
arcam animalia omnis generis, sicut Deus imperfiverat Noe. (Continufi- 
bitur eras) 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say: Let us ... eat, bring forth, believe, 
obey, deceive? How do you say: Let me . . . eat, bring 
forth, believe, obey, deceive? 2. How do you say, in 
subjunctive: It is . . . commanded, hidden, asked 
(interrogdre) , felt, not known? Make the same forms 
plural. 3. How do you say, in subjunctive: You (both 
singular and plural) . . . eat, command, believe, ques¬ 
tion, feel, deceive, say, do? 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

“Adam et Eva, vos tam mali erfitis ut peccfitum primum 
committeretis. Vocfimus hoc peccfitum peccfitum origi¬ 
nate. Sed non debetis desper&re. Deus enim tantam 
habet misericordiam ut vobis Redemptorem promittat. 
Multi ex ffliis vestris mali erunt—non omnes, sed plu¬ 
rimi.” Inter eos, Cain interf6cit Abel, et filii filios inter- 
fecerunt. Itaque tempore Noe, fere omnes homines mali 



committere, commisit, 

fac— imperative singular 
(the form that gives a 
command) of fficere 
(The plural is regular, 
as we shall see later. 
There are four irregu¬ 
lar imperative singu¬ 
lars: die, due, fac, 
fer. Last is from ferre, 
bear, the simple verb 
from which come 
oU6rre and proferre). 

irfisci, irfitus est -be angry 
at (with dative —Maria 

irfiscitur Marco: Mary 
is angry at [with] 
Marcus .) 

bona caro, earn e-flesh, 

magnum corpus, corpore- 

diluvium, o -flood, deluge 
bonum genus, genere- 
kind, race 

bonus imber, imbr e-rain 
mea mens, ment e-mind 
(poss. pi. —mentium) 
pessimus, a, urn-very bad, 

plurimus, a, um-very 
many, most 

plurimus-very many 

commisit -committed 

corpus -body 

irfitus est-way angry 

genus -race, kind 


mens -mind 

p6ssimus-very evil 

diluvium -flood 


fac -make! (a command) 

area -ark 

tibi -for yourself 

tuus -your 

due -lead! (a command) 
imber -rain 

erant. Noe et filii eius dixerunt: “Ne committ&mus pec- 
c&tum. Deus bonus est. Ne faci&mus ea quae ille non 
amat.” “Noe, Sacra Scriptura dicit vos esse iustos. Ergo 
habetis omnes virtutes. Quando enim Sacra Scriptura 
dicit hominem esse iustum, significat eum omnes habere 
virtutes. Itaque in Scriptura ‘homo iustus’ hominem 
bonum significat. Semper faci&mus omnia quae Deus 

Scriptura loquitur eodem modo de Sancto Ioseph, 
qui erat pater putativus ( foster-father ) Christi. Scrip¬ 
tura dicit simpliciter ( simply ) quod Ioseph iustus erat, 
et non est necesse ut &liud dicamus de eo. 

Noe erat tarn iustus ut in area servar6tur. Deus dixit 
ei, “Pecc&ta hominum tanta sunt ut necesse sit delere 

Quo modo f4ciet Deus diluvium? Magnos mittet im- 
bres super omnem terram. Sed etiam f&ciet ut mare 
super terram veniat. Hoc modo factum est diluvium 
magnum. Omnia anim&lia deleta sunt hoc diluvio. 
Suntne pisces deleti? Non, Deus enim dixit necesse esse 
del6re omnia anim&lia in quibus est spiritus vitae. Sed 
in piscibus non est spiritus vitae. Pisces sunt semper sub 
aquis. Aqua pisces non delebit. Pisces aquam amant. 

Audiamus de Amicis Veteribus 

Sed non omnia anim&lia amant aquam. Quinque enim 
porci dicunt, “Nullo modo am&mus aquam: lutum 
{mud) am&mus.”“Sed amici! Nonne6tiam aquam am£- 
tis? Quia sine aqua non potestis habere lutum.” Unus 

ex porcis dixit, “Non dicimus quod am&mus aquam sim¬ 
pliciter—am&mus enim aquam solummodo quando in 
terra est, ut lutum possimus ficere ex terra et aqua.” Sed 
amici quinque non erant in diluvio. Nondum in hac vita 
erant in illo tempore; Alii porci erant in hac vita in 
tempore diluvii. Hi erant avunculi porcorum quinque. 
Multi ex antiquis porcis del6ti sunt in diluvio—et mors 
terribilis est porco deleri in aquis! Sed duo porci erant 
in area, et non interfecti sunt. 

English to Latin 

1. Let us come into the ark. 2. God is so good that He 
loves all men. 3. Christ is the Good Shepherd, and He 
will die for the lambs. 4. The human race was so evil 
that God was angry at them. 5. He sent great rains to 
destroy them. 6. Let us make a ship for Noe and his 
sons. 7. It happened that men were very bad in the days 
of Noe. 

Scramble Exercise 

Vobis et filiis navem magnam, quae area erit, fac—ha«c 
dixit Deus Noe. Cum enim p£ssima pecc&ta peccavis- 
sent homines fere omnes, ut eos deleret, diluvium misit 
Deus. E coelis magni ven6runt imbres et ex mari aquae 
multae. Irascebfitur enim Deus ira nimia propter pessi- 
morum hominum pecc&ta. Noe autem et filiis eius, Deus, 
cum boni essent, misericordiam dedit. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo imperjecto 
et plusquamperfecto 

Cum Noe et fflii eius et uxores filiorum eius et anim^lia venissent in arcam, 
Deus clausit portam arcae. Deinde Deus ap6ruit coelos, et misit imbres 
magnos in terram. £tiam fontes maris rupti sunt et aquae maris ven6runt 
super terram. Diluvium maximum factum est. Homines t6rriti sunt, et loca 
aha invenire con£ti sunt ut ab aquis servar6ntur. Sed aquae magnae sem¬ 
per inven6runt homines. Et non potu6runt ev£dere. Noe autem et qui 
cum eo erant, serv£ti sunt in area. Aqua venit 6tiam super montes altos. 
Nemo hominum serv£tus est nisi ei qui in area erant cum Noe. £tiam 
omnia anim£lia in quibus erat spiritus vitae interfecti sunt in aquis. Sed 
anim£lia quae in area erant serv£ta sunt. Imbres et diluvium ven6runt 
super terram per quadraginta dies. Et aquae ascend6runt super terram 
centum et quinquaginta dies (150). 

Deinde Deus recorditus est Noe et omnium qui cum eo erant in area. 
Et Deus misit ventum super aquas. Post dies centum quinquaginta, aquae 
coep6runt minui super terram. Deus 6tiam clausit fontes maris, et non 
iam misit imbres de coelis. Et aquae rev6rsae sunt de terra, euntes et 
redeuntes. In mense s6ptimo, in die vig6simo s6ptimo mensis, area re- 
qui6vit super montes Arm6niae. In d6cimo mense, montes coep6runt 
videri. Et post quadraginta dies, Noe ap6ruit fen6stram in area, et misit 
corvum ex area. £tiam dimisit columbam ex area. Sed columba non in- 
v6nit locum ubi requiesceret pes eius—columba ergo rev6rsa est ad Noe in 
arcam. Sed post septem dies, Noe rursus dimisit columbam. Columba 
rev6rsa est ferens ramum olivae. Noe ergo intell6xit quod poterat stare in 
terra. Itaque venit ex area. 

clausit -closed 

aperuit -opened 


ruptus -broken 



nisi -unless, except 





euntes -from ire 



columba -dove 

{erre-bear, bring 


oliva -olive, olive tree 

intelleger e-understand 


claudere, clausit, 

rumpere, rupit, ruptus- 



ferre, tulit, latus-frear. 

terr6re, t6rruit, t6rritus- 

bring (forms like 




recorded, record£tus 

nisi -unless, except, 

est-remember (with 

if ... not 

poss. case) 

altus, a, um-high, deep 

magnus fons, fonte (poss. pi- ium) 

fountain, spring 

ventus, o -wind 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person in Imperfect and Plu¬ 
perfect Indicative: To make these forms on all active 

subjunctives, we use a magic stick. Now, for the imper¬ 
fect and pluperfect indicative, we stick to the same 
stick—no trouble at all. 
































And so on—for absolutely any imperfect or pluperfect 
active indicative. 

Second Singular Pronoun: tu, tui, tibi, te, te (you, 
of you, to you, you, etc.). 

Second Singular Adjective (to refer to only one 
person’s possessions) : tuus, a, um (your). 

First and Second Person of Irregular Verbs: 
Completely regular in imperfect and pluperfect: Just 
take the third singular forms—e rat, fuerat, poterat, 
potuerat, volebat, nolebat, voluerat, noluerat—and use 
the same stick as for any other verbs. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Deus interrogavit Adam, “Cur abscondebas te?” Et 
Adam respondit, “Hoc faciebam quia timebam.” Sed 
Adam etiam dicere coactus est quod malum comederat. 
Dixit enim Evae, “Tu dabas mihi {to me) malum.” Et 
Eva serpentem accusavit. Serpens autem alium accusare 
non poterat—serpens erat diabolus ipse. “O Eva, quare 
credebas diabolo?” “Quia diabolus dixit quod homo fiet 
sicut Deus si ex hoc ligno comedet.” “Sed Eva, nonne 
scire poteras quod diabolus id quod non verum est dicere 
amat? Deus dixerat tibi, ‘Ne comedas ex hoc ligno.’ 
Semper facere debes id quod Deus tibi imperat. Deus 
bonus est. Sed Deus Redemptorem tibi promittet. Nunc, 
si facies id quod Deus imperabit, Deus tibi peccatum 
tuum ignoscet. Ne alia peccata committas!” 

Sed homines boni esse non amant. Itaque alter al- 
terum interfecit, id est, Cain Abel interfecit. Cain enim 
et Abel sacrificia Deo offerebant. Sed sacrificia Cain 
Deo non placuerunt, sicut sacrificia Abel placuerunt. 

Cain itaque dixit Deo, “Cur non amabas sacrificium 
quod offerebam?” Et Deus dixit, “Quia tu non habebas 
cor (heart) bonum.” His auditis, Cain rogavit Abel 
venire in agros secum. Dixit, “Venias in agros mecum 
(with me)." Et cum in agros venissent, et soli essent, 
Cain interfecit Abel. Sed Cain sese abscondere non 
poterat. Deus enim omnia videt. Deus ergo eum inter¬ 
rogavit, “Ubi est Abel?” Et Cain respondit, “Estne 
necesse ut defendam Abel?” Et Deus dixit: “Putabas 
quod nemo te videbat cum Abel interficeres—sed vide- 
bam te. Deus enim semper omnia videt. Non licebat tibi 
interficere Abel. Ergo—discedas ex hac terra! Sed ne 
timeas. Nemo enim te interficiet. Accipies signum, ne 
homo te interficiat.” 

English to Latin 

1. Why did you come into the fields with him? 2. He is 
sending you in order that you may bring water. 3. Noe, 
God commands you that you make an ark. 4. Let us 
come into the ark with Noe. 5. Men were so evil that 
they could not hear these words. 6. Noe, you were mak¬ 
ing a ship (so) that you might sail in it in the flood. 
7. May you have many good things with you. 

Scramble Exercise 

Aquis magnis e coelo et mari venientibus super terram 
omnem, multi homines locum in quo servari possent 
invenfre conati sunt, nec poterant. Super omnes enim 
montes venerunt magni aquae diluvii. Qui in area erant 
servati sunt—ex aliis nemo. Post dies multos, Deus im- 
bres non iam misit, et eorum qui cum Noe in area 
erant recordatus est ut ex area eos duceret. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo perfecto 

Cum aquae discessissent de terra, Noe et filii eius, et uxores filiorum eius 
egressi sunt ex area. Sed etiam animalia egressa sunt. Et Noe fecit alt&re 
Domino. Defnde acc6pit multa animalia ex eis quae fuerant in area secum 
(omnia enim ilia animalia in quibus erat spiritus vitae interficta erant 
diluvio)—et obtulit sacrificia Deo. Sacrificia Noe placuirunt Deo. Domi- 
nus ergo promisit Noe quod numquam post illud tempus diluvium delibit 
omnem terram et omnia viv6ntia quae in ea sunt. Deus etiam dedit signum 
promissionis suae, “Verum est quod imbres venient de coelis. Sed ut 
sciitis quod numquam diluvium delebit omnem terram, arcus meus erit in 
coelis post imbres. Hoc modo scies Deum semper recorded promissionis 

Post diluvium, omnis terra habebat solummodo linguam unam. Sed cum 
homines iter ficerent ad orientiles partes mundi, venirunt in terram 
Senaar, et volu6runt remanere ibi. Coepirunt itaque aedificire turrem 
miximam. Hi enim homines sup6rbi erant. Et Dominus desc6ndit ut 
vidiret turrem et civititem quam aedificabant. Sed opera horum hominum 
non placuirunt D»o—confidebant enim in se, et in potestite sua. Sed non 
debuirunt confidere in se. Homo enim non est tam fortis ut possit vivere et 
igere sine Domino. Propter hanc causam, opera horum non placu6runt 
Deo. Itaque Deus punivit eos. Eff6cit ut unus homo non posset intelligere 
<ilios homines. Mut^vit linguas #orum. Linguis mut^tis, magna confusio 
erat in illo loco. Multae enim linguae audieb&ntur, sed nemo poterat alios 
intelligere. Itaque homines discess6runt ex illo loco, et non iam volu6runt 
aedific^re turrem. 

egressus-^o out 

altar e-altar 





turris -tower 

civitas -city 


efficer c-bring about 



confidere, confisus est- 
trust in (confidere is 
is, all forms made 
from the first part are 

normal, others are 
deponent ) 
[egrediuntur], gredi, 
gressus est-go out 
mutire, ivit, atus -efiange 
numquam -never 
magnum alt4re, i -altar 
arcus, u -bow 

magna civitas, cWxtkic-city, citizenship 
dominus, o -lord, master 
magna turris, i -tower 

different magic stick. You already know amdvit and 
amaverunt. The others are also easy to learn. 

Now try any verb: 

(I loved 








have loved did love, etc.) 

The Irregular Verbs: Use the same endings on: fuit, 
potuit, voluit, noluit. (All irregular verbs are normal in 
all forms made on their second and third parts). 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person of Perfect Indicative 
Active: The perfect requires its own set of endings—a 

First Plural Pronoun: nos, nostrum, nobis, nos, 
nobis (Why ask permission of the five pigs for this 


First Plural Adjective: noster, nostra, nostrum — 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Quodam die magister in schola nos interrog&vit, “Ubi 
est terra Senaar?” Diximus quod Senaar est in parte 
orient&li mundi. Nover&mus enim quod non in Palestina 
est. Hebraei in ilia terra (id est, in Palestina) erant. Sed 
Senaar est ad orientem a Palestina: in Mesopotamia est. 
“Sed dicas nobis quae sit signific4tio huius nominis 
‘Mesopotamia.’ ” Mesopotamia est nomen Graecum. In 
lingua Latina dicitur: In medio inter flumina. Haec est 
significdtio nominis “Mesopotamia.” In Graeca enim 
lingua, potamds est flumen et mesos est medius. Sed, ut 
dicitur simpliciter, Senaar idem est ac (as) Bibylon. 
“Nonne tu dixisti nobis, magister, quod Bibylon in 
lingua Hebriica significat confusio?” Ctique, hoc dixi. 
In Babylonia enim iccidit confusio linguirum. Sed in 
lingua hominum qui in Babylonia erant, nomen “Biby- 
lon” significat “porta Dei.” Itaque, quamquam Baby- 
lonii (the Babylonians) urbem suam vocaverunt “porta 
Dei,” Scriptura dicit quod melius est vocire earn “con¬ 
fusio,” propter confusionem linguirum. Re vera, 
scriptor Sacrae Scripturae fecit lusum verborum (a play 
on words). 

“Estne necesse credere quod diluvium super totum 

mundum venit—id est, etiam super Americam Septen- 
trionilem et Meridionilem, et super Africam, et super 
omnes Alias terras?” Homo potest credere quod hoc re 
vera iccidit, si vult. Sed Sacra Scriptura hoc non dicit. 
Scriptura enim dicit quod diluvium super totam terram 
venit: et quaestio est; quid significat tota terra ? Forsan 
tota terra significat solummodo totam terram Mesopo- 
tdmiae. Hoc non certum est. 

English to Latin 

1. What did you do when the flood came? 2. We came 
into the ark. 3. Why did you want to build that tower? 
4. God is so good that you should trust Him. 5. We have 
built an altar. 6. We have come to build the tower. 
7. We asked why you had changed your plans. 

Scramble Exercise 

Noe, tu et filii tui Deo sacrificium offerdtis. Qui enim 
omnes dlios in aquis delevit, te et tuos serv&vit. Ut 
serv&ri possetis, tibi ut arcam fdceres imper&vit. In 
quam cum venissetis, vos ab Omni periculo liber&vit 
Deus. In »o confidatis in quo misericordia magna est. 
Et cum videbitur in coelis arcus, in mentem veniat 
vestram promissio, quam Deus vobis dedit. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo praesenti 

Diluvio fini'to, et turri Babylonica relicta, homines discesserunt in multas 
terras. S«d memoria diluvii non ita terruit eos ut non committerent multa 
peccata. Insuper facti sunt peiores quam fuerant ante diluvium. Sed Deus 
promiserat quod numquam diluvium deleret omne genus humanum. Et 
Deus semper veritatem dicit. Homines saepe dicunt hoc et faciunt illud, 
sed Deus verus est. 

Sed non omnes homines pessimi facti sunt. Quidam viri adhuc servi 
Dei erant. Inter hos bonos viros erat Abram. Non clarum est in quo anno, 
vel etiam in quo saeculo diluvium accidit. Quidam putant diluvium acci- 
disse in millenario sexto vel quinto ante Christum. Alii putant id accidisse 
in millenario tertio, sed non utile est putare de hac re; homo non potest 
scire. Probabile autem est quod, Abram natus est in prima parte saeculi 
vigesimi ante Christum. Abram habitavit in terra quae vocatur Chaldaea. 
Abram natus erat in civitate cuius nomen erat Ur. Ur erat in parte meridio- 
nali Babyloniae. Maiores Abram colebant multos deos; erant ergo poly- 
theistae. Sed Abram ipse coluit solummodo unum Deum. Abram habuit 
fratrem, cuius nomen erat Aran. Post mortem autem Aran, Abram dis- 
cessit ex Ur, et venit in Haran. Pater enim Abram (cuius nomen erat 
Thare) discessit ex Ur et cum eo venerunt Abram ipse, et uxor Abram 
(quae erat Sara) et Lot, qui erat fiTius Aran. 

In Haran etiam erant multi polytheistae. Ibi multi homines coluerunt 
lunam. Putaverunt enim lunam esse deum, et vocaverunt lunam, in lingua 
Babylonica, “Sin.” Erat magnum templum huius falsi dei “Sin” in Haran. 
Sed Abram non coluit Sin. (Continuabitur) 

finitus -ended 
ita -so 

vel -or 

millenarium-a thousand years 

utilis- useful 






worshipper of many gods 
luna -moon 


finire, ivit, kus-finish 

habitare, avit, atus- 
dwell, inhabit 


satis-sufficiently, very, 
vel -or, even 

maiores, maioribus -ancestors (merely pi. 

of maior in special sense) 
peior, peius, peior e-worse 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person Indicative: It is easy to 
make these forms, starting from the third singular, 
which we already know. The easiest way is to make a 
short stick, leaving out the first and last forms: 


ama t 




tene t 


















All the forms we have just made are entirely regular, 
and fit easily on the short stick. 

Now we recall that we already know the bottom 
forms for each line, that is, the third plurals: 
amant tenent ponunt capiunt audiunt 
So all we really have to learn today is just five words: 
amo teneo pono capio audio 
What are the meanings? For am&re they would be: 
I love we love 

you love you love 

he loves they love 

And of course, we can vary these forms just as we have 
been doing for a long time. That is, besides “he loves” 
we can say: “he does love, he is loving.” And so on with 
other forms. 


First Singular Pronoun: ego, mei, mihi, me, me 
(I, of me, to me, me, etc.) 

First Singular Adjective: meus, a, um (my, mine) 

Present Tense of Irregular Verbs: We shall save 

these for a few lessons later, since we have to learn the 

above forms—but, if anyone is curious, here are some: 

sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt 

possum, potes, potest, possumus, potestis, possunt 

volo, vis, vult, volumus, vultis, volunt 

nolo, non vis, non vult, nolumus, non vultis, nolunt 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Deus vocavit Cain, “Quid facis Cain?” Cain dixit, 
“Nihil facio. Quid mihi imperas ut faciam?” Deus dixit, 
“Tu fratrem tuum Abel interferisti. Cur fecisti hoc? 
Ego interficere te non volo, sed necesse est ut te puniam. 
Mitto ergo te in exsilium.” 

Sed postquam omnes homines pessimi facti sunt, 
Deus etiam Noe vocavit. Noe enim vir iustus erat, quam- 
quam fere omnes alii pessimi facti sunt. Noe Deo dixit, 
“Faciam (/ will do) omnia quae iubes. Quid ergo facere 
debeo?” Et Deus dixit, “Debes arcam facere. Due (lead) 
in hanc arcam animalia ex omnibus generibus anima- 
lium quae in terra sunt et in se spiritum vitae habent.” 
Noe ergo narravit haec omnia flliis suis. Dixit enim, 
“Deus mihi imperavit ut arcam facerem. Vos etiam mihi 
auxilium dare debetis, ut in area servari possitis. Venia- 
tis mecum, ut materiam colligamus.” Noe ergo fecit 

arcam, et in arcam ingressus est. Et imber maximus 
super omnem terram venit per dies quadraginta et noc- 
tes quadraginta. Et Noe dixit, “Magnos videmus imbres, 
et diluvium! Deus meus, bonus es (you are). Me et meos 
in area hac servavisti.” Et post diluvium Deus dixit, 
“Pono arcum meum in coelis, ut scire possitis quod 
semper in memoria habeo promissionem meam. Num- 
quam delebo omnes homines aquis diluvii. Verum est 
quod homines mali fient, sed alio modo punientur, et 
non per aliud diluvium.” 

English to Latin 

1. I am sending a messenger in order that you may 
know the truth. 2. Are you coming with me? 3. I now 
have the name “Abram”—but God will change my 
name, He will call me “Abraham.” 4. I dwell in Egypt 
but I do not know the gods of Egypt. 5. This land is 
so good that we will not depart. 6. Our ancestors had 
many gods, but we have the one true God. 7. We did not 
finish the tower. 

Scramble Exercise 

Deus dixit, “Ego omnia quae in hoc mundo sunt feci. 
Volebam omnibus hominibus per Adam et Evam qui 
homines primi erant dare multa bona. Vos autem non 
permisistis mihi ut ea quae volueram facerem. Peccatis 
vestris pessimis necesse est ut, cum amem vos, vos 
puniam. Nihilominus autem, misericordia mea magna 
vobis Redemptor dabitur.” 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Difficile est bonus esse inter malos. Sed Abram, cum esset in m6dio tarn 
multorum polytheist&rum, adhuc col6bat solum Deum verum. Et Deus 
locutus est ei, et dixit: Abram, volo ut disc6das ex hac terra tua, et de 
domo patris tui, et v6nias in 41iam terram, quae ostend6tur tibi. Volo enim 
fdcere te in gentem magnam, et benedfcere tibi, et f&cere nomen tuum 
magnum. Abram ltaque egr6ssus est ex terra Haran sicut Dominus 
imper^verat ei. Lot venit cum eo. Abram erat vir septuaginta quinque 
annorum cum egreder6tur de Haran. Etiam Sara, uxor Abram, venit cum 
eis. Vendrunt in terram Chfinaan. Sed Deus iterum app^ruit Abram et 
dixit ei: Omnis terra haec erit tua. Et Abram aedific4vit ibi alt&re Domino 
qui apparuerat ei. Sed Abram non remdnsit in terra ilia. Fames enim erat 
ibi. Desc6ndit ltaque in Aeg^ptum. 

Sed Abram non semper remdnsit in Aeg^pto. Reversus est in terram 
Chinaan. Lot 6tiam venit cum Abram ex Aeg^pto. Et Lot et Abram facti 
sunt valde divites. Habudrunt multos agnos et multa ilia. Terra non poterat 
tenure omnes possessiones eorum. Abram ergo dixit ad Lot, “Ecce, uni- 
v6rsa terra est coram te. Eligas partem terrae tibi. Si tu iligis unam partem, 
ego accipiam ilteram.” Lot ltaque vidit terram quae erat circa Iordinem 
esse bonam, et habit&vit ibi. In illis enim diibus, terra quae est circa 
Sodoma et Gomorrham valde bona erat multis fructibus. Dominus enim 
adhuc non deliverat illas urbes. Lot fecit domum suam in Sodomis. Sed 
homines Sodomitae erant p&simi. 

Et Deus appiruit iterum Abram et dixit ei, “Vides omnes Stellas quae in 
coelo sunt? Postiritas tua erit maior numero quam stellae.” Et Abram 
crididit Deo. (Continuibitur eras) 

coler e-worship 
volo-/ wish 
app&ruit -appeared 
fames -famine 
Sodoma, is -Sodom 
Stella -star 


apparere, appiruit, iterum -again 

appiritus -appear valde-very 


dives, divite-n'c/i ( poss. pi. -um ) 
magna fames, fame-hunger, famine 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say in the subjunctive (both singular 
and plural): you open, you were opening, you had 
opened. Give the same forms for: rumpere, terrire, 
mutdre. 2. How do you say in the indicative: I open, I 
was opening, I will open, I have opened, I had opened. 
Now, do the same with: claudere, finire, rumpere, 

mutdre. Give also all the “we” forms. 3. Make all the 
indicative forms in number 2 (above) subjunctive 
(omit: I have opened). 4. Summarize the rules for form¬ 
ing the first and second person in all tenses of the sub¬ 
junctive. Make up a rule for as many indicatives as you 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Abram, quid facis nunc? “Multas res paro ut disc6dam 
ex hac terra. Deus enim mihi locutus est.” Quid dixit tibi 
Deus? “Mihi imperivit ut ex hac terra mea disc6dam 
cum omnibus possessionibus meis. ltaque relfnquimus 
omnia quae portiri (to be carried) non possunt.” Cur 
vult Deus ut hoc facifitis? “Deus mihi causam non dixit, 
sed eum interrogate nolui. Satis est mihi ut sciam Deum 
locutum esse. Si ille iubet, nos non interrog&re, sed 
obedire debemus. Sed Deus 6tiam magnam dedit mihi 


promissionem. Faciet me in gentem magnam.” Sed 
Abram, non iam es (you are ) adulescens (young man). 
Nonne multos annos habes? “Non multos—solummodo 
septuaginta quinque annos h&beo. Sed, sicut iam dixi, 
non debemus consider£re difficulties quando Deus 
nobis imperat; si ille imperat, etiam potestiem nobis 
dabit ut omnia quae iubet faciamus.” In quam terram 
discedis? “In Palestinam.” Et ubi est Palestina? “Est ad 
occidentem a terra hac. Ilia terra bona nobis erit, quia 
Deus illam nobis dabit.” 

Pauca de Civitate Dei 

Sanctus Augustinus scripsit de duabus civitiibus. Dixit 
haec: Duo amores aedificaverunt duas civit&tes. Unus 
amor est amor Dei. Hie amor fecit civitatem Dei. Alter 
amor est amor sui. Hie amor fecit civitatem huius 
mundi. Cives civitatis Dei non confidunt in se ipsis; con- 
fidunt in Deo. Exspectant auxilium ab eo. Sed cives 
civitdtis huius mundi confidunt in potest&te sua, et 
navibus, et in exercitibus magnis. Non exspectant 

auxilium a Deo. Amant res tempories, et res aeternas 

English to Latin 

1. We are leaving this land because there is a famine 
in it. 2. Although my ancestors thought there were many 
gods, I know that there is only one God. 3.1 have built 
an altar in this place because God appeared to me. 4. The 
famine was so great that many men died. 5. God has 
told me that the Hebrews will become great. 6. He is so 
rich that no one loves him. 7. Do you see the stars? 
Your sons will be greater in number. 

Scramble Exercise 

Vir bonus Abram, cum inter multos polytheistas esset, 
visionem vidit, in qua ei apparuit Deus ut ex terra sua 
discederet. Ille, ut obediret Dei iussis, venit in Ch£naan. 
Propter famem autem in Aegyptum venit, terram in qua 
dei multi et falsi ab hominibus esse putabantur. Ille 
autem unum, qui verus Deus est, qui etiam apparuerat 
ei, am4bat. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo juturo 
De imperativo activo 

Quodam die Abram audivit quod quattuor reges cepissent Lot. Abram 
ergo collegit omnes servos suos, et secutus est illos reges. Hoc modo salvavit 
Lot. Post haec, Melchisedech, qui erat rex Salem venit ad Abram. 
Melchisedech erat sacerdos Dei. Itaque obtulit sacrificium Deo. In hoc 
sacrificio offerebat panem et vinum. Hoc modo praefigurabat sacrificium 

Post haec, Deus iterum apparuit Abram, et mutavit nomen eius. Dixit, 
“Nomen tuum non iam erit Abram, sed Abraham. Quia volo facere te 
patrem multarum gentium. Iubeo te circumcidere omnes pueros in die 
octavo post nativitatem eorum. Haec circumcisio erit signum foederis inter 
me et te. Insuper, tu et Sara uxor tua habebitis filium, et vocabitis nomen 
eius Isaac.” 

Cum Abraham habitaret in Mambre, Deus ipse cum duobus angelis 
venerunt ad eum in forma humana. Abraham accepit eos in domum suam. 
Postea Deus discessit, et Abraham secutus est eum. Duo angeli ierunt in 
Sodoma, sed Dominus remansit cum Abraham, et dixit ei, “Homines qui 
in Sodomis habitant pessimi facti sunt. Necesse est ergo delere eos et 
civitatem eorum.” Abraham autem non amavit peccata, sed amavit amicos 
suos, quorum multi habitabant in Sodomis. Ergo rogavit Dominum dicens: 
“Domine, si quinquaginta viri iusti invenientur in Sodomis, parces civitati 
illi?” Et Dominus respondit: “Si in Sodomis invenientur quinquaginta viri 
iusti, eorum causa non delebo (/ will not destroy ) hanc civitatem.” 
Abraham ergo iterum rogavit Dominum dicens: “Domine, si in ilia civitate 
invenientur quadraginta quinque iusti, parces civitati?” Et Dominus 
iterum dedit ei petitionem eius. Abraham itaque perseverabat rogans in 
hoc modo. Oltimo Dominus dixit: “Si solummodo decern iusti invenientur, 
non delebo Sodoma.” (Continuabitur eras) 



panis -bread 


gens -people, nation 



ierunt -went 

Domine-Lord ( vocative form ) 
causa -for the sake of 
(with poss .) 
perse verir e-con t/n 


circumcidere, cidit, perseverare, avit, atus- 

cisus -circumcise continue, persevere 

parcere, pepercit, causa-/or sake of 

parcitus (or parsus)- ( with poss.) 
spare (takes dat. case ) ultimo-or last 
Abraham-po^. and dat. are 

Abrahae, other forms: Abraham 
bonus panis, z-bread 
bonus sacerdos, dot z-priest 

lar which we already know. The easiest way is to use a 
short stick (as we did in Lesson 51), leaving out the 
first and last forms: 

amabi t 




tenebi t 








capie t 



Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person Future Indicative: It is 
easy to make these forms, starting from the third singu- 

audie t 




All the forms we have just made are entirely regular, 
and fit easily on the short stick. 

Now we recall that we already know the bottom 
forms for each line, that is, the third plurals: 

amabunt tenebunt ponent capient audient 
So all we really have to learn today is just five words: 

amabo tenebo ponam capiam audiam 
What are the meanings? For amdre they would be: 

I shall love we shall love 
you will love you will love 
he will love they will love 

And of course, we can vary these forms just as we have 
been doing for a long time. That is, besides “he will 
love” we can say: “he will be loving.” And so on with 
other forms. 

Imperative Active: The imperative is the form that 
gives a command. It is easy to make; merely remove the 
letters -re from the present active infinitive, thus: para 
habe pone cape (the iunt verbs are not odd here) audi. 

The plural is almost as easy—except in the third con¬ 
jugation, just add -te to the imperative singular: 

parate habete audfte 
But in the third conjugation we get not ponete but 
pon/te, cap/te. 

How do we translate it? It merely gives a command: 
prepare! have! put! seize! hear! 


Suppose we want to say: “Don’t do it!” That is, use a 
negative with the imperative. Sometimes (but rarely) 
ne is used: ne pardte. But ordinarily, Latin will talk 
around a negative, by using the imperative of nolle (be 
unwilling) followed by an infinitive. Thus: 
nolfte venire 

be unwilling to come—don’t come 

The singular of nolite is, of course, noli. 

The hortatory subjunctive with ne is about the same 
as a negative command: 

Ne faciat—Let him not do it. 

Ne facias—May you not do it. 

This seems like a “mild” command. 

Un-scramble Exercise: We have now seen some 
forms that are very similar. But they are easy to keep 
unscrambled if we take a close look at them lined up one 
under the other, e.g.: 

petimus—we ask 
petemus—we will ask 
petamus—let us ask. 

For practice, make a similar list for each of these verbs: 
dfcere, ponere, claudere, rumpere, mittere. It will help 
too if we make them not only for we forms, but also for 
forms to mean: 1 , you (singular and plural), he, they. 
Notice especially what happens in the cdpiunt type verbs 
in the forms that mean / and they (test it out on fdcere 
and accipere). 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Dominus Abraham vocavit ad se et dixit, “Veni ad me, 
Abraham. Tibi explicabo hanc rem. Olim totum delevi 
mundum diluvio quia homines omnes pessimi facti sunt. 
Sed etiam illo tempore familiam unam servavi, id est, 
Noe et fflios eius, et uxores filiorum eius. Noe enim fuit 
iustus coram me. Nunc in Sodomis et Gomorrha lterum 
fere omnes homines pessimi facti sunt. Et tu Abraham 
rogabis me ut illi civitati parcam (spare)? Sed nihilo- 
minus, hoc re vera faciam si numerus sufficiens homi- 
num iustorum in ea invenientur.” Abraham ltaque dixit, 
“Rogo te, Domine, ut dicas mihi: Quot (how many ) 
homines dices satis esse?” Et Dominus respondit ei, “Si 
quinquaginta iustos ibi inveniam, civitates illas non 
delebo.” Sed quinquaginta iusti non sunt inventi. Abra¬ 
ham autem perseverabat rogans Dominum. Ultimo Do¬ 
minus promfsit ei: “Si inveniam decern iustos, urbes illas 
servabo.” Sed etiam decern non inventi sunt. 

Ubi erant hae urbes? In parte meridionali Palestfnae 
erant. Sed nunc in illo loco est Mare Mortuum. Deus 
enim non solum Sodoma, sed etiam Gomorrham delevit, 
propter peccata maxima quae homines in illis urbibus 
faciebant. Multis aliis temporibus Deus punivit homi¬ 
nes propter peccata. Saepe Hebraeos punivit, sed ignem 
de coelis non misit in urbes eorum. Alias gentes misit ut 
contra eos pugnarent exercitibus magnis. Exempli 
causa, Assyrios et Babylonios misit. Assyrii erant gens 
(nation) fortis in bello. Omnes homines terrebantur 
cum Assyrios viderent. Non enim poterant stare contra 
eos. Assyrii autem non omnes Iudaeos interfecerunt; 
quosdam in pugnis interfecerunt, sed alios e terra eorum 
in Assyriam portaverunt (carried). Sed Iudaei in terra 
nova noluerunt habitare. Assyriam non amaverunt. 
Assyrii autem eos non dimiserunt ut in terram Israel 

Bugs Lepus 

Duo operarii (laborers) cenam (dinner) comedebant. 
Panem et cames habebant. Unus ad alterum locutus est, 


“Uxor mea carnes bonas mihi dat semper.” Et alter 
interrogavit, “Quales {what kind) carnes habes?” Cui 
primus operarius respondit: “Uxor mea capit lepores 
( rabbits ) in nocte.” “Sed quo modo potest uxor tua 
lepores videre in tenebris ( darkness )?” “Non potest eos 
videre, sed potest eos audire cum exclamant.” “Ilia po¬ 
test audire lepores! Sed lepores nihil dicunt!” “Sed hi 
lepores re vera exclamant—dicunt enim: meow, meow.” 

English to Latin 

1. Abraham, I will not spare that city. 2. I have spoken, 
and I will do all that I said. 3. Put your hand on the altar 
and promise that you will do all that I will ask you. 

4. We will circumcise our sons because God commands 
it. 5. For the sake of Abraham, God will spare the 
Hebrews. 6. I will continue asking God to spare that 
city. Come with us and we will ask God to give us help. 

Scramble Exercise 

Lot capto, Abram exercitum ex servis fecit suis ut contra 
quattuor reges pugnaret. Quam post victoriam, Mel- 
chisedech vini et panis sacrificium obtulit. Abrahae 
habitSnti in Mambre, duobus cum angelis apparuit 
Deus. Cui necesse esse delere Sodoma, pessima propter 
peccata dixit Deus. Abraham autem Deum rogare perse- 
veravit ne illam deleret urbem. 



De prima et secunda persona in verbis: velle, nolle, et ire 

Sed decern iusti non inventi sunt in Sodomis. Itaque duo angeli missi sunt 
ut destruerent Sodoma. Sed primum venerunt ad Lot. Lot sedebat ad por- 
tam civitatis. Angeli dixerunt ei, “Surge, discede ab hoc loco, Dominus 
enim destruet ilium.” Ilia nocte, Lot venit ad duos iuvenes qui voluerunt 
ducere filias Lot in matrimonium et dixit eis, “Dominus destruet hanc 
urbem, propter peccata multa turpia quae homines in ea committunt.” 
Sed illi iuvenes noluerunt credere Lot, et putabant eum iocari. 

Mane angeli iterum venerunt ad Lot, et monebant eum ut statim 
discederet ne periret cum ilia turpi civitate. Dixerunt, “Uxor tua veniat 
tecum, et etiam duae filiae tuae exeant.” Sed Lot adhuc morabatur, ita ut 
necesse esset ducere eum manu, quasi contra voluntatem eius. Angeli ergo 
duxerunt Lot et familiam eius e Sodomis, et monuerunt eos ne respfcerent 
post se. Dixerunt, “Nolite respfcere. Si enim hoc facietis, moriemini (you 
will die)." Uxor Lot erat curiosa—volebat videre quid Dominus faceret 
illi civitati. Respexit itaque, et statim conversa est in statuam salis. 

Deus misit ignem et sulphur de coelis et destruxit Sodoma et Gomor- 
rham. Locus harum urbium nunc est sub Mari Mortuo. Id quod accidit his 
civitatibus debet monere omnes homines ne peccata committant contra 
Deum. Quamquam enim Deus non semper punit peccata in hac vita, certe 
puniet ea in futura vita. 

seder e-sit 
turpis -shameful 
iocari-to joke 
man t-in morning 
exir e-go out 
ita -so 
quasi-as if 
respicere-iooit back 
conversus -turned 
sal -salt 



Today we take it a bit easy, since we have had 
many new forms lately. We will merely apply the 
new forms to three somewhat irregular verbs: velle, 
nolle, ire. 

Velle and Nolle: We already know all the third 
person forms of these verbs. To refresh memories: 


Imperfect Future Perfect 

volebat volet voluit 

nolebat nolet noluit 


Present Imperfect 

velit vellet 

nolit nollet 

The perfect indicative has its special set of endings, 
like other perfects: i, isti, it, imus, istis, erunt. 

The other forms given above just use the magic stick: 



Except that the first singular future turns 
mus out to be -am (not -em ). 

I (It is just like a future of third conjugation.) 


That means we now have to pick up only the present 

indicative ! Here it is: 









non vis 

non vultis 

non vult 


We do have the normal present indicative endings : 
o, s, t, mus, tis, nt —but they are attached in strange 
ways. We would have no trouble in recognizing these 
forms—to make them, there is no way out but to 

Ire: In Lesson 40, in the vocabulary, we learned the 
third person indicatives of this verb: 

Present: it, eunt 
Imperfect: ibat, ibant 
Future: ibit, ibunt 

The imperfect and future will run just like any 
other -bat and -bit imperfects and futures. But the 
present needs just a bit of attention: 

Ego eo Nos imus 

Tu is Vos itis 

Is it Ei eunt 

Almost like endings looking around for something 
to end! The subjunctive starts out with earn —and 
then uses the familiar stick: 



ea t 




Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Hodie fabulam le'gamus de Graecia. In Graecia erant 
quaedam loca quae oracula vocabantur. In his locis falsi 
dei videbantur responsa dare quaestionibus. Sed re- 
sponsa saepe erant nullo modo clara. Erant ambigua. 

Quidam adulescens ( young man) Graecus—voce- 
mus eum Philippum—qui in Phocia habitabat, ad bel- 
lum vocatus est. Quae cum audivisset ad amicum suum 
Platonem locutus est Philippus, “Plato, civitas mea ad 
bellum vocat, sed nolo ire. Numquam vidi bona venire 
ex bello. Insuper, mortem timeo. Nondum multos annos 
habeo, et celeriter mori non volo.” 

His verbis auditis, Plato amico suo Philippo dixit, “Si 
vis veritatem de hac re cum certitiidine audire, consilium 

dabo ( from dare) tibi. Urbs clara est in Graecia; Delphi 
vocatur. In hac urbe est oraculum ( oracle ) magnum in 
quo deus Apollo ( nominative case ) responsa dat peten- 
tibus (to those who ask). Si ad hoc oraculum ibis, et 
Apollini (dative) sacrificia offeres, scio quod deus tibi 
responsum de hoc bello dabit. 

Gratias egit (thanked) Platoni Philippus, et in viam 
suam ibat ad oraculum clarum Apollinis. Iter non erat 
longum ex domo Philippi. Cum ad oraculum venisset, 
peciiniam sacerdotibus dedit suam, “Volo hoc scire: ibo 
ad bellum? Et si hoc faciam, redibo (return—a com¬ 
pound of ire: redire) sine iniuria?” 

Vox mysteriosa ex oraculo venit. Philippus non 
potuit intellegere (understand) —quaedam enim femina 
quae Pythia vocabatur locuta est, sed sacerdotes de- 
derunt ei interpretationem. Et hoc erat responsum, “Ibis 
redibis numquam peribis in armis.” 

Et nunc, quid putamus? Quid dicit oraculum? Morie- 
tur Philippus? 

English to Latin 

1. We are going to Rome to see Caesar. 2. We do not 
want to hear Cicero. 3. You want to know whether 
you will return. 4. We will go lest the fire destroy us. 
5. Let us arise and go quickly lest we perish. 6. That 
which God wills is certainly (certe) good for us. 7. We 
certainly will not remain here. 

Scramble Exercise 

Decern iustis in Sodomis non inventis, a Deo missi sunt 
ut illam urbem destruerent duo angeli. Quibus loquenti- 
bus de destructione urbis. Lot credidit. Huic autem duo 
iiivenes qui in matrimonium filias Lot ducere voluerunt 
credere noluerunt. Lot enim dixit illis, “Evadamus nos 
ex ruina urbis huius ne pereamus omnes cum viris 



Iterum videamus formas novas activas 

Deus promiserat Abrahae quod faceret eum in gentem magnam. Ut 
impleret hanc promissionem, Deus dedit ei puerum, cuius nomen erat 
Isaac. Abraham ipse erat centum annorum quando Isaac natus est. 
Abraham ergo amavit Isaac multum, quia putabat quod Deus impleret 
promissionem suam per Isaac. Secundum foedus quod fecerat cum Deo, 
Abraham circumcidit puerum octavo die post nativitatem eius. 

Sed quodam die Deus vocavit Abraham. Voluit enim videre num Abra¬ 
ham amaret filium suum plus quam Deum. Itaque Deus dixit, “Abraham, 
Abraham.” Ille respondit, “Adsum Domine.” Et Deus dixit illi, “Tolle 
filium tuum quern amas, Isaac, et offeres eum in holocaustum super unum 
montium quern monstrabo tibi.” 

Abraham ergo surrexit et paravit omnia quae necessaria erant ad hoc 
sacrificium. Isaac fecit iter cum patre suo Abraham. Et fecerunt iter per 
tres dies. Et die tertio viderunt montem quern Deus monstraverat. Abra¬ 
ham ergo imperavit servis suis ut remanerent in quodam loco. Ipse et 
puer Isaac ascenderunt. Isaac portabat ligna pro holocausto. Abraham 
ipse portabat ignem et gladium. Et cum iter facerent, Isaac interrogavit 
patrem suum, “Pater, habemus ligna, ignem, et gladium, sed ubi est 
victima pro holocausto?” Cui Abraham respondit, “Ne timeas, fili mi, 
Deus ipse dabit victimam pro holocausto.” Cum venissent ad locum sacri- 
ficii, Abraham tenuit et ligavit Isaac, et posuit eum super ligna. Et 
extendens manum, paratus erat interficere puerum suum. Sed antequam 
posset tangere filium gladio, ecce, angelus vocavit eum et dixit, Abraham, 
ne extendas manum tuam in filium tuum. Nunc enim novi quod times 
Deum, et non pepercisti filio tuo propter Deum.” Abraham ergo respexit 
post se, et vidit arietem. Hunc cepit, et obtulit in holocaustum pro puero 
suo. Deus iterum locutus est ei, “Quia fecisti hanc rem, et non pepercisti 
filio tuo, benedicam tibi, et faciam te in gentem magnam, et omnes gentes 
terrae benedicentur in te, quia obedivisti voci meae.” 

gens -nation 

secundum -according to 

foedus -covenant 

plus -more 

toller e-take 

adsum-/ am here 



fili mi-my son 



antequam -before 





adesse, adfuit, tollere, sustulit, sublatus- 

*adfuturus-6e present remove, take, lift, 

ligare, avit, atus -bind raise 

tangere, tetigit, tactus- secundum ( with obj .)- 
touch according to 

plus, plure ( has only neuter form 
in sing. pi. is: plures, plura— 
two termination type, with -ium 
poss. pi.)-more 

Videamus Formas Veteres in Persona 1‘ et 2* 

We can now sum up the first and second person active 

1. The perfect indicative has its own endings: i, isti, 

it, imus, istis, erunt. 

2. All active subjunctives and imperfect and plu¬ 

perfect indicatives— 
use the stick: 







3. Present and Future Indicative: Use the short 
stick for both present and future (that is, the stick 
covers all but first and last forms). For example: 
s s 

am a t 

amabi t 






Then recall the third plurals we learned long ago: 
amant, tenent, ponunt, capiunt, audiunt. Finally, we 
add the first singulars: amo, teneo, pono, capio, audio. 
In general, then, for all actives except the perfect indi¬ 
cative, we have: o or m, s, t, mus, tis, nt (o for present 
indicative and future of conjugations one and two— 
otherwise m). 

Practice : 1. Give the second singular active of all 
tenses of indicative and subjunctive of: habitare, tenere, 
mittere, rapere, scire. 

2. Give the first singular active of all tenses of indi¬ 
cative and subjunctive of the same verbs. 

3. Do the same with the first plural on your own list 
of verbs. Be sure to use the tape for this lesson! 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

“Cur vis interficere me?” rogavit Isaac. “Hodie enim 
tecum egressus sum ut sacrificium Deo offerrem, sed 
nescivi quod ipse deberem sacrificium esse. Estne re vera 
bonum ut hoc fiat? Nonne satis est animalia offerre?” 
Cui Abraham respondit, “Deus mihi imperavit ut te in 
{for a) holocaustum offerrem, fili mi. Verum est quod 
Deus mihi magnam promissionem fecit dicens, ‘Faciam 
te in gentem magnam,’—et videtur mihi quod promissio 
debet per te impleri. Sed confidere Deo debemus. Omnia 
enim quae file promisit certe nobis venient. Deus enim 
non solum verus est, sed est Veritas ipsa. Itaque, fili mi, 
confidamus in eo. Quamquam enim te interficiam— 
Deus facere potest ut a mortuis surgas. Ipse est Dominus 
vitae et mortis, et nihil est difficile ei. Debemus semper 
dicere: Fiat voluntas (will) eius.” 

Sed hoc modo Deus voluit tentare (try) Abraham. 

Non enim re vera voluit Deus sacrificium humanum. 
Deus enim sacrificia humana prohibet. Et Deus non 
tentavit Abraham quia ipse (id est, Deus) nesciret vir- 
tutem Abrahae. Deus enim omnia novit, et nihil potest 
ab eo abscondi. Sed, haec imperans, Deus monstrare 
voluit omnibus nobis magnum exemplum fidei (of faith) 
et obedientiae. Abraham vocatus est “Pater omnium 
credentium,” id est, pater omnium hominum qui credunt 
Deo. In hoc sensu Deus promisit Abrahae, “In te bene- 
dicentur omnes gentes.” Non autem necesse est ut homo 
sit filius Abrahae secundum camem, id est, utsit Iudaeus 
nativitate. Sed necesse est imitari fidem Abrahae. Hoc 
modo, sensu spiritali, nos possumus esse ffiii eius, et 
benedictionem, quam Deus promisit ei, recipimus. 

English to Latin 

1. Let us go to find Abraham. 2. We do not wish to 
remain in that place. 3. It is necessary that I see him. 
4.1 am willing to do all that he asks. 5. He has sent me 
so that I may learn the truth. 6. When he had raised his 
hand, God ordered him not to touch his son. 7. Are you 
not willing to hear me? 

Scramble Exercise 

Abraham post filii nativitatem eius vocavit Deus ut 
eundem sacrificaret filium imperans. Omnibus quae hoc 
ad sacrificium necessaria erant paratis, ad locum quern 
monstraverat Deus cum filio est profectus pater. Filium 
autem antequam interficere posset, per angelum ne vic- 
timam tangeret paratam Abrahae imperavit. Magnam 
quod benedictionem daret Abrahae promisit Deus. 



De prima et secunda persona in verbis: esse, posse et ferre 

Abraham senex erat, et multos iam annos habuit. Vocavit l'taque unum ex 
servis suis et dixit ei, “Ego iam senex sum, et Dominus benedixit mihi in 
multis. Sed ante mortem meam volo providere uxorem bonam pro filio meo 
Isaac. Sed ne accipias uxorem ei de ffliis quae habitant in hac terra—eas ad 
terram meam unde discessi et accipe ibi uxorem pro filio meo Isaac.” 

Respondit servus, “Quid faciam si mulier nolet redire mecum in hanc 
terram: debeo ego ducere filium tuum in terram Haran unde tu venisti?” 
Et Abraham dixit: “Nullo modo—homines enim qui habitant in Haran 
multos deos colunt. Nolo filium meum habitare cum illis. Sed insuper, 
Deus promisit mihi quod faceret me in gentem magnam in terra hac. Debeo 
implere voluntatem eius.” 

Itaque servus discessit, et iter fecit in Haran. Cum ad urbem esset, servus 
vidit mulieres egredientes ut haurirent aquam. Servus Abrahae autem hoc 
modo ad Deum oravit, “Domine Deus, fac misericordiam cum domino 
meo Abraham. Ego itaque rogabo puellas has ut dent ( from dare) mihi 
aquam. Puella ergo quae dicet mihi: ‘Etiam camelis tuis aquam dabo’— 
ilia sit puella quam tu, Domine, paravisti filio domini mei. Hoc modo 
sciam voluntatem tuam.” 

Servus non finiverat orationem suam ad Dominum—et ecce puella 
pulchra, cuius nomen erat Rebecca, venit ad eum. Itaque cum servus peti- 
visset aquam ab ea, Rebecca dixit, “Etiam camelis tuis aquam dabo.” 

Hoc modo invenit servus Abrahae uxorem bonam pro Isaac. Parentes 
enim Rebeccae, audientes omnia quae acciderant, dixerunt, “Voluntas 
Domini Dei clara est. Redeat Rebecca tecum, ut sit uxor bona filio domini 

sen ex-old man 

sum-/ am 

provider e-provide 

filia -daughter 

eas -subj. of ire 


mulier -woman 

colere- worship 

gens -people 

impler e-fulfill 

voluntas -will 

haurir e-draw 

oravit -prayed 

fac (imperative of facere) 




colere, coluit, cultus- 

magna gens, gent t-tribe. 

worship, till, cultivate 

people (poss. p/.-ium) 

implere, implevit. 

bona voluntas. 

impletus -fill, fulfill 


filia, ^-daughter 

und t-whence, from 

Nunc Cogitemus 











On most of these we can make the first and second 
person simply—of course, the perfect indicative be¬ 
haves like other perfects—of the rest, all but the present 
and future indicative use the stick that has: m, s, t, mus, 
tis, nt. 

Now the future is almost the same: 

Forms of Esse: We already know the third person 
forms of esse: 








But the present indicative is quite irregular: 




















Forms of Posse: Outside of the infinitive, this verb is 
merely esse with the prefixes pot- and pos-: we use pot- 
before forms beginning with e —such as potero, potes, 
potest, etc. Before forms beginning with s we have pos-, 
thus: possum, possumus, possunt, etc. Only the present 
indicative is any bother (because it jumps around): 
possum possumus 

potes potestis 

potest possunt 

Forms for the rest are easy—such as present subjunc¬ 
tive possim (with stick). Write out a table of the rest. 

Forms of Ferre: This verb acts just like a normal third 
conjugation verb outside the present indicative. Thus 
we have imperfect indicative— fertbam; future— 
feram, feres, etc.; present subjunctive— feram, feras, 
etc.; imperfect subjunctive— ferrem, ferres, etc. Here is 
the present indicative: 

fero ferimus 

fers fertis 

fert ferunt 

These are easy to recognize —to make them, remember 
to drop the normal connection vowel in second and 
third singular and second plural. That is all. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

“Ubi sumus?” dixerunt quinque porci. “Sumus in foro,” 
respondit unus ex eis. “Volumus audire Ciceronem. 
Cicero enim habebit orationem vehementem.” Sed 61ius 
porcus dixit, “Ille? Nullo modo. Nolumus audire eum. 
Inflatus est magno vento. firimus aegri si audimus ilium. 
Sed audite me, amici mei—si nos volumus Mcere rem 
magnam, ut simus veri porci, et ut honorem demus ( from 
dare) generi nostro, consilium h&beo. Hodie £lius orator 
habebit orationem. Hie orator amat nos, et dedit nobis 
magnum honorem: habet enim nomen nostrum. Certe, 
nemo est ex nobis qui nesciat hominem de quo dico— 

dico de Marco Porcio Catone. Ille vult esse consul 
Rom&nus. Nos debemus facere omnia quae possumus ut 
ille re vera fiat consul. Cato enim promisit quod si fiet 
consul, omnes homines nullas alias carnes comedent nisi 
carnes bovinas assas. Cato etiam dixit in sen£tu, ‘Audite 
me, amici mei. Nos veri Romani sumus. Ergo faci&mus 
legem novam. Ne Romdni comedant £lias carnes nisi 
carnes bovinas assas.’ ” Et parvus porcus dixit, “Si ha- 
bebimus hanc legem, non iam in magno periculo erimus. 
Laboremus ( let us work ) ergo, et audi&mus Catonem 

Sed agnus dixit, “Maria et ego venimus quotidie in 
scholam. In schola discimus multa. Melius enim est nos 
esse in schola quam in foro. In foro enim audire possu¬ 
mus Catonem et Ciceronem. Sed in nostra schola audi¬ 
mus Marcum. Maria saepe dicit Marco, ‘Marce, tu es 
parvus agnus meus.’ Forsan verum est, sed numquam 
audivimus Marcum dicentem baa. Nescio quid Maria 
signific&re velit. Marcus enim videtur esse homo.” 

English to Latin 

1. It is better to see Caesar than to see the five pigs. 

2. You are a good orator. 3. We are able to hear him 
often. 4.1 am a servant of Abraham, who is a good man. 
5.1 will bring water for your camels. 6. We are always 
able to do that which God commands. 7. His will is 
always good for us. 

Scramble Exercise 

Suam ante mortem ut filio uxorem provideret bonam, 
in terram ex qua venerat servum misit Abraham. Qui 
dominum quid faciat si mulier cum eo redire nolet in- 
terrogat. Cui ille ne mulierem venire cogat imperat. Qui 
servus ut patris celeriter voluntatem impleret est in Ha- 
ran profectus. Uxorem pro filio bonam Rebeccam quae 
camelis etiam aquam dedit invenit. Dei qui bonus est 
voluntate acciderunt haec. 



De prima et secunda persona in perfectis passivis 

Isaac et Rebecca duos filios habuerunt, quorum nomina erant Esau et 
Iacob. Esau autem irascebatur quia Iacob acceperat benedictionem patris 
Isaac per simulationem. Rebecca ltaque, videns iram Esau, timuit ne 
interficere vellet Iacob. Vocavit ergo Iacob, et monuit eum ne moraretur 
sed celeriter discederet dicens, “Irascitur tibi Esau. Tfmeo ne te interficere 
conetur. Fuge ltaque in Haran, ad Laban fratrem meum. Post dies paucos 
reverti poteris.” 

Iacob ergo profectus est in Haran, et cum iter faceret, nox invenit eum in 
quodam campo. Tulit ltaque lapidem, et ponens eum sub capite suo, 
dormivit. Et cum dormiret, vidit visionem magnam: scala stabat in terra, 
et cacumen huius scalae coelum tangebat. Angeli Dei ascendebant et 
descendebant per scalam; Dominus Deus ipse in coelo erat, et locutus est 
ad Iacob, “Ego sum Dominus Deus Abrahae, patris tui, Deus Isaac. 
Terram in qua dormis tibi et filiis tuis dabo.” Deus promiserat Abrahae 
quod fflii eius essent multi, ita ut nemo posset numerare eos. Deus reno¬ 
va vit idem foedus cum Iacob, et dixit, “In te omnes gentes terrae bene- 

Post haec Iacob surrexit et dixit, “Re vera Dominus est in hoc loco, et 
ego nesciebam. Terribilis est locus hie—nihil enim aliud est nisi domus 
Dei et porta coeli!” Iacob ltaque vocavit nomen loci illius Bethel, id est, 
domus Dei. “Beth” enim in lingua Hebraica est “domus” et “El” est Deus. 

simulatio -pretense 
morari -delay 
campus -plain 
lapis -stone 
scala -ladder 
cacumen -top 
ita -so 

numerar e-count 
foedus-pact, covenant 


dormire, ivit, itus -sleep numerare, avit, atus- 

morari, moratus est- count, number 

delay, stay ita-so 

campus, o-field, plain 
bonum foedus, foeder e-pact, covenant 
bonus frater, fratre-6r other 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person Perfect Passives: We 
learned long ago to make the third person forms of the 
perfect and pluperfect passives (both indicative and 
subjunctive). Now that we know the first and second 
person forms of esse, it is obvious that we can fill out the 
table and make all three persons. A few samples: 
paratus sum, es, est parati sumus, estis, sunt 

paratus eram, eras, erat parati eramus, eratis, erant 

Perfect Subjunctive Passive: Since paratus sum, 
etc., gives perfect indicative, it is obvious that by 

changing sum to sim (subjunctive of esse ) we get per¬ 
fect subjunctive: 

paratus sim, sis, sit parati simus, sitis, sint 

Use of Perfect Subjunctive: Ordinarily it will be 
found only in dependent clauses, when the main verb 
refers to present or future time. The perfect subjunctive 
then could indicate completed action, e.g.: 

Rogat num mflites interfecti sint. 

He asks whether the soldiers have been killed. 

But this is enough for our use now—it is easy to see how 
to translate it from Latin to English. As to the perfect 
active subjunctive—we shall learn it soon. 

Future Perfect Indicative Passive: We make it 
simply—add the future of esse to the perfect participle, 

paratus ero, eris, erit parati erimus, eritis, erunt 
Translation?—I shall have been prepared, you will 
have been prepared, etc. We shall learn the future per¬ 
fect active soon. 


Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

English to Latin 

“Esau, cur locutus es haec verba contra Iacob fratrem 
tuum?” “Quia ille malus est. Benedictionem quam pater 
mihi dare voluit, ille accepit.” “Sed nonne tu vendidfsti 
(sold) illi primogenita ( birthright) tua quodam die 
cum de agris rev6rsus esses?” “Hoc verum est, sed Iacob 
non d6buit simuldre (pretend) se esse me. Nonne men- 
d&cium (lie) est dfcere id quod non verum est?” 
“Ctique, sed post haec, tu ingr6ssus es ad patrem tuum, 
et £liam benedictionem accepisti.” “Verum est, acc6pi, 
sed benedictio quam fratri meo dedit m61ior erat.” “Sed 
rem peiorem de te audfvi—nonne condtus es 6tiam in¬ 
terffcere Iacob?” “Hoc non sum condtus fdcere—sed 
vellem (I would like) interffcere eum!” 

“Iacob, quare de terra tua egr6ssus es? Et in quam 
terram prof6ctus es?” “Prof6ctus sum quia mater mea 
de ira fratris mei monuit me. Iter ftaque in Haran fdcio.” 
“Sed in Haran nonne multi polythefstae sunt?” “Ctique, 
sed ibi non reman6bo. Pater enim meus vult ut uxorem 
ibi accfpiam ex filidbus (daughters — abl. pi.) Laban, 
avunculi mei. Laban enim vir bonus est.” “Puer bonus 
es. Bonam invemas uxorem.” 

1. He asks whether you have attempted to do it. 2. 
Jacob, why have you gone out from your own land? 
3. I have said these words (use loqui) because I hate 
him. 4. You have been sent by your mother into Haran. 
5.1 do not know why you have said these things. 6. You 
have been filled with good things because you have ful¬ 
filled the will of God. 7. Have you attempted to count 
the stars? 

Scramble Exercise 

Cum Iacob benedictionem quam ipse a patre acdpere 
voluerat accepisset eum odit Esau. Ut e domo, ne eum 
interffcere posset Esau, fugeret monuit mater Iacob. 
Ap6rto in campo cum in Haran iter fdceret Iacob in- 
venit eum nox. Quo in loco vidit dormiens magnam a 
Deo visionem e coelo scalae descendentis. Hoc sciens 
modo esse sanctum locum, dedit nomen loco Bethel 



De prima et secunda persona passiva in subiunctivo 
praesenti et imperfecto 

Sunt multa alia de Iacob quae legere possumus in Scripturis Sanctis. Sed 
hodie audire volumus de duodecim filiis Iacob, et praesertim de uno ex 
his ffliis, cuius nomen erat Iosephus. 

Quodam die fratres Iosephi fecerunt rem pessimam. Iosephus venit ad 
patrem suum Iacob et narravit ei id quod fratres eius fecerant. Propter 
hanc causam fratres eius irati sunt ei, et coeperunt odisse eum. Insuper, 
Iacob amavit Ioseph plus quam alios—ecce alia causa odii. 

Ioseph etiam habuit duo somnia, quae narravit fratribus suis. Dixit 
enim, “Audfte somnium meum quod vidi: putabam nos ligare mampulos 
in agro. Et mampulus meus surrexit et stetit, sed vestri manipuli cir- 
cumstantes adoraverunt mampulum meum.” 

Somnio audfto, fratres eius responderunt, “Num rex nostereris? Aut nos 
subiciemur (be subjected to) tibi?” Post haec, fratres eius senserunt odium 
maius contra Iosephum. Sed Ioseph etiam vidit aliud somnium, et narravit 
fratribus suis. Dixit, “Vidi per somnium, quasi solem et lunam et Stellas 
undecim adorare me.” Audito hoc somnio, pater eius dixit, “Quid sibi vult 
hoc somnium (What does it mean )? Num ego et mater tua et fratres tui 
adorabimus te super terram?” Pater eius non odit Iosephum, sed fratres 
eius oderunt eum. 

Quodam die, Iacob vocavit Iosephum. Qui dixit, “Adsum; quid vis a 
me?” Et pater respondit, “Veni, mittam te ad fratres tuos, ut videas si 
omnia prospera sint cum eis et cum pecoribus quae custodiunt.” Iosephus 
ergo discessit, et secutus est fratres suos, ut videret si omnia prospera 
essent eis et pecoribus. Fratres eius viderunt eum venientem et dixerunt, 
“Ecce, somniator venit! Venite, occidamus eum, et videamus quid prosint 
illi somnia eius.” (Continuabitur eras) 

circumstare-stand around 
adorer c-adore 
num-do not translate 
(see below) 
subicer c-subject 
quasi-aj it were 
prosperus -favorable 
occider e-kill 
prosint-be helpful 


adorare, avit, atus- 

fitable to (dat., 

respect, reverence, 

compound of esse) 


subiciunt, subicere, iecit. 

circumstare, -stetit. 

iectus -subject 

-, -surround 

magnum pecus, pecore- 

occidere, occidit. 


occisus -kill 

somnium, o -dream 

prodesse, profuit. 

num (see below) 

*profuturus-f>e pro- 

quasi-o; if, as it were 

Num: There is no English equivalent for the use of 
num we have just seen (we saw it some time ago in the 
sense of whether —a different use). It serves to intro¬ 

duce a question, and shows that one expects the answer 
no. We can get the same effect in English, not by one 
word, but in a round about way—thus: 

You aren’t going to the city, are you? 

Num vadis in urbem? 

The enclictic particle -ne that we have been using, is 
neutral—expects no particular answer. But -ne on the 
end of non (nonne) expects the answer yes: 

Nonnc vadis in urbem? 

Aren’t you going to the city? 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Preview of Passive Forms of Simple Tenses (all 
but the perfects—that is, present, imperfect, and fu¬ 
ture): We saw that one set of endings, m or o, s, t, mus, 


tis, nt accounted for nearly all active forms. We also saw 
that perfect passives are made with the perfect partici¬ 
ple and a form of esse. But all simple tenses of passives 
are made with just one set of endings—no exceptions— 
which are: 

r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur 

We already know two out of the six, and so have only 
four to learn. It is perfectly easy to learn to recognize 
any passive form. There are a few special things to watch 
in making them, and so we take them up a little at a time. 




And so on in any con¬ 
jugation (write out a 
set of samples for 









Today We Learn the Present and Imperfect Sub¬ 
junctive. There we merely use the old stick method: 














Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Nomen meum est Iacob. Mater mea me vocavit, et in 
Haran me mittere voluit. His auditis, dixi, “Estne re 
vera necesse ut ego in Haran proficiscar?” Et mater mea 
respondit, “(Jtique, ne a fratre tuo Esau interficiaris. Sed 
ne moreris. Fac iter celeriter ne ab illo videaris.” 

Celeriter itaque sum profectus ne viderer et interfi- 
cerer ab illo. Sed aliquando ( sometime ) redibo ut 
matrem meam videam et ut cum Esau loquar. Nolo 
enim inimicus ei esse. 

Audiamus Aliam Narrationem 

Quidam ex pharisaeis rogavit Iesum ut comederet secum. Iesus ergo venit 
in domum huius pharisaei, et recubuit ut cibum comederet. Et ecce, 
mulier mala, quae erat peccatrix, id est, quae multa peccata committebat 
in ilia civitate, cum novisset Iesum venisse in domum pharisaei, tulit 
alabastrum unguenti, et venit in domum ad Iesum. Haec mulier ad pedes 
Iesu stetit et coepit rigare pedes eius lacrimis, et ungebat pedes unguento. 
Sed ille pharisaeus qui invitaverat Iesum (nomen huius pharisaei erat 
Simon) videns hanc peccatricem ad pedes Iesu, dicere coepit in mente sua, 
“Hie vir Iesus certe non est propheta, sicut putaveram, quia nescit hanc 
mulierem esse peccatricem!” 

Sed Iesus videre poterat ea quae agebantur in mente Simonis, et re¬ 
spondit ei, “Simon, habeo ^liquid quod volo dicere tibi.” Simon ait, “Die, 
Domine.” Et Iesus dixit ei, “Quidam faenerator habebat duos debitores qui 
debebant pecuniam ei. Sed, cum non haberent pecuniam ut solverent, ille 
faenerator dimisit debitum eis. Unus ex eis debuerat quingentos (500) 
denarios, et alius debuerat quinquaginta (50). Haec ergo est quaestio mea: 
Quis ex illis debitoribus amavit ilium faeneratorem plus?” Simon respondit, 
“Probabfliter ille cui plus dimissum est.” 

Et Dominus ait, “Veritatem dixisti. Videsne hanc mulierem? Veni in 
domum tuam. Aquam pedibus meis non dedisti. Sed haec mulier lacrimis 
rigavit pedes meos. Et caput meum oleo non unxisti. Sed ilia unxit pedes 
meos unguento. Ergo dico tibi: multa peccata dimittuntur illi, quia 
amavit multum. Sed is cui minus dimittitur, minus amat.” 


recubuit -reclined 
mulier -woman 
unguentum -ointment 
lacrima -tear 
ungebat -anointed 
aliq uid -someth ing 
ait -said 

faenerator-money lender 
solver e-pay 
oleum -oil 

English to Latin 

Scramble Exercise 

1. Let us speak (use loqui) lest we be put into prison. 

2. You (plural) were so good that you were loved by 
all. 3. Let us fight bravely lest we die. 4. Let us adore 
the one true God and not many gods. 5. May you be 
filled with good things. 6. I will not be a slave will I? 
7. My enemies have surrounded me to kill me. 

Huius Isaac, de quo iam legimus quod pater eius non 
nolebat sacrificare eum, iubente Deo, erant nepotes 
( grandsons ) duodecim. Inter quos erat Iosephus qui 
somnia magna vidit. De uno somnio dixit, “In agro 
manfpulos nos ligantes vidi. Inter quos manfpulos meum 
surrexisse et stetisse—vestros autem meum adorare.” 
Hoc propter somnium ei fratres irati sunt. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Fratres Iosephi comprehenderunt eum, et ligaverunt eum. Voluerunt occi- 
dere eum, et dicere patri suo Iacob: Fera mala devoravit fflium tuum 
Ioseph. Sed unus ex fratribus Iosephi, cuius nomen erat Ruben, nolebat 
interficere fratrem suum. Sciebat enim quod Iosephus meruerat nihil mali. 
Voluit ergo liberare eum. Sed non poterat simpliciter dicere aliis fratribus, 
“Volo liberare Iosephum.” Ergo dixit, “Ne interficiatis animam eius, nec 
fundatis sanguinem eius. Mittamus eum in hanc cisternam veterem.” 
(Non erat aqua in hac cistema.) 

Haec verba placuerunt aliis fratribus, et miserunt Iosephum in cisternam 
veterem. Sed cum sederent ut comederent panem, viderunt mercatores 
venientes. Hi mercatores erant Ismaelitae, et faciebant iter in Aegyptum. 
Unus ex fratribus, Iudas, videns hos mercatores, dixit aliis: “Quid prodest 
nobis si occidemus fratrem nostrum? Nonne melius est vendere eum 
Ismaelitis? Hoc modo manus nostrae non polluentur.” Cum ergo Ismaelitae 
venissent ad eos, traxerunt Iosephum ex cisterna, et vendiderunt eum 
viginti argenteis ( abl. case — price). 

Ruben non aderat cum alii fratres venderent Iosephum. Cum ergo 
venisset ad cisternam, et non invenisset fratrem suum, magno dolore 
affectus est. Sed fratres tulerunt ( from ferre) tunicam Iosephi, et intinxe- 
runt in sanguine haedi quern occiderant. 

Tunc ierunt ad patrem suum, et monstraverunt ei tunicam intinctam 
sanguine. Et dixerunt, “Vide, estne haec tunica Iosephi?” Et pater, motus 
dolore maximo dixit, “Fera pessima devoravit filium meum Iosephum.” 
Ismaelitae autem duxerunt Iosephum in Aegyptum. 

fera -wild beast 
mere re-earn, deserve 
anima -soul, Hie 
funder e-pour, shed 
sanguis -blood 

argenteus-«7ver {piece) 
vender t-sell 
polluer e-defile 
intinger e-dip 
haedus -goat 


fundere, fudit, fusus- 

anima, a -soul, life, 

pour, shed 


merere, meruit, meritus- 

ferus, o & fera, a -wild 

earn, deserve 


trahere, traxit, tractus- 

bonus sanguis, sanguine- 

draw, drag 


vendere, vendidit. 

verbum, o -word 

venditus -sell 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. How do you say in the indicative (both singular 
and plural): You are, you were, you will be, you have 
been, you had been; and in the subjunctive: you are, 
you were, you had been. Now make the same forms for 
posse and ferre. 2. How do you say: We have been 

called, we had been called, we shall have been called. 
Now make the same forms for tenere and capere. 3. 
How do you say in the subjunctive (singular and plural): 
You have been sent, you had been sent. Now make the 
same forms for implere and ferre. 4. How do you say in 
the subjunctive (plural only): You are being counted, 
you were being counted. Now make the same forms for 
habere, occidere, finire. 

Audiamus de Terra Aegypti 

Amicus noster, Sanctus Iosephus, a fratribus suis 
venditus est. Mercatores Ismaelitae eum in terram 
Aegypti ducunt. ltaque, nos etiam ingrediamur in hanc 
terram, ut earn videamus. Ubi est Aegyptus? Est in 
Africa. Non est terra magna, sed est terra valde antiqua. 

In media terra est flumen magnum, cuius nomen est 
Nilus. Hoc flumen necessarium est in Aegypto. Omni 


anno hoc flumen diluvium parvum facit super magnam 
partem terrae. Sine hoc diluvio annuali ( annual) Aegyptii 
non possent ( could not ) colere agros suos. Non possent 
habere panem et alios cibos necessarios. In parte enim 
septentrionali terrae, ad Mare Mediterraneum, terra 
imbres (rains) moderates accipit. Sed aliae partes 
Aegypti fere numquam imbrem accipiunt. Ergo dilu¬ 
vium annuale fluminis Nili valde necessarium est. 

Sed ecce—vir Aegyptius ad nos venit. Interrogemus 
eum de terra hac. Amice! ( friend) Veni ad nos. Quis es? 
“Nomen meum est Ptahotep.” Nomen novum est. 
Numquam tale nomen audivimus. Quid significat? “Ptah 
est magnus deus in terra Aegypti. Ptah enim est intellec- 
tus et lingua omnium deorum. Haec sufficiant de prima 
parte nominis mei. Secunda pars, id est, hotep, significat 
‘satis est.’ Ergo totum nomen significat: Satis est pro 
Ptah—vel, in aliis verbis: Placet Ptah.” Sed volumus 
scire quid significat id quod tu dicis, “Ptah est lingua 
omnium deorum.” “Difficile est hanc rem explicare, sed 
conabur (/ will try). Ptah est potestas per quam omnes 
alii dei imperare possunt. Ptah ergo est super omnes 
alios deos. Habemus enim multos alios deos. fitiam ipse 
rex noster est deus magnus.” (Cras audiemus plura de 

Psittacus (Parrot) Dixit ##%*??!!! 

Quaedam bona femina, Margarita nomine, psittacum 
habebat. Sed psittacus, qui olim cum nautis navigaverat, 
semper multa verba profana (profane language) dice- 
bat. Margarita verba profana audire non amabat, et 

propter hanc causam, omni die dominica (Sunday) 
psittacum ponebat in caveam (cage) et eum tegebat 
(covered), ne in die dominica psittacus talia verba 
diceret. Sed quadam hebdomeda (week), in feria sec¬ 
unda (Monday), Margarita vidit ministrum (a min¬ 
ister) venientem ad domum suam. Celeriter itaque 
psittacum in caveam posuit et texit eum. Post haec, 
minister in domum venit, et loquebatur cum Margarita, 
quando vox querens (complaining) ex cavea audieba- 
tur, “Unam ##% ??!!! brevem hebdomedam!!!” 

English to Latin 

1. Let us try to learn all that we can about this land. 

2. A man is coming. Let us see if he knows many things 
about this land. 3. Let us speak to this man. 4. We will be 
in danger if we remain here. 5. We were dragged into 
prison although we did not deserve it. 6. Let us not shed 
his blood—let us sell him to these men. 7. Will they 
believe our words? 

Scramble Exercise 

Idem patriarcha aliud etiam narravit somnium: se 
vidisse quasi solem et lunam et Stellas undecim adorare 
se. Quibus auditis interrogavit pater num ipse et mater 
et fratres deberent adorare ilium super terram. Fratribus 
autem eius irascentibus hanc propter causam, pater 
Iosephi non est iratus. In Aegyptum ut servus fieret 
vendiderunt eum fratres eius. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo imperfecto 
De pronomine: aliquis 

lgitur Iosephus ductus est in Aegyptum, emitque eum Putiphar, princeps 
exercitus. Sed Deus erat cum Iosepho et benedixit ei. Iosephus habitabat 
in domo domini sui. Et Deus benedixit domui Putiphari propter Iosephum. 
Iosephus ipse placuit Putipharo, et datum est ei ut administraret omnia 
negotia domus illius. Sed uxor Putiphari odit Iosephum, et accusavit eum 
crimine falso. Putiphar credidit verbis uxoris suae, et iecit Iosephum in 
carcerem. Sed Deus erat cum Iosepho, et dedit ei gratiam in conspectu 
principis carceris. 

In hoc carcere erant multi alii viri. Inter hos erant duo servi regis. Unus 
ex his fuerat pistor regis. Alius fuerat pincerna regius (ille ferebat 
calicem vini ad regem). Hi duo viderunt somnia quadam nocte, et narra- 
verunt somnia sua Iosepho. Pincerna narravit somnium suum, “Videbam 
coram me vitem in qua erant tres propagines in quibus uvae erant. Habui 
calicem Pharaonis in manu mea, et pressi uvas in calicem et dedi calicem 

Iosephus autem respondit ei, “Haec est interpretatio somnii—tres pro¬ 
pagines, tres adhuc dies sunt. Post hos dies Pharao recordabitur tui et 
ministerii tui, et restituet te in locum tuum, et dabis ei calicem secundum 
officium tuum, sicut antea faciebas. Sed cum venies in domum Pharaonis, 
rogo te ut loquaris illi pro me, ut exeam ex hoc carcere. Quia venditus sum 
e terra Hebraeorum a fratribus meis, et innocens missus sum in hunc 

igitur-there fore 
-qu t-and 

crimen -charge 
gratia -favor 
pincerna -butler 
cali x-cup 
vitis -vine 
propago -branch 
pressit -pressed 
restituer e-restore 
antea -before 


administrare, avit, atus- 
govern, manage 
emere, emit, emptus- 

restituere, restituit, 
antea (adv.) -before, 

magnus calix, calic e-cup 
malum crimen, crimine- 
charge, crime 
gratia, a -favor, grace, 

negotium, o -business, 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person Passive of Imperfect 
Indicative: We already know the third person passive 
of the imperfect indicative—and we know the stick: 

r, ris, tur, mur, mini, ntur 
Put them together, and we have what we want: 








And, since all imperfects are the same, 
there is no use to write out more 
examples in this book (but you write 
some for practice). 

The Indefinite Pronoun Aliquis, Aliquid: It 
means: “someone, something.” 

Declension—just like the interrogative quis, quid 
(see Lesson 38) except: Neuter nominative and ob¬ 
jective plural is aliqua —not aliquae. 

How does it differ in meaning from quidaml Quidam 
means: a certain one (I know but won’t tell). Aliquis 
means: someone (I don’t know who). 

The Indefinitive Adjective: It has the same forms 
as qui, quae, quod, except for three: aliqua (used in three 
places): nominative singular feminine, (2) nominative 


and objective plural neuter. Therefore it has three forms 
in the nominative singular: dliqui, aliqua, aliquod. 

The Enclitic -que: In the story above, we saw -que 
used to mean and. It is different from et in two ways: 
1. -que is attached to the end of a word, but is translated 
before the same word. 2. -que is a closer connective 
than et: English has only one and —Latin has three—in 
order of closeness of connection: -que, ac ( atque ), et. 
Et is the loosest; but -que is the closest: agnus pordque 
—the lamb and the pigs (The lamb would prefer to 
have et.) 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

“Iosephe, quare in Aegyptum ducebaris?” “Fratres mei 
me oderunt.” “Sed cur te oderunt? Conabaris aliquid 
mali contra eos facere?” “Nullo modo. Sed somnia 
habui: In uno somnio in agris cum eis eram, et adora- 
bar a manipulis eorum. In altero somnio a sole, luna, et 
undecim stellis colebar.” “Cum haec eis loquereris, 
nonne timebas ne occidereris ab eis?” “Otique, sed 
Deus non permisit ut occiderer—solummodo permisit 
ut venderer servus in Aegyptum. Sed Deus bonus est. 
Faciet ut bona etiam ex his malis meis veniant.” 

Audiamus Plura de Terra Aegypti 

Quid loquebaris? Dicisne quod rex tuus est deus? Nos 
credere hoc non possumus—nos enim Hebraei sumus, 
et unum verum Deum colimus. Sed nihilominus, de rege 
vestro audire volumus. Quod est nomen eius? “Nomen 
eius est Pharao.” Et quis erat pater eius? “Pater eius 
etiam erat Pharao—semper enim reges nostros ‘Pharao’ 
vocamus. Verum nomen eius est nomen sacrum. Non 
licet nobis pronuntiare verum nomen eius.” 

Quid ergo significat hoc verbum Pharao ? “Significat: 

domus magna. Nemo enim in persona secunda loqui 
potest huic regi. Semper dicimus de eo in tertia persona. 
Possumus dicere de ‘Quodam’. Ille enim est etiam ka 
totius terrae Aegypti.” Sed quid significat illud verbum 
kal “Difficile est explicare. Pharao est, ut ita dicam 
(so to speak) anima terrae huius. Omnia enim per eum 
vivunt. Sol etiam movetur potestate eius. Sed etiam est 
protector Aegypti. Itaque duplici ( double ) sensu 
dicimus quod ille est ka totius Aegypti.” Sed nonne 
moritur rex vester? et si moritur, quo modo deus esse 
potest? Deus enim immortalis est. “Rex noster non 
solum est deus unus —est plures dei. Est Horus, id est, 
accipiter (falcon )—qui est etiam deus et filius dei. Sed 
etiam est Seth. Itaque rex est duo domini. Sad post 
mortem fit alius deus. Fit Osiris, qui est deus, rex mor- 
tuorum.” Sed nos credere nolumus quod ille est deus qui 
semper remanet et remanebit in sepulchro. Deus enim 
vere immortalis est. Est rex vivorum et mortuorum. 

English to Latin 

1. You were called the great house. 2. We were heard 
by all men in this land. 3. Joseph (Iosephe), ypu were 
bought by the men of Egypt. 4. He will attemp to gov¬ 
ern this great land. 5. Let them speak to Joseph, for he 
will restore everything. 6. I was sent here because of a 
false charge (use ablative without preposition). 7. You 
were restored to the favor of Pharao. 

Scramble Exercise 

Pater materque eius magno affecti sunt dolore putantes 
eum interfectum esse, cum re vera in terra Aegypti 
servus esset. Non solum autem in ilia terra servus factus 
est Iosephus, verum etiam in carcerem propter odium 
uxoris domini sui missus est. Cui cum in carcere esset 
narraverunt somnia pincerna pistorque Pharaonis. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo passivo praesenti 
De pronomine: quis 

Iosephus, in c&rcere in terra aliena, iam interpret&tus est somnium principis 
pincernirum Pharaonis. Sed etiam princeps pistorum Pharaonis narr&vit 
somnium suum, dicens: “Et ego vidi somnium, quod tria canistra farinae 
haberem super caput meum. Et in uno canistro portibam omnes cibos 
qui fiunt arte pistoria, et aves coeli comedebant ex eo. Rogo te, ut explices 
mihi interpretationem somnii huius.” Respondet Iosephus, “Haec est 
interpret&tio somnii: Tria canistra, tres adhuc dies sunt: post quos auferet 
Ph4rao caput tuum, ac suspendet te in cruce, et aves comedent carnes 

Et post tres dies natalitius Pharaonis erat, et in convivio Ph&rao re- 
cord&tus est pincernae et pistoris qui erant in c&rcere. Et restituit 41terum 
in locum suum, ut porrigeret ei c&licem, 41terum autem suspendit in cruce. 
Pincerna tamen oblitus est Iosephi, et hie rem&nsit in c&rcere. 

Post duos annos, vidit Ph4rao somnium. Putibat se stare ad flumen, de 
quo ascendebant septem boves pulchrae et crassae valde, et pascebantur 
in locis palustribus. Etiam 61iae septem boves venerunt e flumine, de- 
formes et exiles valde, et septem deformes boves comederunt septem 
pulchras boves. 

Sed e6dem nocte, Pharao vidit et 41iud somnium. Septem spicae erant in 
culmo uno, et plenae et pulchrae erant. Sed £liae septem oriebantur, 
exiles valde, et septem exiles comederunt septem pulchras. Post haec, 
Pharao surrexit a somniis suis, et territus est. Et misit ad omnes vates in 
omni terra Aegypti ut venirent et interpretarentur somnia sua. Sed non 
poterant. (Continuibitur) 

canistrum -basket 
farina -meal 
auferr t-take away 
crux^ -cross 
natalitius -birthday 
convivium -banquet 
oblitus -forgot 

crassus -fat, thick 
pasci -feed 
paluster -marshy 
spica-ear of grain 
culmus -stalk 
plenus -full 


auferre, ibstulit, 

ablatus ( compound of 
(tut)-take away : 
Aufert arma militi: 

He takes arms from 
the soldier 

oblivisci, oblitus est- 
for get (with poss. or 

oriuntur, oriri, ortus est- 
rise, arise 

pasci, pastus est- feed on 
(with abl.) 
suspendere, pendit, 
alienus, a, um -foreign, 
bos, bove-cow, bull, ox 
( masc . or fern.) 
bona crux, cruce-crow 
tamen -nevertheless 

First and Second Person Present Indicative Pas¬ 
sive: Here the short stick works reasonably well— 
though there are two forms, in circles, where it does not 
fit perfectly: 



























Then we recall that we already know the third 

amintur tenentur ponuntur capiuntur audiuntur 
So we have to learn only five forms: 
amor teneor ponor c4pior audior 
And to note the two irregulars: poneris and cdperis. 

The easiest way to deal with these forms is merely 
to memorize them! But concentrate on recognizing them 


for the moment, and learn to make them gradually. 
Compare them to the present subjunctive—there are 
some similarities. 

The Indefinite Pronoun Quis, Quid: Declension 
is no problem—just the same as that of the interrogative 
pronoun quis, quid, which we already know. It means: 
someone, anyone; something, anything. Qua may re¬ 
place quae, except in the nominative singular feminine. 

The Indefinite Adjective: Qui, Quae, Quod: 
Same declension as the relative pronoun, qui, quae, 

Use of the Indefinite Pronoun and Adjective: 
The meaning is about the same as that of the indefinite 
dliquis (and its adjective form dliqui) —but Latin used 
quis, quid (and the adjective form likewise, of course) 
—always and only after: si, nisi, ne, num, and an. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Iosephus venerat ut fratres suos inveniret, sed cum ad 
eos venisset, noluerunt ei loqui. Iosephus itaque dixit, 
“Fratres mei, quid vultis? Quare non loquimini mihi? 
Irascimini mihi? Si quid contra vos feci, dicite mihi quid 
sit.” Sed fratres coeperunt ligare eum dicentes, “Somni- 
£tor es. Videas nunc quid prosint tibi somnia tua.” 
Iosephus autem, “Cur ligor a vobis? Conamini me 
interficere?” Post ^liquid temporis fratres viderunt mer- 
catores venientes ad sese, et vocaverunt eos, “Merca- 
tores, venite ad nos. Vultis servum emere?” Sed Iosephus 
dixit, “Quid nunc facis mihi? Cur vendor his viris?” Illi 
autem responderunt dicentes, “Odimus te. Discede a 
nobis—sis servus in Aeg^pto.” 

Nunc Audiamus Plura de Amicis 
Nostris in Aegypto 

(Note: In this story we must use two verbs that are very similar: 
[ idciunt ], idcere , iecit , iactus —throw 
iacire , idcuil , idcitus —lie ) 

Velimus (we would like ) plura de hoc Osiride audire. 
Quis erat ille? “Antiquis temporibus Osiris erat rex in 
Aegypto. Uxor eius Isis vocabatur. Osiris et Isis homines 
agros colere docuerunt et frumentum comedere. Antea 
enim homines in Aegypto alios homines comederant. 
Sed Osiris fratrem habuit, cuius nomen erat Seth. 

Seth Osiridem oderat, et eum occidere voluit. Ut hoc 
faceret, Seth magnum fecit convivium ( banquet ) et 
invitavit Osiridem et uxorem eius Isidem. Cum omnes 
cibos bonos comederent in hoc convivio, Seth surrexit 
et dixit, “Audite me, amici mei! Volo magnum dare 
vobis donum (gift)\ Videte hanc arcam (box, coffin) 
egregiam irf qua homo mortuus poni potest. Uni ex 
vobis volo hanc arcam dare. Si quis ex vobis earn habere 
vult, i6ceat (lie) in hac area. Ille cui aptissima (best 
fitting) est, earn habebit!” 

Omnes qui convivio aderant voluerunt iacere in hac 
area. Necesse enim est ut corpus mortui hominis serve- 
tur—alioquin (otherwise) ka eius vivere non potest. 
Inter alios, Osiris in hac area iacuit. Et area ei aptissima 
erat! Sed Seth et amici eius celeriter arcam clauserunt, et 
illam in flumen Nilum iecerunt. Itaque haec area, in 
qua erat Osiris, portata est (wascarried) aquis in mare, 
et in mari portata est in quandam urbem Phoeniciae 
quae Byblos vocabatur. Ibi area in terra iacta est, et 
arbor (tree) magna circa earn crevit (grew). 

Sed quid fecit Isis? Isis audivit ubi corpus Osiridis 
esset, et in Phoenician! venit. Ibi regem Phoeniciae 
rogavit ut corpus Osiridis liceret portare (carry) iterum 
in Aeg^ptum. Rex permisit ei hoc facere. Sed Seth 
audivit Osiridem iterum esse in Aegypto. Itaque venit et 
corpus eius in quatuordecim (14) partes scidit (cut).” 
Sed iam tempus est ut discedamus. Audiemus te de hac 
re eras. 

English to Latin 

1. You are being sold to the Egyptians. 2. I am being 
led to a strange land. 3. If anyone questions you, say, 
“We are following Joseph.” 4. He asks whether anyone 
wishes to see him. 5. Pharao will take away your head 
and the birds will feed on it (abl. alone). 6. He asked 
whether anyone would forget Joseph. 7. Because the 
king loves Joseph, we will remain in this land. 

Scramble Exercise 

Non solum homines qui in carcere sunt somnia videre 
possunt. Ipse enim Pharao nocte quadam duo somnia 
quae omnes in terra Aeg^pti vates non possent inter- 
pretari (deponent verb) vidit. His somniis visis, Pharao 
territus est, sed virum qui interpretari posset in carcere 
esse nescivit. Iosephi enim pincerna cuius somnium olim 
in carcere explicaverat oblitus erat. 



De prima et secunda persona in indicativo passivo futuro 
De casu vocativo 

Ph&rao, rex Aegypti vocdverat omnes vates in terra Aegypti, ut interpre- 
tarentur somnia sua. Sed non poterant. Turn pincema cuius somnium 
Iosephus interpreters erat recorders est Iosephi, qui adhuc erat in 
c&rcere, et locutus est Pharaoni, “Domine mi rex, liceat mihi eiiquid loqui. 
Servus tuus olim erat in cdrcere, et etiam somnium somniavi. Sed mecum in 
carcere erat puer Hebraeus, qui recte explicavit somnium mihi. Ego 
polHcitus sum quod record^rer eius—sed oblitus sum. Ille poterit inter¬ 
preted somnium regis. Habet enim magnam sapientiam a Deo.” 

Rex ergo praecepit ut Iosephus adduceretur ad se. Cum Iosephus staret 
coram rege, Phdrao narr&vit ei duo somnia. Et Iosephus respondit: “Duo 
somnia regis re vera unum sunt. Deus enim ostendere vult ea quae venient 
in terra Aegypti. Septem boves pulchrae et septem spicae plenae sunt 
septem anni ubertatis. Sed septem boves exiles et septem spicae exiles, 
septem anni famis sunt. Et hi anni hoc ordine implebuntur: Ecce primum 
venient septem anni fertilititis magnae in universa terra Aegypti: quos 
sequentur septem anni tantae sterilit&tis ut oblivioni tradetur cuncta 
abund&ntia praeterita. Fames enim consumet omnem terram, et magni- 
tudo inopiae perdet magnitudinem ubertatis. Deus misit duo somnia tibi, 
ut ostenderet finnitdtem consilii sui—quia haec omnia sine 41iquo dubio 
venient super terram hanc. Nunc ergo provideat rex virum sapientem et 
industrium, et praeficiat eum terrae Aegypti. Et hie vir praeficiat dlios 
viros per cunctas regiones. Et servetur quinta pars ( Vs ) fructuum per 
septem annos fertilititis. Et omne frumentum sit sub potestate Pharaonis, 
et servetur in urbibus. Hoc modo praeparetur futurae fami septem an- 
norum, ne consumetur terra Aegypti.” (Continuabitur eras) 


interpretdri ( deponent ) - 

Domine mi-my Lord 






adducer t-lead to 

plenus -full 




ixadtrt-give over 

cunctus -all 


inopia -need 

perder ^-destroy 



praeficere-pwt in charge of 


adducere, duxit, ductus- thing (praefecit Iose- 
-lead to, influence phum urbi) 

polliceri, pollicitus est- tr^dere, trididit, tr&ditus- 

promise hand over 

[praecipiunt], praecipere, inopia, a -need 
praecepit, praeceptus- plenus, a, um -full 
command sapientia, a -wisdom 

[praeficiunt], praeficere, magna ubertas, ubertite- 
fecit, fectus-put some- fertility, richness 
one in charge of some- turn -then 

Nunc Cogitemus 

First and Second Person Future Indicative Pas¬ 
sive: Our short stick here works again reasonably well. 

But, just as in the present passives, so too here there 
are two forms, in circles, where it does not fit perfectly: 


(e ris) 












Then we recall that we already know the third plurals: 
amabuntur tenebuntur ponentur capientur audientur 
So, we have to learn only five forms: 
amdbor tenebor ponar cdpiar audiar 
and to note the two irregulars: amdberis and teneberis. 


We have, therefore, a total of three irregular second 
singulars in the passive: two presents: poneris and 
caperis, and one future, pardberis (or teneberis, vide- 
beris, same thing). 

Are any of these forms spelled the same as any other 
form we know? Yes—the future second singular poneris 
looks like the present second singular poneris: but the 
accent is different. The future is pronounced poneris; 
the present poneris. 

Vocative Case: When we call someone by name, we 
use the vocative case. Most nouns have no special form 
for the vocative—so we use the nominative. Only in the 
singular of the second declension do we have special 
forms, thus: 

nouns: ending in -us — e. For example, Marce, 

ending in -ius — i. For example, Porci (in 
Marcus Porcius Cato ) 

adjectives: Both forms in -ius and forms in -us use 
-e. For example, bone. 

Notice the one odd adjective form, mi, as in: Domine 
mi Rex —My Lord King. Learn all easily: O mi egregie 
et bone Marce Porci! 

N.B. Deus never changes. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Iosephus ex carcere in Aegypto ductus est, et nunc 
coram Pharaone stat. Pharao loquitur, “Iosephe, veni 
ad me.” “Quid vis a me, Domine mi Rex?” “Servus 
meus dicit quod tu conaberis interpretationem somni- 
orum meorum dare. Si poteris, non solum a carcere 
liberaberis, sed a me honoraberis.” Cumque Iosephus 
Regi explicavisset de fame futura, Rex dixit: “Si septem 
anni famis in hanc terram venient, omnes moriemur.” 
Iosephus autem respondit, “Si consilium meum seque- 
mini, servabimini et non moriemini. Praeficiat Rex 
virum qui frumentum servet per annos fertilitatis sub 
potestate tua.” Et Rex dixit, “Consilium tuum mihi 
placet—tu vocaberis Salvator ( Savior ) mundi.” 

Velimus Audire Plura de Osiride 

lam audfvimus ab amfco nostro Ptahotep quo modo 
Seth corpus mortui Osfridis invenit, quern Isis e Phoe¬ 
nicia reportaverat (had carried back). “Seth scidit 
corpus Osiridis in quatuordecim partes, et sparsit (scat¬ 
tered) partes per terram ad flumen Nilum.” Sed quare 

Seth fecit hoc? “Nescio, sed probabiliter ne Osiris posset 
esse immortalis—homo enim non potest esse immortalis 
sine corpore. Seth enim magno odit odio. 

Sed dei boni sunt. Non semper permittunt malis ut 
omnia quae volunt faciant. Ergo magnus deus Ra (qui 
est sol) duos alios deos misit, id est, Thoth et Anubem 
(Anubis). Hi dei quatuordecim partes mortui Osiridis 
invenerunt, et partes eius per artem magicam com- 
posuerunt (put together). Turn Isis aperuit os eius (his 
mouth) et vanno (fan) flavit (blew) spiritum in os eius. 
Hoc modo Osiris vitam recepit—sed non vitam huius 
mundi: Osiris enim in sepulchro remansit. Deus mor- 
tuorum est.” 

Qui manet in sepulchro non videtur nobis esse deus. 
Sed quo modo nunc fit rex Osiris? “Rex per magicas 
artes fit Osiris. Olim plebs Aegyptiaca has artes nescie- 
bat. Sed nunc omnes sciunt. Ergo per magicas artes, 
omnes nos fiemus Osiris post mortem.” 

Turn Ptahotep, non sine superbia, etiam dixit, “Ipse 
etiam fiam Osiris!” Poteratne Osiris vindictam sumere 
(get revenge) de Seth? “Osiris et Isis filium habuerunt, 
cuius nomen erat Horus. Ille Horus post mortem Osiri¬ 
dis natus est. Sed Horus vicit Seth, et regnum sibi ac- 
cepit. Insuper, Horus olim auxilium dedit etiam magno 
deo Ra. Quam propter causam, Horus in navi solis 
sedere potest. Omni nocte, haec navis solis navigat in 
Nilo quae sub terra est. Horus in navi sedet omni nocte, 
et defendit Ra a monstris quae sub terra sunt.” 

English to Latin 

1. We will be saved by Joseph. 2. You will be led into 
Pharao’s house. 3. You (plural) will be restored to 
your place. 4. You and your friends will forget me. 
5. We will not be killed, for the King loves us. 6.1 will 
not delay but will set out swiftly. 7. If he asks anything, 
I will promise to do it. 

Scramble Exercise 

Iosephum interpretatum (participle of interpretari) 
somnium praefecit Pharao omni terrae Aegypti. Ille 
autem explicaverat de septem annis ubertatis futuris, et 
de septem aliis annis famis futuris. Ut ostenderet firmi- 
tatem consfli sui misit Deus Pharaoni duo quae eandem 
significationem haberent somnia. Homfnibus universae 
terrae praecepit Iosephus ut frumentum servaretur in 
urbibus sub Pharaonis potestate. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Consilium Iosephi placuit Pharaoni et omnibus minfstris eius. Pharao 
ltaque locutus est ad eos, “Ubi invenire poterimus talem virum, qui 
spfritu Dei plenus sit?” Dixitque Pharao Iosepho, “Quia ostendit tibi Deus 
omnia, quae locutus est, numquid sapientiorem virum invenire potero? 
Tu eris super domum meam, et ad tui oris imperium, omnis populus 
obediet: uno tantum regni solio te praecedam. Ecce, constitui te super 
universam terram Aegypti.” 

Pharao tulit anulum de manu sua, et dedit eum in manum Iosephi, 
vestimentaque meliora dedit ei. Fecitque eum ascendere super currum 
suum secundum, clamante praecone, ut omnes sciant Iosephum secundam 
habere potestatem universae terrae Aegypti. Pharao etiam vertit nomen 
Iosephi, et vocavit eum lingua Aegyptiaca “Saphaneth-phanee.” (Nesci- 
mus significationem huius nominis. Scientia enim linguae Aegyptiacae 
adhuc imperfecta est. Sanctus Hieronymus putabat hoc nomen probabiliter 
significare “Salvator mundi.”) 

Iosephus erat triginta annorum quando stetit ante Pharaonem. Post 
haec, Iosephus circumivit omnes regiones Aegypti. Venitque fertilitas 
septem annorum, cum magna abundantia omnium frumentorum. Tanta- 
que fuit abundantia frumenti, ut arenae maris coaequaretur. Iubente 
Iosepho, multa frumenta posita sunt in horrea Aegypti, ut servarentur in 
annis fertilitatis magnae. Venerunt etiam quos Iosephus praedixerat sep¬ 
tem alii anni magnae famis. Etiam in aliis terris fames valde magna erat. 
(Continuabitur eras) 

os, or e-mouth 
tantum -only 

numquid-num ( see Lesson 58) 

solium -throne 

praecedere-fce ahead 

constituit-sel up 



clamar e-cry 

praeco -herald 

verto -change, turn 


circumire-go around 


coaequar t-make equal 


circumfre, fit, ‘iturus- 

vertere, vertit, versus- 

go around 

turn, change, translate 

constituere, stftuit. 

horreum, o -barn 

stitutus-ser up, decide, 

magnum os, or e-mouth 


bonus praeco, praecone- 

praecedere, cessit. 


*cessurus-go before 


Videamus Formas Veteres 

Review of all Passives: 

1. The perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect pas¬ 
sive simply use the passive participle with the suitable 
form (present, imperfect, or future) of the verb esse. 

2. That leaves us with the simple tenses: present, 
imperfect, and future. 

a) The present and imperfect subjunctive, and the 

imperfect indicative merely use the full stick: r, ris, tur, 
mur, mini, ntur. 

b) The present and future indicatives use the short- 
stick, ris, tur, mur, mini except for three second singular 

Present of third conjugation: poneris and caperis 
Future of first and second conjugation: amaberis 
(teneberis ). We already knew the third plurals: 
present: amantur tenentur ponuntur capiuntur 

future: amabuntur tenebuntur ponentur capientur 

So we had to memorize only the first singulars: 
present: amor teneor ponor capior audior 
future: amabor tenebor ponar capiar audiar 
Practice: 1. How do you say, in the indicative: you 
are loved, you were being loved, you will be loved, you 
have been loved, you had been loved, you will have been 
loved; and in the subjunctive: you are loved, you were 
being loved, you have been loved, you had been loved. 


—Now make the same forms for tenere, ducere, capere, 

2. How do you say, in the indicative: we are being 
killed, we were being killed, we shall be killed, we have 
been killed, we had been killed, we shall have been 
killed; and in the subjunctive: we are being killed, we 
were being killed, we have been killed, we had been 
killed. Now make the same forms for amare, videre, 
ponere, audire. 

3. Give the vocative of: Marcus Porcius Cato, Quin¬ 
tus Servilius, good lamb. 


Adhuc Plura de Rebus Aegyptiacis 

Viri Hebraici duo, amici nostri, quodam die in terra 
Aegypti ambulabant ( were walking). Fere hoc modo 
unus ad alterum locutus est, “Ea quae Ptahotep nobis 
de Osiride et de regibus Aegypti narrabat, sunt mirabflia 
(wonderful). Sed non possum talia credere. Non enim 
facile est credere ilia. Insuper prophetae nostri veritatem 
nobis dicunt: unum tantum esse Deum. Ergo certum 
est quod rex Aegypti re vera non est deus. Probabiliter 
quidam ex illis regibus mali sunt. Hodie si videbimus 
Ptahotep, interrogabimus eum de hac re. Sed ecce—ibi 
ille est. Ptahotep! Veni ad nos. Volumus plura a te de 
terra tua audire. 

Ptahotep non odit de terra sua loqui, et de se. Celeri- 
ter cucurrit (ran) ad amicos nostros, “Quid vultis amici 
mei? Forsan vos etiam vultis esse Osiris post mortem?” 
Hoc non volumus. Sed die nobis de magnis regibus 
Aegypti. Tu dicis eos esse deos. Nos, qui Hebraei sumus, 
credimus, sicut scis, solummodo unum Deum esse. Sed 
nunc ne de quaestione ilia loquamur. Habemus aliam 
quaestionem: suntne omnes reges Aegypti boni? “Oti- 
que, amici mei—qui enim deus est, quomodo potest non 
bonus esse?” Ergo omnes reges Aegyptiaci crediderunt 
narrationem de Osiride veram esse? “Hoc non nego— 

non omnes reges haec crediderunt.” (Continuabitur 

English to Latin 

1. Will you promise to save Egypt? 2. I will attempt to 
do that. 3. He put grain into the barns so that we might 
be saved. 4. We know why you have been put into prison. 
5. Having given him a ring, Pharao set Joseph over the 
whole land. 6. But the king himself did not have the 
grain; he ordered them to follow Joseph. 7. You are 
being sold because we hate you. 

Scramble Exercise 

Iosephi nomen a Pharaone in aliud nomen versum est. 
Nomen novum eius erat: Saphaneth-phanee. Huius 
verbi significationem cum sit in lingua Aegyptiaca quae 
quibusdam viris modernis nota est, nescimus. Cum enim 
multa de hac lingua noverint, nihilominus adhuc quae- 
dam quae interpretari non possunt remanent. Salva- 
torem mundi hoc nomen signiheare putavit Sanctus 
Hieronymus (Jerome). 

(The Parrot and the Magician) 

Quidam bonus magus laborabat in magna navi transat- 
lantica. Omni nocte ostendebat artem suam aliis qui iter 
faciebant in hac navi. Sed psittacus, cuius dominus 
nauta erat, semper ridebat (laughed), “Ille re vera non 
est magus! Nihil enim potest facere evanescere (vanish) 
nisi cerevisiam (beer)." Ilia nocte venit tempestas 
(storm) magna in mari. Navis in qua amici nostri erant 
mersa est (was sunk). Sed magus et psittacus servati 
sunt, tenentes tabulam (a plank). Cum ergo illi iam in 
aquis essent, psittacus dixit, “Awk. Concedo (I admit) 
te esse bonum magum—sed quid fecisti navi?” 



De indicativo futuro perfecto et de subiunctivo perjecto 
De formis passivis modi imperativi 

Septem anni magnae famis iam aderant. Homines venerunt ad regem, cla- 
mantes se non habere cibum. Pharao autem dicebat, “Ite ad Ioseph: et 
quidquid ille vobis dixerit, facite.” fitiam in terra Chanaan, in qua habita- 
bat Iacob, pater Iosephi, fames venit. Ille ergo misit decern ex filiis suis in 
Aegyptum ut emerent frumentum. Benjamin autem, filium suum mini¬ 
mum, non misit in Aegyptum ne quid mali accideret ei. 

Decern filii Iacob venerunt in Aegyptum, et viderunt Iosephum. Sed non 
sciverunt eum esse fratrem suum. Forsan putaverunt eum iam mortuum 
esse. Iosephus ipse scivit fratres sed, ut probaret eos, non dixit se esse 
fratrem eorum. Interrogavit eos, “A qua terra venistis?” Qui responderunt, 
“A terra Chanaan, ut emamus quae necessaria sunt. Omnes nos filii unius 
viri sumus. Pater noster duodecim fflios habuit, e quibus decern venimus, 
minimus cum patre nostro est, et alius non iam super terram est.” 

Iosephus autem simulabat se suspicari eos, “Re vera vos exploratores 
estis—ut videatis munitiones terrae huius venistis.” Et misit eos in car- 
cerem. Post tres dies eduxit eos e carcere et dixit eis, “Facite quae dixi, et 
vivetis: Deum enim timeo. Si pacifici estis, frater vester unus ligetur in 
carcere: vos autem abite, et ferte frumenta quae emistis in domos vestras, 
et fratrem vestrum minimum ad me adducite ut possim vestros probare 
sermones, et non moriamini.” 

Fratres ergo locuti sunt ad invicem, “Merito haec patimur, quia pecca- 
vimus in fratrem nostrum. Ergo venit super nos haec tribulatio.” E quibus 
unus, Ruben, dixit, “Nonne dixi vobis: Nolite peccare in puerum, et non 
audivistis me? Ecce, sanguis eius exquiritur.” 

Fratres autem nesciebant quod intelligeret Iosephus, quia per inter- 
pretem loqueretur ad eos. Iosephus autem flevit, et mox reversus est ad eos. 
Iosephus iussit Simeonem ligari, illis praesentibus, et etiam iussit pecuniam 
poni in saccis eorum. 

Cum in via essent, viderunt pecuniam esse in saccis suis. Et timuerunt 
multum. (Continuabiturcras) 

suspicari -suspect 
pacificus -peaceful 
abire-go away 
merito -rightly 
pati -suffer 
peccar e-sin 
exquirer e-demand 
fler e-weep 
saccus -sack 


abire, iit, *iturus-go 

bonus explorator, ore- 



Here, flevit, fletus -weep 

minimus, a, um -least, 

patiuntur, pati, passus 


est -suffer 

bonus sermo, on e-word, 

peccare, avit, atus-sin 

merito -deserv ingly 


Nunc Cogitemus 

Future Perfect Indicative Active: To form this 
tense we use the second part of the verb, the perfect 
active. Merely remove the third singular ending -it and 









parav ero 
Thus: eris 






Notice that these endings are the same as the future of 
esse except that the third plural future perfect has -erint 
instead of -erunt. 

Translation: I shall have prepared, you will have 
prepared, he will have prepared. 

interrogavit, “Pater, quid faciemus si Rex noluerit fru- 
mentum vendere?” Cui Iacob respondit, “Ferte pecu- 
niam multam vobiscum, et loquimini illi de magna fame 
in terra nostra. Sed praecipue ( especially ) orate ad Deum 
nostrum. Si nos omnia quae possumus fecerimus, ille 
nos non relinquet.” 

Sed in Aegypto Iosephus primum simulat se eos non 
novisse, et interrogat eos num contra Aegyptum 

Perfect Subjunctive Active: In spelling, all forms 
are the same as the future perfect indicative, except for 
the first singular—the subjunctive has -erim, not -ero. 
But the accent of the subjunctive is different in some 
few forms, as follows: 

Future Perfect Indicative Perfect Subjunctive 

paraverimus paraverimus 

paraveritis paraveritis 

Use of the Perfect Subjunctive: We have already 
seen this (for the perfect passive) in Lesson 57. But 
here it is again: it is ordinarily found only in dependent 
clauses, when the main verb refers to present or future 
time. The general sense will show the difference between 
present and perfect subjunctive, in English to Latin. 
Study the following pair, one having the present, one 
having perfect subjunctive: 

Rogat ex qua terra venerint. Rogat ubi sint. 

He asks from what land they have come. He asks 
where they are. 

Imperative Passive: In the singular, the forms are the 
same as the active infinitive endings. Thus: 

amare, habere, ponere, capere, audire 

beloved! be had! be put! (etc.) 

In the plural, the forms are the same as the second 
plural present indicative passive. Thus: paramini, 
habemini, ponimini, capimini, audimini. 

Deponent verbs will use the same endings as above, 
including the singular forms that seem like active in¬ 
finitives. Thus: 


Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Iacob filios suos ad se vocavit, dixitque eis, “Nisi emeri- 
tis frumentum nobis in Aegypto, omnes nos moriemur. 
Proficiscimini ergo celeriter.” Unus ex filiis eius eum 

De Rege Aegypti Haeretico 

Deinde Ptahotep rem novam dixit, “Re vera, unus ex 
regibus nostris olim factus est haereticus!” Haereticus! 
Hoc valde mirabile est. “Otique—nomen eius fuit 
Amenhotep quartus. Sed ille rex significationem huius 
nominis non amavit—nomen enim significat, ‘Satis est 
pro Amen.’ Mutavit itaque nomen suum, et se vocavit 
‘Ikhnaton’—quod significat, ‘Ille qui agit pro Aton.’ 
Aton enim est sol. Ikhnaton dixit quod Aton erat solus 
Deus. Hoc modo similis vobis Hebraeis erat.” Nos sci- 
mus solumodo unum verum Deum esse, sed non possu¬ 
mus dicere quod sol est solus Deus. Sol enim non solum 
non solus deus est, sed etiam sol omnino non est Deus. 
Deus enim verus videri oculis (eyes) mortalibus non 
potest. Sed si Aton est sol—nonne etiam Ra est sol, et 
Horus est filius solis? “Otique, veritatem dixistis—sed 
diversis (various) modis illi sunt sol. Sed, utrevertamur 
ad quaestionem nostram—Ikhnaton dixit solum Aton 
deum esse. Ergo omnes alii dei, secundum ilium, non 
sunt re vera dei. Re vera non sunt. Sequitur ut Osiris non 
sit deus, et nos omnes, qui putamus nos fieri Osiridem 
post mortem, nihil erimus. Quam propter causam, 
omnes boni Aegyptiaci noluerunt verbis Ikhnaton cre¬ 
dere. Ikhnaton Aton colebat, sed omnes alii colebant 
Ikhnaton et alios deos multos.” Ikhnaton itaque se esse 
deum non putavit? “Otique. Videtisne omnes has statuas 
regum antiquorum? Nonne videtis divinam maiestatem 
(majesty) in faciebus (faces) eorum? Sed Ikhnaton 
iussit statuas picturasque de se fieri aliis modis. In his 
statuis Ikhnaton non videtur esse deus. Videtur esse 
homo aeger. Sed iam tempus est ut discedam. Narrabo 
vobis plura de hoc rege eras.” 

English to Latin 

1. He asks us why we have attempted to conquer Egypt. 

2. We really have not come here to conquer the country, 
but to buy grain. 3. Since he has warned us, we ought 
to fear him. 4. We suffer these things deservingly, since 
we sold our brother. 5. Joseph left so that he might weep. 
6.1 will ask him why Ikhnaton wished to destroy all the 


other gods. 7. So that they would not know him, Joseph 
spoke to them through an interpreter. 

Scramble Exercise 

Fr&tribus per int6rpretem loquitur Ios6phus suis inter- 

rogdtque eos qua ex terra v6nerint et quid habere velint. 
Et iussit eos, “Loquimini mihi de omnibus quae vultis 
veritatem et par&mini ut faciatis omnia quae vobis 
dixerim. Cum enim multis videamini viri boni esse, mihi 
exploratores esse vid6mini. Ut bellum contra nos faciatis 



De participiis futuris passivis 
De casu obiectivo spatii et temporis 

Novem fratres Iosephi, pecunia rep6rta in saccis, timuerunt accedere ad 
patrem suum. Timebant etiam de salute Simeonis, quern Iosephus coegit 
manere in Aegypto. Itaque, dolentes accesserunt ad patrem suum, et 
narraverunt ei omnia quae accfderant eis in Aegypto. Omnibus audftis, 
Iacob doluit vehementer et flevit. Praesertim nolebat mittere Beniamin 
cum eis in Aeg^ptum, sicut Iosephus mandaverat. Noluit amittere Beni¬ 
amin, sicut olim Iosephum amiserat. At necesse erat emere frumentum, ne 
omnes perfrent. Itaque, magno cum metu, permisit eis ut redirent in 
Aegyptum cum Beniamin. Misit etiam cum eis multa egregia dona. 

Cum eos vidisset, Iosephus mandavit servis suis ut cenam pararent. 
Fratres autem territi sunt, dicentes, “Hie vir vult facere omnes nos servos 
suos, propter pecuniam quam reperuimus in saccis nostris.” Venerunt ita¬ 
que ad dispensatorem domus Iosephi, et narraverunt ei de pecunia reperta 
in saccis. At ille dixit eis, “Pax vobiscum, nolite timere: Deus vester, et 
Deus patris vestri dedit vobis pecuniam in saccis vestris. Nam pecuniam 
quam dedistis mihi accepi.” Eduxitque ad eos Simeon. Deinde duxit eos in 
domum et dedit eis aquam ut lavarent pedes suos. Postea Iosephus ipse 
venit et interrogavit eos, “Vivitne adhuc pater vester? Qui responderunt, 
“tJtique, pater noster, servus tuus, adhuc vivit.” At cum Iosephus vidisset 
Beniamin, non potuit se continere, sed discessit in cubiculum suum et 
flevit. (Continuabitur eras) 






vehementer -greatly 


at -but 

metus -fear 





pes -foot 




accedere, cessit. 

manere, mansit. 

*cessurus-£<? to, 

* mansurus-remam 


reperire, reperuit, 

amittere, misit, missus- 

repertus-/ind, find 



dolere, doluit, *doliturus- 

metus, u -fear 

grieve, be pained 

mill t-thousand (see below) 

mandare, avit, atus- 

bona salus, salutt-safety. 

entrust, command 


at -but 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Future Passive Participle: It is formed on the first 
part of the verb, using the ending -ndus, with the same 
connective vowels as in the imperfect indicative. There¬ 
fore, we could take any imperfect form, e.g., third 
singular, remove the -bat, add -ndus. The participle has 
all the endings of bonus: Thus: 

parandus, habendus, ponendus, capiendus, audiendus 

How is it used? It expresses obligation. Study this sam¬ 

Hoc est faciendum mihi. 

This is to be done by me. 

Therefore, we might make a crude but simple transla¬ 
tion formula, which will work with all normal examples: 
to be plus the third part (participle) of the English 

Notice in the above example that we use the dative for 
the agent —ordinarily we use ab with the ablative for 
such ideas, but not with the future passive participle. 

Notice also that this future passive participle nor¬ 
mally comes with a linking verb —that is, the verb to be 
or any other verb that behaves in the same way, such as: 
to seem, to be called, etc. 

Now notice that Hoc est faciendum mihi could be 
translated: / must do it. 

Therefore, the dative would become the English subject, 
and we would insert must before the English verb. With 
that in mind, we could translate an odd sort of example 


because some verbs that have no passive in English 
can be used in this construction in Latin, thus: 
Veniendum est mihi. Eiindum est tibi. 

I must come. You must go. 

We could not say: “It is to be corned by me”—but we 
can soon learn to jump at once to say: I must come. 

This construction is really very handy, once one gets 
used to it. But we will need some practice (and will get 

Objective Case of Extent of Space and Time: 
The objective case without any preposition can indicate 
extent. Study these examples: 

Erat in carcere tres dies. 

He was in prison for three days. 

Venerunt tria millia passuum. 

They came three miles (literally: three thousands of 

Mille: The word mille, meaning a thousand, is peculiar. 
In the singular, to mean one thousand, it is not de¬ 
clined, and acts like an adjective agreeing with a noun. 

mille viri—a thousand men 
But when it means more than one thousand, it be¬ 
comes a third declension neuter noun, with a word in the 
possessive depending upon it. Thus: 

tria millia virorum—three thousand men (literally: 3 
thousands of men). It is sometimes spelled: milia instead 
of millia. 

Nunc Exerceamus Nos 

Iacob, pater duodecim filiorum, dixit filiis suis, “Fames 
magna iam venit in terram nostram. Sed audivi frumen- 
tum esse in Aegypto. Quid ergo faciendum est nobis? 
Frumentum emendum est in Aegypto. Discedendum est 
vobis, et in Aegyptum est eundum ( from ire) vobis. 
Dona bona sunt ferenda vobis ad regem terrae illius, 
ut ille det vobis sufhcientiam omnium bonorum. Non 
revertendum est vobis sine frumento.” Ad quae Simeon 
respondit, “Pater mi, omnia quae dicis nobis facienda 
sunt. Et nos ea faciemus celeriter. Plura verba nunc non 
sunt dicenda. Statim discedemus.” 

Plura de Ikhnaton 

Proximo die Hebraei nostri iterum amicum suum 
Ptahotep viderunt. Sine mora (delay) ille ad eos venit, 
quia multa adhuc remanebant dicenda de rege haeretico. 

Quibus interrogantibus, Ptahotep respondit, “Ikhna- 
ton non conversus est ab haeresi sua. Mortuus est in 
impietate sua. Post regnum breve regis Smenkh-ka-Re, 
factus est rex alius vir—vel, ut veritatem dicam—puer. 
Novus enim rex adhuc puer erat cum in solium Aegypti 
veniret. Nomen huius regis fuit Tutankhaton. Signi- 
ficatio huius nominis vobis clara est—vos enim linguam 
nostram scitis—significat ‘Imago viva de Aton.’ Hunc 
regem, cum puer adhuc esset, sacerdotes magni dei 
Amen coegerunt relinquere vanam religionem Aton, et 
redire ad deum magnum. Amen. Hoc modo ‘Amen’ 
scriptus est religioni Aton. Et nomen regis mutatum est 
in Tutankhamen—cuius significationem facile videre 
potestis. Ille paucos regnavit annos et mortuus est.” 

English to Latin 

1. There are many things to be done. 2. Why do we 
have to go to Egypt? 3. We shall have to go for many 
days and many miles. 4. But we must have grain—or 
we shall all die. 5. The Egyptians thought that the re¬ 
ligion of Aton was to be destroyed. 6. It follows that 
Osiris also is not a god. 7. Ikhnaton did not think that 
he himself should be worshipped. 

Scramble Exercise 

Multa millia passuum iter fecerant Iosephi fratres 
antequam in saccis pecuniam invenerunt. Qua inventa 
multum dolueruntdixeruntque,“Quid faciendum nobis? 
Revertendum ad virum magnum ilium in Aegyptum? 
An in terram nostram? Ducendus erit nobis ad eum 
etiam frater minimus quern pater amat Beniamin? 
Dolendum erit patri nostro si ille ducendus est.” 

Psittachus (a parrot) sub aulaeo ferreo 
(iron curtain) 

Quodam die in Hungaria, miles Russicus superbus in 
tabernam (tavern) venit ut biberet (drink) Vodkam. 
Et cum biberet, vidit, et etiam audivit psittachum. 
Psittachus saepe dicebat, “Mors Communistis! (Com- 
munista, a -Communist) Mors Communistis!” Miles 
vehementer iratus est haec verba audiens, dixitque 
cauponi (caupo, one-tavern-keeper): “Cras (tomor¬ 
row) iterum in hanc tabernam veniam—si psittachus ille 
adhuc in hoc loco est—mors tibi et psittacho!” Caupo 
timuit multum. Cum ergo Communista discessisset, 
caupo, tollens psittachum suum, cum dolore ivit ad 
sacerdotem, explicavitque ei difficultatem suam. Cui 
sacerdos respondit, “Fili mi (my son), nulla difficul- 


tas est. Ego etiam psittachum h&beo. Dabo tibi psitta- 
chum meum, et tuum accipiam.” Reversus est itaque 
caupo, cum psittacho sacerdotis. Proximo die, cum 
novus psittachus in taberna esset, idem miles Russicus 
in tabernam venit, bibitque Vodkam. Cumque biberet, 
semper psittachum spect&bat, exspectab&tque audire, 

“Mors Communistis!” Psittachus autem haec verba non 
dixit. Tandem (finally), cum multam Vodkam bibisset, 
et nullum verbum ex psittacho audivisset, miles in ira 
dixit psittacho, “Euge, euge (come on )—Mors Com¬ 
munistis!” Et psittachus celeriterrespondit ei: “Dominus 
det (from dare) tibi id quod rogas, fili mi!” 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Itaque findecim fratres cenam cum Iosepho habuerunt, sed non cognove- 
runt eum esse fratrem suum. Cogitabant eum esse virum Aegyptiacum qui 
magnam habfibat auctoritatem. Sed etsi hi fratres olim voluerant nocere 
Iosepho, hie noluit nocere eis. Insuper, Iosephus dedit eis multa bona 
mfinera, sed dedit maxima mfinera Beniamin. Et iam tempus erat ut 
discederent. Iosephus itaque iussit ministros suos implere saccos eorum 
frumento. Sed etiam iussit peefiniam clam poni in saccis omnium, et in 
sacco Beniamin, poni scyphum suum argenteum. 

Cumque fratres iam iter facerent in terram suam, misit Iosephus servos 
suos post eos. Qui, consequentes fratres, accusaverunt eos, dicentes unum 
ex eis cepisse scyphum argenteum. Fratres deposuerunt saccos in quibus 
frumenta portabant, eosque aperuerunt. Ecce in ore sacci Beniamin in¬ 
ventus est scyphus argenteus Iosephi! 

Omnes territi sunt. Reversi sunt ad domum Iosephi. Cumque vidissent 
eum, se in terram ante pedes eius proiecerunt dixeruntque, “Ecce, omnes 
servi erimus tibi domino nostro.” Sed Iosephus respondit, “Nullo modo ita 
fiat, sed is qui cepit scyphum meum—ille sit servus meus. Ceteri discedatis 
ad patrem vestrum.” Iudas itaque, accedens ad Iosephum, voluit clam loqui 
cum eo, dixitque, “Domine mi, loquatur servus tuus verbum tecum. Ne 
irascaris servo tuo. Ego pollicitus sum patri nostro quod servarem vitam 
huius pfieri. Pater enim noster amat eum amore magno. Nisi puer reversus 
erit ad patrem nostrum, pater morietur. Da mihi ut maneam hie, et sim 
servus tuus pro eo.” (Continuabitur eras) 

cognovit -learned 
cogilart-t hink 
nocert-harm (with dat .) 
munus -gift 
clam -secretly 
argenteus -silver 
consequi -catch 
pes -foot 
proiecit -threw 
ctith-the rest 


cogitare, avit, atus -think *nociturus-/ju/7n (with 

cognoscere, novit, notus- dat.) 

learn (and therefore portare, avit, atus-carry 

the perfect means : magna auctoritas, tate- 

know) authority, influence 

consequi, consecutus est- bonum munus, mfinere- 
follow up, overtake, duty, gift 

accomplish clam -secretly 

nocere, nocuit, etsi-even if, although 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Give the future perfect indicative active of: praece- 
dere, cogitdre, nocere. 2. Give future perfect indicative 
passive of: cognoscere, flere, manddre. 3. Give perfect 
subjunctive active of: manere, accedere, dolere. 4. Give 
perfect subjunctive passive of: reperire, amittere, con- 

stituere. 5. Give the present imperative passive of: 
amittere, reperire, vertere. 

Review of Principles of Subjunctive Tense Use: 
Now that we know all four tenses of the subjunctive, let 
us make our information more exact on when to use 
them. Their use is controlled by a law called sequence 
of tenses ( consecutio temporum). But it is very easy. 


1. If the main verb refers to anything but past time 
(that is, to present or future)—we pick from present 
or perfect subjunctive in the dependent clause. Gen¬ 
eral sense tells which to pick. 

2. If the main verb refers to past time—we pick from 
imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive in the dependent 
clause. Again, general sense tells which to pick. 


Here is a set of samples, to show each combination. 

1. Cum Caesar haec sciat, non vult venire. 

Although Caesar knows these things, he does not 
want to come. 

Cum Caesar Galliam vicerit, Romani laeti sunt. 
Since Caesar has conquered Gaul, the Romans are 

2. Cum Caesar haec sciret, non voluit venire. 
Although Caesar knew these things, he did not want 
to come. 

Cum Caesar Galliam vicisset, Romani laeti erant. 
Since Caesar had conquered Gaul, the Romans were 

(Note: The two examples under 1 are said to be in 
primary sequence, because they follow a main 
verb referring to present or future. The two ex¬ 
amples under number 2 are said to be in sec¬ 
ondary sequence, because they follow a main 
verb referring to the past .) 

Pharao Vult Audire de Vita Iosephi 

Quodam die, Pharao cum Iosepho in palatio loquebatur, 
“Audivi de te, quod servus eras antequam somnium 
meum interpretatus es. Quis vendidit te ut servus esses?” 
Cui respondit Iosephus: “Domine mi rex, quia tu im- 
peras, veritas dicenda est. Quodam die dixerat pater 
meus mihi: ‘Eundum tibi. Videndum si omnia bona sint 
cum fratribus tuis. Cum videris eos, et inveneris omnia 
bona esse, redeundum ad me.’ Revera fratres meos time- 
barn. Me enim oderunt. Dixi enim in corde meo: Si 
viderint me fratres mei, forsan ligabor, forsan nocebunt 
mihi; forsan etiam interficiar ab eis.” 

Et Pharao interrogavit, “Quare timendi erant fratres 
tibi? Feceras aliquid mali contra eos?” Cui Iosephus, 
“Nihil mali feceram. Sed illi malum fecerant, et ego 
patri meo narravi. Insuper, duo somnia habui. Somnia 
videbantur significare quod fratres mei deberent me 
adorare super terrain.” Cui Pharao, “Et nonne somnia 
vera erant? Revera adorandus es eis nunc! Sed reliqua 
narranda de fratribus.” Iosephus ergo narravit, “Sicut 
dicebam, timebam fratres. Sed pater meus locutus erat. 

Facienda erant omnia quae ille voluit. Pater enim a Deo 
nostro auctoritatem habet. Sed cum consecutus essem 
fratres, in periculo eram. Cum enim me vidissent, com- 
prehenderunt et ligaverunt. Sed unus ex fratribus, 
Ruben, rogavit alios ut me in cisternam mitterent. 
Postea, mercatoribus euntibus in hanc terrain venditus 

“In hac terra, sicut audivisti, emptus sum a Putipharo. 
Sed uxor eius accusavit me. Putiphar ergo me vocavit et 
dixit, ‘Estne verum id quod uxor mea dicit? Revera 
malum fecisti?’ Cui ego, ‘Malum non feci.’ Nihilominus, 
in carcerem missus sum. Ibi manendum erat multos dies. 
Duo autem servi vestri somnia etiam habuerunt. Haec 
interpretatus sum pro eis. Et a pincema petfvi, ‘Cum in 
palatium lterum veneris, ne obliviscaris mei. Sed lo- 
quaris pro me ad regem, ut egrediar ex hoc loco.’ Ni¬ 
hilominus, pincema, cum restitutus esset, mei oblitus est 
multos dies. Sed in palatium vocatus sum ut interpre- 
tarer somnium vestrum.” 

English to Latin 

1. We do not know who the Pharao was who did not 
know Joseph. 2. Do you know why he wanted to harm 
the Jews? 3. For many years, Joseph had done many 
things for Egypt. 4. Nevertheless the people suffered 
such great evils that they asked God to free them. 5. 
Their salvation was in the power of God. 6. Pharao at¬ 
tempted to overtake them, but was not able. 7. The army 
of the king of Egypt was destroyed in the sea. 

Scramble Exercise 

Cum Iosepho fratre suo quern non cognoscebant cenam 
habebant alii fratres. At cum vemsset ut discederent 
tempus iussit Iosephus poni in saccos eorum lterum pe¬ 
cuniary Sed ut videre posset num adhuc invidia move- 
rentur iussit ille clam in saccum Beniamin scyphum 
poni argenteum suum. Consecuti eos mimstri Iosephi 
ubi scyphum posuissent interrogaverunt. In Beniamin 
sacco invento illo multum doluerunt. 



De gerundivis finalibus 
De dativo possessions 

Ex his verbis Iudae, et etiam ex eis quae alii fratres fecerant, Iosephus 
poterat scire fratres suos non iam malos esse, non iam invidiam habere 
sicut olim habuerant cum venderent eum in Aegyptum. Itaque, his auditis, 
Iosephus non iam poterat se continere, sed confestim iussit servos suos 
abire ne quis adesset praeter fratres. Elevavitque vocem suam, flens mul- 
tum, ita ut Aegyptii omnisque domus Pharaonis audirent, et dixit fra- 
tribus suis: “Ego sum Iosephus. Valetne pater meus?” Non poterant re- 
spondere fratres, nimio terrore territi. Ad quos ille sine ira: “Accedite ad 
me. Ego sum frater vester, quern vendidistis in Aegyptum. Nolite timere, 
neque vobis durum videatur quod vendidistis me in his regionibus: pro 
salute enim vestra misit me Deus ante vos in Aegyptum. Iam enim duos 
annos habuimus famem. Adhuc quinque anni famis venient. Sed Deus misit 
me ante vos ut habeatis frumentum quo ali possitis in hac fame. Non vestro 
consilio, sed Dei voluntate hue missus sum. Deus fecit me quasi patrem 
Pharaonis. Pharao enim dedit mihi magnam potestatem, ut secundus post 
ipsum regam universam terram hanc. Sed celeriter ite ad patrem meum, 
et dicetis ei: ‘Haec mandat filius tuus Iosephus: Deus fecit me dominum 
universae terrae Aegypti. Descende ad me, ne moreris, et habitabis in terra 
Gessen. Ibique te.alam—quinque enim anni famis adhuc sunt.” Dixitque 
etiam Iosephus fratribus suis: “Ecce, oculi vestri et oculi fratris mei 
Beniamin vident quod os meum loquatur ad vos. Dicite patri meo univer¬ 
sam gloriam meam, et omnia quae vidistis in Aegypto. Celeriter agite, et 
adducite eum ad me.” (Continuabitur eras) 

continer ^-restrain 
confestim-a/ once 
praeter -besides 
elevavit -raised 
valer e-be well 
aler ^-nourish 
huc-to this place 
quasi-os it were 
reger e-rule 


alere, aluit, alitus -feed, 

valere, valuit,* valiturus- 


be well, be strong 

continere, contfnuit. 

durus, a, um-hard 


oculus, o -eye 

together, restrain 

confestim-ar once 

regere, rexit, rectus -rule 

praeter (with obj.)- 
beyond, besides, except 

Gerundive to Express Purpose: The gerundive 
seems to be the same as the future passive participle, 
which we have already learned. The same form may be 
used to express the idea of purpose. We have already 
seen that Latin can express purpose by ut with the 
subjunctive. It seldom used the infinitive as English 
does. But the gerundive is almost as easy to use as the 
infinitive, once you get used to it. 

Venit ad videndum Caesarem. 

He came to see Caesar. 

Notice that the form videndum is an adjective, agree¬ 
ing with Caesarem. The whole phrase: ad videndum 
Caesarem, is in the objective case because of the prepo¬ 
sition ad. Notice that the whole phrase is equivalent to 
an English infinitive plus an object: Caesar—to see 

Now instead of ad, other prepositions could be used. 
The most common are causa and gratia (strictly speak¬ 
ing not prepositions, but close enough), which follow 
the phrase, instead of coming ahead as ad does. With 
causa and gratia we get the possessive case. Thus: 

Venit videndi Caesaris causa or 
Venit videndi Caesaris gratia. 

The meaning is still: He came to see Caesar. Therefore 
we should consider that ad, causa or gratia plus the 
gerundive is equivalent to an English infinitive (in a 
purpose construction). 


(Certain other prepositions can also be used, but we 
need not learn them now: they are, chiefly—with ob¬ 
jective: ob, propter, —with ablative: pro). 

Dative of Possession: Languages, like people, are dif¬ 
ferent. Not all say the same thing with the same twist. 
English prefers to say: 

He has a book. Latin can also say: Habet librum. 

But Latin is very fond of saying: 

A book is to him or. There is a book to him: Liber 
est ei. 

Pharao Iterum Cum Iosepho Loquitur 

Proximo die Pharao iterum cum amico nostro Iosepho 
loquebatur: “Iosephe, iam narravisti mihi quaedam de 
fratribus tuis. Quot (how many) fratres tibi sunt?” Cui 
Iosephus: “Domine mi rex, undecim mihi fratres sunt.” 
Et Pharao interrogavit: “Quare venerunt fratres tui in 
hanc terram?” “Fames venit in terram •orum, et pater 
misit eos in terram Aegypti ad emendum frumentum,” 
dixit Iosephus. Cui rex: “Venerunt omnes fratres in 
itinere primo? Solummodo decern vidi turn.” Iosephus 
autem explicavit: “Verum est, domine mi rex, solum¬ 
modo decern venerunt in itinere primo. Pater enim meus 
magnopere amavit filium minimum, Beniamin, et noluit 
mittere eum. Sed misi fratres meos in terram eorum 
iterum ad Beniamin in Aegyptum ducendum. Dixeram 
eis: ‘Nonne vobis est etiam alius frater? His auditis, 
fratres probabiliter timebant et cogitabant de me, quern 
vendiderant ut servus essem. Sed nesciverunt me— 
loquebar enim eis per interpretem.” “Sed audivi,” dixit 
rex, “te posuisse pecuniam iterum in saccis eorum cum 
reverterentur. Quare hoc fecisti?” “Revera,” ait Iose¬ 
phus, “nolui pecuniam eorum accipere. Non enim odi 

eos: fratres enim mei adhuc sunt. Et insuper, nolui 
pecuniam accipere pro frumento ad patrem meum alen- 
dum.” “Sed nonne etiam audivi,” interrogavit rex, “te 
posuisse scyphum argenteum qui tibi est, in sacco 
Beniamin postea, cum discederet cum aliis fratribus tuis. 
Quare hoc fecisti? Num volebas eum scyphum tuum 
habere?” “Non hoc volui,” explicavit Iosephus, “sed hoc 
feci ad fratres meos probandos. Volebam videre num 
invidia eis adhuc esset contra fratrem meum minimum. 
Propter hanc causam ergo imperavi ut scyphus in sacco 
eius poneretur. Cum autem illi reversi essent ad pala- 
tium, et audivissem #os loquentes, et vidissem illis nul- 
lam invidiam esse, non potui me continere. Flendum 
erat, et flevi.” 

English to Latin 

1. Let us go to Egypt to buy grain. 2. The army came 
quickly to catch the Jews. 3. But God led the Egyptians 
into the sea to destroy them. 4. Joseph had no money 
when he came to Egypt. 5. Now he has many good 
things. 6. Joseph ordered money put into their sacks to 
test them. 7. God sent him into Egypt to save his 

Scramble Exercise 

Ad probandos fratres suos fecit haec omnia Iosephus. 
Non ad eos qui meruerant pati puniendos persecutus est 
fratres. Non enim sicut illis, ita Iosepho invidia erat. 
Illi enim ei ob malam voluntatem suam nocere volue- 
rant vendentes eum in terram alienam servum. Ipse 
autem eis pro malis bona dedit eorum servandorum 



De gerundio 

De dativo finali et dativo iudicantis 

Post haec, Iosephus dedit munera bona singulis fratribus suis, et profi- 
ciscentibus illis dixit: “Ne irasc&mini in via.” Qui ^ascendentes ex Aeg^pto, 
venerunt in terrain CMnaan ad patrem suum Iacob, et nuntiaverunt ei, 
dicentes: “Iosephus fflius tuus vivit, et ipse domin£tur in omni terra 
Aeg^pti. Quo audito, Iacob, quasi de gravi somno evigilans, tamen non 
credebat eis. Illi narraverunt ei omnia de Iosepho et de magna copia 
omnium rerum quam habebat. Cumque Iacob vidisset omnia quae miserat 
fflius suus, dixit: “Satis est mihi si adhuc fflius meus vivit: ibo et videbo 
eum 4ntequam moriar.” Profectus est ergo cum omnibus quae habebat, et 
fflii eius et lfberi filiorum eius cum eo. Venerunt ad lines CMnaan, ibique 
Iacob sacriffcium Deo obtulit. His factis, in visione noctis, Iacob audivit 
Deum voc&ntem se et dicentem sibi: “Iacob, Iacob.” Cui respondit: “Ecce, 
adsum.” Dixitque ei Deus, “Ego sum Deus patris tui: noli timere. Descende 
in Aeg^ptum, quia in gentem magnam faciam te ibi. Ego descendam tecum 
in terram illam, et ducam te revertentem. Iosephus etiam ponet manus 
suas super oculos tuos.” 

Cum Iosephus audivisset patrem suum iam appropinquare, ascendit ad 
videndum eum. Vidensque eum, cucurrit et oscul&tus est eum flevitque 
multum. Iosephus etiam nunti£vit Pharaoni patrem suum venisse. Pharao 
laetus fuit, et mand4vit Iosepho tribuere patri suo terras optimas. Cumque 
PMrao vidisset Iacob, interrog^vit eum de aet£te eius: “Quot sunt dies 
annorum vitae tuae?” Qui respondit: “Dies mei sunt centum triginta anni, 
parvi et mali.” (Continu4bitur) 

singuli-one at a time 

nunti&vit -reported 

domin^ri -be a ruler 


somnus -sleep 

e\\gi\kxt-wake up 

copia -abundance 

liberi -children 





optimus -best 

aetas -age 

quot-/iow many 


appropinquare, £vit, 

copia, di-abundance, 

ktus-approach (with 

supply {pi. — troops) 


gravis, e, i -heavy 

currere, cucurrit, 

liberi, is (pi. only)-children 


optimus, a, u m-best, very 

tribuere, tribuit, tributus- 


assign, give 

singuli, ae, a (pi. only)- 

magna aetas, aet£te-age 

one at a time, each 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Gerunds: Gerunds are verbal nouns—that is, half 
noun and half verb (compare participles: half verb, 
half adjective). But the Latin gerund has only a few 
forms—possessive, dative, objective, and ablative sin¬ 
gular: i, o, um, o —no other forms are in use. 

How is it used? There are chiefly two kinds of uses: 

1. To express purpose—just like the gerundive, ex¬ 
cept that this is a noun, and so (in English) there 
will be no object; e.g., Venit in silvas septentrio- 
nales ad pisc&ndum. 

He came into the north woods to fish. 

(Of course, we could also use: piscdndi causa, piscandi 
grdtia, ob piscdndum, etc.) 

2. As a mere verbal noun, translated by the English 
noun in - ing: A variety of combinations are possible 
(but, for the most part, no object should be used). 

1. Amor piscandi traxit eum in silvas. 

Love of fishing drew him into the woods. 

2. Expectdndo, F&bius serv&vit Romam. 

By waiting, Fabius saved Rome. 

Datives of Purpose and Reference: These two 
datives often, though not always, come in a pair. Some¬ 
times they are called double dative. The basic meanings 
are easy: the dative of purpose expresses the goal of 
something, that for which it is or is done. Often English 


would use merely nominative instead of one dative. 

Hoc est auxilio mihi. 

This is (for) a help to me. 

English would prefer to leave out the word for. 
Auxilio is, of course, dative of purpose, while mihi is 
dative of reference. The latter expresses the one con¬ 
cerned, or in whose eyes a thing is so (hence the Latin 
name: dativus iudicdntis). 

Pharao et Iacob 

Cum patrem suum vidisset, Iosephus laetus erat, et 
cucurrit ad eum videndum. Pharao etiam ipse Iacobum 
videre voluit. Ductus est ftaque in palatium. Pharao 
locutus est: “Placet mihi valde te videre. Multa de te 
audivi a fflio tuo. Nonne multos annos habes?” Cui 
Iacob: “Non multos, solummodo centum triginta an¬ 
nos.” “Films tuus egregius,” dixit Pharao, “magna 
somnia vidit, potuitque interpreted somnia mea. Credo 
Deum misisse eum saluti omni terrae Aegypti. Vidfsti tu 
etiam somnia aliqua?” “Otique,” respondit Iacob, 
“quadam nocte maximum somnium vidi. Faciebam iter 
in Haran. Nox me in quodam campo invenit. Lapides 
(stones) itaque tuli, et posui sub capite meo, dormiendi 
causa. Et ecce! In somnio vidi scalam (ladder). Scala 
a terra ascendebat ad coelum ipsum! In scala, Angelos 
Dei vidi, ascendentes et descendentes per earn. Sed in 
coelo ipso Dominum Deum nostrum vidi, et locutus est 
mihi: ‘Terrain hanc, in qua dormis, tibi tribuam, et 
filiis tuis. Liberi tui erunt valde multi, sicut promisi 
patribus tuis Abrahae et Isaac. Faciam enim te in gen- 
tem magnam.’ ” “Magnum miraculum erat,” respondit 

Phirao, “sed vellem de hac promissione Dei tui audire. 
Quid fecit Abraham pater tuus?” “Quodam die apparuit 
ei Deus, et imperavit ut sacrificaret filium suum Isaac. 
Deus promiserat Abrahae quod faceret eum in gentem 
magnam per Isaac—sed postea iussit Isaac duci in mon- 
tem ut sacrificaretur. Abraham autem credidit Deo. 
Deus enim potest omnia facere quae vult. Quando Deus 
loquitur, credendum est, non interrogandum. Sed cum 
filmm ligavisset ad occidendum, angelus Domini ei 
apparuit, imperavitque ut caperet arietem ad sacrifi- 
candum. Non enim interficiendus erat Isaac. Sacriffcium 
enim humanum Deo nostro non placet.” 

English to Latin 

1. Joseph was sent into Egypt to be (for) salvation to 
his brothers. 2. Many nations were to be conquered be¬ 
fore the Jews entered Palestine. 3. By remaining in 
Egypt Joseph became a great man. 4. The love of ruling 
has destroyed many men. 5. Joseph forgave his brothers. 
6. He was a servant to the king. 7. Jacob was heavy with 
age but great in good works. 

Scramble Exercise 

Cumque vidisset Iosephus fratres suos non iam nocendi 
voluntatem habere, se esse fratrem eorum confessus est: 
“Quern in Aegyptum vendidistis sum ego frater vester. 
Nec vobis timendum est. Saluti enim vobis me in hanc 
terram misit Deus patrum nostrorum. Mihi autem dedit 
Deus voluntatem vobis ignoscendi quae fecistis. 
Omnium bonorum copiam vobis tribuam.” 



De participio et infinitivo in tempore futuro activo 
De verbis regentibus duplicem obiectivum 

Post haec, Iacob benedixit Pharaoni et discessit. Iosephus autem patri 
suo agros tribuit in Gessen, parte Aegypti valde fertili. Gratum enim erat 
Pharoni iuvdre Hebraeos ob merita optima Iosephi. Iacob et ceteri 
Hebraei habuerunt copiam omnium bonorum. Hoc modo annos septen- 
decim vixit Iacob. Cum autem cerneret mortem suam appropinqudre, 
Iacob benedixit duobus filiis Iosephi, Ephraim et Mandsse. Post haec Iacob 
voc&vit filios suos, et ait eis: “Venite ut annuntiem quae ventura sunt 
{are about to come ) vobis in diebus novissimis. Venite et audite filii Iacob, 
audite Israel patrem vestrum.” Et locutus est Iacob prophetiam longam de 
filiis suis et de eis quae ventura essent eis in diebus novissimis. Inter ilia 
haec dixit, ben®dicens Iudae: “Non auferetur sceptrum de Iuda, et dux de 
femore eius, donee veniat ille qui mittendus est; et ipse erit exspectatio 

Haec prophetia loquitur de Christo qui venturus erat. Christus re vera 
est ille quern omnes gentes exspectaverunt. 

Prophetia finita, Iacob imperdvit filiis suis ut sepelirent eum in terra 
Ch&naan in loco suo, et mortuus est. Iosephus, cernens patrem suum 
mortuum esse, ruit super f&ciem eius, flens multum. Et praecepit servis suis 
medicis ut aromatibus condirent patrem suum. Et omnis Aegyptus flevit 
eum septuaginta dies. 

gratus -pleasing 
ob -on account of 
ait-he says 
novissimus -last 

venturus, a, um -about to come 

auterxe-take away 


donee -until 


ruere-rush, fall 

facies -face 

condir e-embalm 


ait -he says 

ruere, ruit, rutus -fall, 

benedicere, dixit, dictus- 


bless (sometimes with 

ceteri, ae, a-the rest, the 



cemere, crevit, cretus- 

gratus, a, um -pleasing 

see, distinguish 

donee -while, until 

iuvdre, iuvit, iutus-help, 

usque ad-aj far as, even to 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Future Active Participle: For some time we have 
been learning a third part for some verbs, that is not a 
perfect participle. Those forms have been marked*. 
Notice that they all end in -urus. The same form can 
be made for any verb—merely change the final -us of 
the perfect participle to -urus. It has all the endings of 

The meaning is easy to learn: about to prepare, going 
to prepare, intending to prepare. 

Future Active Infinitive: If we use the infinitive 
esse (to be) with a future active participle, we have the 
future active infinitive. We must remember to use the 
right ending on the participle—gender, number, and 
case. Recall that one form of indirect statement uses 
objective case with an infinitive. For example: 

Dicit Caesarem venire.—He says that Caesar is com¬ 

Dicit Caesarem venisse.—He says that Caesar came. 
Now—with the future: 

Dicit Caesarem venturum esse.—He says that Caesar 
will come. 

Dixit Caesarem venturum esse.—He said that Caesar 
would come. 

Notice that the ending of venturum agrees with the 
subject of the infinitive, Caesarem. 

Note also that the infinitive expresses time relative to 
the time of the main verb: 

pardtus—becomes: paraturus. 


Therefore: Present infinitive —same time as main verb 
Perfect infinitive—action done before main 

Future infinitive—action to come after time 
of main verb 

Double Objective Case with Some Verbs: Some 
verbs (not all—we must learn by experience, or by the 
dictionary those which do) can have two objects: 

Rogat Marcum pecuniam. 

He asks Marcus for money. 

But the verb petere, also meaning ask, doesn’t have two 

Petit pecuniam a Marco. 

De Prophetia Iacob 

Temporibus Veteris Testamenti, Deus populo suo 
multos misit prophetas ad eos iuvandos. Hi prophetae 
multa quae ventura erant dixerunt. Sed etiam patri- 
irchae Iacob et Iosephus prophetias de rebus futuris 
dederunt. Quodam die Iosephus audivit patrem suum 
aegrum esse. Cogitavit ergo patrem suum moriturum 
esse. Et verum erat: Iacob revera moriturus erat. Cum- 
que ad eum venisset Iosephus, Iacob eum monuit de 
promissionibus Dei. Deus enim promiserat se facturum 
esse eos in magnum populum. Dixitque se tributurum 
esse eis terram Chanaan. Benedixit ftaque Iacob duobus 
filiis Iosephi, dixitque gentes magnas venturas esse ex 
illis filiis. Etiam praedixit Deum iterum ducturum esse 
populum suum ex terra Aegypti in terram Chanaan. 
Non dixit Iosephum ipsum habitaturum esse in terra 
patrum ipsius. Iosephus enim remansurus erat in 
Aegypto et moriturus erat ibi. 

Cum ergo Iacob haec dixisset, vocavit etiam filios 
suos ut annuntiaret eis multa ventura. In benedictione 
et prophetia data Iudae, dixit sceptrum non discessurum 
esse a Iuda donee veniret ille qui mittendus erat. Christus 
erat ille qui mittendus erat. Iacob etiam praedixit multa 
ilia ventura esse filiis suis. His prophetiis datis, mortuus 
est Iacob. 

Similiter Iosephus ipse, intequam mortuus est, pro- 
phetivit Deum ducturum esse Hebraeos ex terra Aegypti 
in terram quam eis promiserat. Scivitne Iosephus etiam 
Hebraeos multa passuros esse in terra Aegypti antequam 
discederent? Difficile est dicere. Si revera haec scivit, 
Sacra Scriptura non dicit eum praedixisse eos talia 
passuros esse. 

English to Latin 

1. We are about to hear a prophecy. 2. He says that 
these things will come to us in the last days. 3. They wept 
for him seventy days. 4. Jacob gave them a prophecy 
that the Jews would have their own leaders until Christ 
should come (use subj.). 5. Jacob saw that death would 
come soon. 6. It pleased Pharao to help the Hebrews. 
7. Joseph ran to see his father. 

Scramble Exercise 

Iosephus Pharaoni patrem suum venturum esse dixit, et 
Pharaonem bona multa fratribus suis rogavit. Qui illi ut 
terram optimam eis daret imperavit. Iuvit enim Phara¬ 
onem iuv£re fratres patremque Iosephi. At ante mortem 
suam prophetiam magnam daturus erat Iacob Iosephi 
pater de rebus venturis. Inter ilia de Messia futuro 
praedixit non nulla: eum mittendum esse ex Iuda. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Post mortem patris sui, Iosephus iit ad Pharaonem, dixitque ei, “Pater 
meus cupivit sepeh'ri in terra patrum suorum, in Chanaan. Ascendam 
igitur, et sepeliam patrem meum, ac revertar.” Dixitque ei Pharao, 
“Ascende et sepeli patrum tuum sicut pollicitus es.” Cum ergo Iacob con¬ 
ditus aromatibus esset secundum morem Aegypti, Iosephus profectus est 
ut iret in terram Chanaan. Et ierunt cum eo omnes senes domus Pharaonis, 
et multi alii. 

Cumque sepelivissent Iacob, reversi sunt in terram Aegypti. Quo mor- 
tuo, timentes fratres eius dixerunt, “Ne Iosephus nunc irascatur nobis, 
velitque supplicium sumere de nobis ob peccata nostra, eamus {let us go) 
ad eum.” Dixeruntque ei, “Pater tuus praecepit nobis antequam moreretur 
ut haec tibi in nomine suo diceremus, ‘Qbsecro ut obliviscaris peccatorum 
fratrum tuorum, et malitiae quam exercuerunt contra te.’ ” 

Ouibus auditis, flevit Ioseph. Veneruntque ad eum fratres sui, et proni 
adorantes in terram dixerunt, “Servi tui sumus.” Ouibus ille respondit, 
“Nolite timere. Num possumus Dei resistere voluntati? Vos cogitavistis de 
me malum: sed Deus vertit illud in bonum, ut exaltaret me, sicut nunc 
cemitis, et salvos faceret multos populos. Nolite timere. Ego alam vos et 
liberos vestros.” 

Iosephus vixit in Aegypto cum omni domo patris sui. Vixitque centum 
decern annos, et vidit filios Ephraim usque ad tertiam generationem. 
Cumque sentiret finem vitae suae prope esse, locutus est fratribus suis, 
“Post mortem meam Deus visit^bit vos, et ascendere vos faciet de terra hac 
ad terram quam pollicitus est ad Abraham, Isaac, et Iacob. Portate ossa 
mea vobiscum de loco hoc.” Et mortuus est, et conditus aromatibus, 
positus est in loculo in Aegypto. 

cuper e-desire 


conditus -embalmed 

mos -custom 

sen ex-old man 

supplicium -punishment 

sumer c-take, exact 





salvus -safe 


visitor z-visit 

os, oss z-bone 



cupiunt, cupere, cupivit, 

bonus mos, more- 

cupitus -desire 

custom, habit {in pi: 

exercere, exercuit, 

morals, character) 


durum os, oss z-bone 


( compare: os, ore- 

sumere, sumpsit, 


sumptus-mfce, assume 

bonus senex, sznz-old 

{sumere supplicium 


de eo— exact punish- 

supplicium, o -punishment 

ment from him) 


Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Translate these sentences in as many ways as possi- 
able: a) Joseph was sent into Egypt to save his brothers. 

b) I must help them. 2. Translate in two ways: He has 
ten brothers. 3. Give the gerundive of: dlere, regere, 
currere, tribuere, benedicere, auferre. 4. Give future 
active infinitive of: cernere, ruere, appropinqudre. 

Iter Faciamus in Alias Terras 

Ad Orientem a Iudaea habitatur terra magna et antiqua. 
Huius terrae nomen est Mesopotamia. Significatio huius 
nominis nobis paucis verbis explicari potest. Est enim 
nomen Graecum— fiumen in Graeca lingua dicitur 
potamos, et medius in eadem lingua dictus mesos. 
Mesopotamia ergo terram quae inter flumina est signi- 
ficat. Et verum est, nam terra duobus magnis fluminibus 
irrigatur, scilicet {that is) Tigride et Euphrate. Haec 
duo flumina, scilicet Tigris et Euphrates, terram hanc 
habitabilem {habitable) faciunt. Quidam homines in 
hac terra paradisum fuisse putant. Quorum sententia 


nec probari nec omnino disprobari potest. Certum est 
homines hanc habitavisse terram saltern (at least) 
quinque millia annorum ante Christi nativitatem. 

In Aegypto, flumen Nilus diluvium (flood) omni anno 
facit. Aegyptii haec diluvia amant; sine his diluviis, 
terra eorum nullo modo habitabilis esset (would be). In 
Mesopotamia etiam diluvia sunt. Saepe haec diluvia 
sunt bona; praebent (provide) aquam ad irrigationem 
necessariam. Sed saepe etiam agros et domos huius ter- 
rae delent. 

Multae fabulae mirabiles (wonderful) in hac terra 
narrantur. Inter ilia, narrationem epicam de Gilgamesh 
habent. Quidam homines putant Homerum scripsisse 
primum epicum. Sed verum non est. Narratio enim de 
Gilgamesh composita est multis saeculis (many cen¬ 
turies) ante poemata Homerica. Cras mirabilem narra¬ 
tionem de hoc Gilgamesh audiemus. 

English to Latin 

1. Mesopotamia must have floods to irrigate the land. 

2. The love of ruling is a danger to many men. 3. To 
feed an army, much food is needed. 4. There is no 
one here except us Egyptians. 5. Jacob said that Christ 
would come. 6. Joseph said that the Jews would leave 
Egypt. 7. The brothers feared lest Joseph punish them. 

Scramble Exercise 

Ad sepeliendum patrem suum in terra patrum eius ex 
Aegypto cum multis ex Aegypti senioribus profictus est 
Iosephus. Iacob enim moriturus rogaverat Iosephum 
sepulchrum in terra ilia. Post haec autem fratres eius ne 
illi esset voluntas puniendi se timebant. Qui timentes ei 
appropinquaverunt, rogaveruntque ne irasceretur. 



De formis comparativis et superlativis 
De ablativo comparationis 

Post mortem Iosephi, Hebraei fuerunt in Aegypto multos annos. Et 
creverunt numero, ita ut multi Aegyptii mirarentur et timerent. Etiam rex 
Aegypti animadvertit Hebraeos factos esse numerosos. Post annos multos 
venit in solium Aegypti Pharao qui ignorabat Iosephum. Hie rex con- 
tempsit Hebraeos, et quaesivit quo modo deleret eos. Ait itaque ad 
populum suum, “Ecce, populus filiorum Israel multus, et fortior ( stronger) 
nobis ( than us) est. Venite, opprimamus eum, ne, si bellum contra nos 
veniat, transeat ad hostes nostros, et, victis nobis, egrediatur e terra.” 

Praeposuit igitur eis magistros duros, ut affligerent eos oneribus. Et 
aedificaverunt Pharaoni duas urbes, Phithom et Ramesses. Cumque magi- 
stri duri opprimerent eos, Hebraei crescebant numero, oderantque filios 
Israel Aegyptii, et affligebant eos. 

Cum Pharao animadvertisset Hebraeos, etsi graviter oppressos, adhuc 
crescere, mandavit ut omnes pueri Hebraeorum interficerentur statim post 
nativitatem suam. 

Inter alios pueros Hebraeos, natus est unus parvulus pulcher. Mater 
eius abdidit eum tres menses post nativitatem eius. Sed post haec, putans 
se non iam posse servare puerum, posuit eum in sporta, inter calamos in 
aqua ad ripam fluminis Nili. Soror huius pueri stetit procul, et spectabat 
fratrem parvulum suum. 

Ecce, venit filia Pharaonis cum puellis suis, videruntque parvulum. 
FiTia Pharaonis mota est misericordia, videns hunc parvulum, et dixit, 
“De infantibus Hebraeorum est hie.” (Continuabitur eras) 

crevit -grew 
mirarf -wonder 
ignorare-no/ know 
contemner t-despise 
transire-go over 
egredi-go out 
praeposuit-pw/ over 
onus -burden 
graviter -gravely 
statim-af once 
sporta -basket 
calamus -reed 
ripa -bank 
procul-/ar off 
spectar e-look at 


animadvertere, vertit. 

wonder, admire 

versus-notice, punish 

quaerere, quaesivit. 

contemnere, tempsit. 


temptus-despise, scorn 

spectare, avit, atus -look 

crescere, crevit, cretus- 


grow (compare parts 

durum onus, onere- 

of cernere) 


mirari, miratus est- 

statim-a/ once 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Comparison of Adjectives: In English, an adjective 
has three degrees: 

clear, clearer, clearest 

The first form is called positive (clear), the second, 
comparative (clearer), the third, superlative (clearest). 

Sometimes the comparative uses the word more, e.g., 
more ready. 

Now Latin has a similar set of forms for all adjectives 
—to make the comparative we get a base from the 
ablative singular of an adjective (ablative singular less 
the ablative ending) and add to that base: -ior, -ius. 

We have already had some of these words, such as 
melior —they are all declined like melior —that is, all 
(even those that come from bonus type words) are third 
declension, with ablative in -e. 

For the superlative, we use the same base, and add: 
-issimus (declined like bonus). 

Therefore take the adjective clarus—clarior, clarissi- 

Translations: for the comparative—clearer 

quite clear 

for the superlative—most clear 
very clear 

Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives: The 
above method is used for most adjectives—but there are 
a few exceptions : 

1. Adjectives in -er (such as acer, or pulcher) make 
the superlative by adding -rimus to the nominative singu¬ 
lar masculine: acerrimus, pulcherrimus. 

2. Six adjectives make the superlative by adding 
-limus to the base (ablative singular minus ending): 

facilis—facillimus (easy) 

difficilis—difficillimus (hard) 

similis—simillimus (similar) 

dissimilis—dissimillimus (dissimilar) 

humilis—humillimus (humble) 

gracilis—gracillimus (slender) 

3. Many common adjectives have completely un¬ 
predictable forms—but we have already learned the 
most important of them, a few at a time: here they are— 
multus—plus ( has no masculine and feminine 
singular ) —plurimus 
magnus—maior—maxim us 

Ablative of Comparison: How can we say than after 
a comparative? Two ways: 

1. Use quam (same case after and before): 

Iosephusmelior estquamPharao. (Notice Pharao 
is nominative). 

Joseph is better than Pharao. 

2. Use the ablative case: 

Iosephus melior est Pharadne. 

De Poem ate Epico: Gilgamesh 

Quo tempore compositum est hoc poema? Nescimus— 
probabiliter fere saeculo vigesimo secundo (twenty- 
second century) ante Christum. Certe antiquior est 
poematibus Homericis. Sed ad narrationem ipsam 

Gilgamesh rex durissimus erat, qui urbem quae voca- 
batur Erech regebat. Pauci reges crudeliores erant illo 
Gilgamesh. Cives igitur huius urbis, ad liberandos se 

ipsos, in urbem vocaverunt quoddam monstrum. Nomen 
huius monstri fuit Eabani—ille erat semibestia et semi¬ 
homo. Gilgamesh (quietiam fere monstrum erat) factus 
est amicus huius Eabani. Hi duo itaque ex urbe profecti 
sunt ad venandum (hunt). 

Veniunt in silvas (forest) cedrinas (cedar) occi¬ 
dentals. Ibi terribile inveniunt monstrum (multa mon- 
stra sunt his temporibus), cui nomen est Humbaba. 
Quidam deus tempestatum,Enlil nomine, Humbabam in 
hac silva posuit, ad custodiendam (guard) earn. Hum¬ 
baba terribilis est—et amici (!) nostri, id est Gilgamesh 
et Eabani, terribiliores sunt quam Humbaba. Itaque 
Humbabam interficiunt! Fere hoc tempore, quandam 
mulierem (woman) vident, vel potius (rather) deam 
quae vocatur Ishtar. Ishtar amat Gilgamesh, sed ille non 
vult mulieres amare: interficere monstra vult. Ishtar 
itaque, ira mota, quia contempta est a Gilgamesh, mittit 
aliud monstrum, quod vocatur “taurus (bull) coelorum” 
contra eos. Sed Gilgamesh et amicus eius hunc taurum 
coelorum celeriter interficiunt. Quidam poeta dixit, 
“fitiam in inferno non est furor (fury) furiosior quam 
mulier quae contempta est.” Itaque, Ishtar facit ut 
Eabani aeger fiat et moriatur. (Continuabitur). 

English to Latin 

1. Gilgamesh is fiercer than Humbaba. 2. Was he the 
fiercest king in the world? 3. The Jews grew and became 
greater in number than the Egyptians. 4. Joseph was 
more pleasing to his father than the rest of his brothers. 
5. By running swiftly he escaped his enemies. 6. Marcus 
is brave, Julius is braver, and Augustus is the bravest of 
all. 7. The authority of the king is not to be scorned. 

Scramble Exercise 

Peccata eorum ignoscendo eis monstravit Iosephus se 
illis meliorem esse. Post cuius mortem Hebraei cre¬ 
scendo celeriter facti sunt numerosissimi. Etsi non erant 
ipsis Aegyptiis numerosiores causam dederunt timendi. 
Quos rex ipse ne ad hostes transient timuit. Quam 
propter causam ut infantes mox post nativitatem inter- 
ficerentur imperavit rex. 



De adverbiis 

De nominibus neutralibus declinationis quartae 

Quaedam mulier Hebraeorum ausa erat servare filium suum parvulum tres 
menses etei Pharao mandaverat ut omnes pueri Hebraeorum interficerentur 
statim post nativitatem suam. At post tres menses non iam poterat abscon- 
dere eum, exposuitque eum in sporta, in aqua inter calamos ad ripam flu- 
minis Nili. Filia Pharaonis invenit hunc puerum, et, misericordia mota, 
cupiebat servare eum. Eodem tempore soror pueri parvuli spectabat, et 
cum vidisset filiam Pharaonis desiderare curare eum, cucurrit celeriter ad 
earn. Cui soror pueri ait, “Vis ut vadam et vocem tibi mulierem Hebraeam, 
quae curare possit infantulum?” Quae respondit, “Vade.” Puella vadit et 
vocavit matrem suam, quae erat mater huius parvuli. Ad quam locuta 
filia Pharaonis, “Accipe, ait, puerum istum, et ale eum mihi: ego dabo tibi 
mercedem tuam.” Suscepit mulier puerum sine mora, et aluit eum. Post 
paucos annos, dedit ilium filiae Pharaonis. Ilia autem adoptavit eum in 
locum filii, vocavitque nomen eius Moysen dicens, “Quia de aqua tuli 
eum.” (Nomen “Moyses” probabiliter est solummodo pars secunda nomi¬ 
nis hujus pueri. Multi reges Aegypti habent similia nomina, e.g., Thutmo- 
ses. Nunc autem, nomen Thutmdses significat, “Thoth est pater eius” vel 
“natus est ex Thoth.” Ergo nomen Moyses forsan significavit: “natus est ex 
aqua.”) Moyses igitur doctus est omnem sapientiam Aegyptiorum. 

At postquam Moyses crevit, et vir factus est, ostendit se esse amicum 
Hebraeorum. Hanc propter causam, Pharao non amavit eum, et Moyses 
fugit in terram Madian. In terra Madian duxit in matrimonium Sephoram, 
filiam Jethro. 

mulier -woman 
ausa erat -dared 
desiderare- desire 
curar e-care for 
vader e-go 
ist t-this 
mora -delay 


audere, ausus est -dare 

suscipiunt, suscipere, 

(notice that the first 

cepit, ceptus -under- 

part is normal, but the 

take, take 

rest is deponent) 

vadere (no other parts)- 

curare, avit, 4tus -take 


care of (with obj., not 

mora, a -delay 

poss. case) 

bona mulier, re-woman 

desiderare, avit, atus- 
desire, miss 

iste-this, that (see below) 

Formation of Adverbs (Regular): 

a) From first and second declension adjectives : Take 
the base (ablative singular minus ending) and add -e. 
Thus: clarus—dare (clearly) 

b) From third declension adjecitves: Take the base 
(ablative singular minus ending) and add -iter. Thus: 
acer—dcriter (keenly) 

Comparative and Superlative of adverbs : 

1. The comparative is the same as the neuter singular 
form of the comparative adjective: clarius —more 

2. The superlative uses the -e ending instead of the 
-us of the adjective: clarissime —most clearly. 

Irregular Adverbs: Most of these can be formed by 
the use of the above rules on the irregular adjective 
forms which we already know. But there are a few 

bene (well) melius (better) optime (very well) 

male (badly) peius (worse) pessime (very badly) 

(no form) magis (more) maxime (most) 

minus (less) minime (least) 

multwm (much) plus (more) plurimwm (most) 

Neuters of Fourth Declension: There are just a 
few of these—the most common are probably genu 


(knee) and cornu (horn, or flank of an army). They are 
declined thus: 











The singular is monotonous, and therefore easy. The 
plural is about what we should expect from a neuter— 
but note that it has not just -a, but -ua. 

A few fourth declension words use -ubus instead of 
-ibus (dative and ablative plural). 

Domus, which is feminine in a mostly masculine 
declension, is also odd in that it uses some second 
declension forms: most common are domo (abl.) and 
domdrum (poss. pi.) and domos (obj. pi.). 

Iste: Declined just like ille. Meaning: this, that. Some¬ 
times it has an extra idea: “that of yours.” Sometimes it 
gives a tone of contempt. But these extras are not always 

Plura de Gilgamesh 

Antequam cum Humbaba pugnarent, Gilgamesh horta- 
tus erat ( encouraged ) amicum suum Eabani ne pug- 
nam timeret. Nunc autem Eabani mortuus est. Gilga- 
mesh patienter eum spectat, sperans eum ad vitam re- 
versurum esse. Sed Eabani non revertitur—corpus eius 
cornimpitur. Gilgamesh ipse nunc timet. Sentit mortem 
etiam sibi venturam esse. Proficiscitur itaque, quaerens 
quo modo mortem vitet (avoid). Gilgamesh iam de 
quodam mirabili ( wonderful) viro audivit, qui propin- 
quus ( relative) ei est: Utanapistim. Hie Utanapistim 
consecutus est immortalitatem. Gilgamesh, per multa 
monstra ad finem terrae vadit. Omnes homines quos 
videt interrogat de modo consequendi immortalitatem. 
Omnes ei nullam esse spem (hope) dicunt. Ille autem 

non vult desperare. Pergit (goes on) itaque, et ad litus 
(shore) maris venit. In hoc mari sunt aquae mortis. 
Quo in litore navem et magistrum navis invenit. Huic 
persuadet (persuades) ut eum ad Utanapistim portet. 

Utanapistim autem ei immortalitatem dare non 
potest, sed narrationem ei narrat de mirabili diluvio 
(flood) ex quo ille et uxor salvi (saved) facti sunt. Post 
hoc diluvium, quidam deus, cui nomen erat Enlil, dedit 
ad Utanapistim vitam aetemam. Sed tales condiciones 
iterum non sunt venturae. Utanapistim igitur non potest 
dicere Gilgamesh quo modo vitam aetemam consequi 

Nihilominus, Utanapistim dicit quod forsan Gilga¬ 
mesh possit cum morte pugnare. Itaque, Gilgamesh pug- 
nare conatur cum somno (sleep) magico (hie somnus 
re vera est genus mortis). At hie somnus fortior eo est, 
et Gilgamesh mori coepit. (Continuabitur) 

English to Latin 

1. Did Humbaba have many horns? 2. Gilgamesh de¬ 
sired immortality more than anything else. 3. He even 
attempted to fight with a magic sleep, and fought well 
but the sleep fought better. 4. On his knees he asked 
Utanapistim for eternal life. 5. The way of dying is 
known to all, but the way of living eternally is not 
known to them. 6. Gilgamesh did not see this clearly, 
and so he dared to fight bravely against death. 7. All 
men told Gilgamesh: “Death is a heavy burden that the 
gods have given to men—there is no hope of escaping.” 

Scramble Exercise 

Ausa est filia quaedam ex Hebraeis, quae Moysis soror 
erat, ffliae Pharaonis loqui. Ilia enim, genu flectendo 
puellae Aegyptiacae, num vellet vocari muh'erem ex 
Hebraeis pueri curandi causa, interrogavit. Qua iubente, 
ad matrem celeriter cucurrit suam Moysis soror. Hoc 
modo iste in palatio vixit regis Aegypti, sapientiamque 
Aegypti doctus est. 



De conditionibus realibus 
De ablativo differentiae 

Moyses itaque mansit apud Jethro multos annos, et pastor erat. Quodam 
die, cum gregem duxisset in desertum, ad Horeb, montem Dei, Dominus 
apparuit ei in flamma ignis de medio rubi. Cum ergo conspexisset flam- 
mam, Moyses dixit, “Vadam et videbo visionem hanc magnam, quare non 
comburatur rubus.” Rubus enim videbatur ardere et nihilominus integer 
manere. Cernens autem Dominus quod Moyses veniret ad videndum, 
vocavit eum de medio rubi, et ait, “Moyses, Moyses.” Qui respondit, 
“Adsum.” At ille, “Ne appropinques, ait, hue: solve calceamentum de 
pedibus tuis: locus enim, in quo stas, terra sancta est.” Dixitque Deus, 
“Ego sum Deus patris tui, Deus Abraham, Deus Isaac, et Deus Iacob.” 

Abscondit Moyses faciem suam; non enim audebat spectare Deum. 
Cui ait Dominus, “Vidi afflictionem populi mei in Aegypto, et clamorem 
eius audivi ob duritiam eorum qui affligunt eos. Et sciens dolorem eius, 
descendi, ut liberem eum de manibus Aegyptiorum, et ducam de terra ilia 
in terram bonam et spatiosam, in terram quae fluit lacte et melle. Sed veni, 
et mittam te ad Pharaonem, ut ducas populum meum, filios Israel de 
Aegypto.” Dixitque Moyses ad Deum, “Quis sum ego ut vadam ad 
Pharaonem, et ducam filios Israel de Aegypto?” Qui dixit ei, “Ego ero 
tecum, et hoc habebis signum quod miserim te: cum duxeris populum 
meum de Aegypto, immolabis Deo super montem istum.” 

Ait Moyses ad Deum, “Ecce ego vadam ad filios Israel, et dicam eis: 
Deus patrum vestrorum misit me ad vos. Si dixerint mihi: Quod est 
nomen eius? quid dicam eis?” Dixit Deus ad Moysen, “Ego sum qui sum.” 
Ait, “Sic dices filiis Israel: ‘Qui est, misit me ad vos.’ ” (Continuabitur 

gr ex-flock 
Tubus-bramble bush 
comburere-ftwra up 
integer- whole 
huc-to this place 

absconder e-hide 
facies -face (5) 
ob-on account of 
duritia -hardness 
dolor -grief, pain 
sic -thus 


conspiciunt, conspicere. 

integer, gra, grum -fresh, 

spexit, spectus-see, 


catch sight of 

apud ( with obj.)-with, 

fluere, fluxit,* fluxurus- 

at the house of 


huc-to this place 

solvere, solvit, solutus- 

ob ( with obj.)-on 

loosen, pay 
facies (5), tacit-face 

account of 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Real Conditions: There are six principal kinds of sen¬ 
tences in which one clause starts with if. Let us learn 
how to handle three of them today, and three later. It is 
best to work by imitating a set of samples (it would be 
good to memorize them): 

1. Si venerit (veniet)—bonum erit. 

If he will have come (will come, or comes)—it will 
be good. 

2. Si adest—bonum est. 

If he is here—it is good. 

3. Si adfuit (or aderat)—bonum fuit (or erat). 

If he was here—it was good. 

These are all called real conditional sentences—they 
have indicative. Notice that there is a future, a present, 
and a past real (in that order). 

Ablative of Measure of Difference: We already 
know how to say than after a comparative. For example: 

He is taller than Marcus. 

Altior est Marco (or quam Marcus). 

But how do we say how much taller? Just use the ablative 
without a preposition: 


He is taller than Marcus by two feet. 

Altior Marco est dudbus pedibus. 
or again: 

He is much taller than Marcus (taller by much )— 

Multo altior quam Marcus est. 

Gilgamesh Quaerit Immortalitatem 

Gflgamesh cum quodam somno magico (qui re vera 
genus mortis est) pugnare conatus est. Gilgamesh forti- 
ter pugnavit, sed somnus multo fortius pugnavit. ltaque 
amicus noster fere mortuus est, et re vera mortuus esset 
(would have died ) nisi uxor Utanapistim, misericordia 
mota, eum suscitavisset (had awakened). 

Post haec Gilgamesh discessurus erat ut in urbem 
suam reverteretur. At uxor Utanapistim virum suum 
hortatur (urges) ut ei aliquod donum det priusquam 
discedat. Utanapistim igitur explicat ad Gilgamesh quod 
herba (plant) mirabilis in fundo (bottom) maris in- 
veniri possit. Omnis qui hanc comedit herbam, in 
iuventutem iterum revertitur. Magnis laboribus Gilga¬ 
mesh ad fundum maris natat (swims), invenitque hanc 
herbam. Herba inventa, Gilgamesh statim comedere 
earn non vult. Melius esse putat earn comedere ante 

oculos populi sui in Erech. Profectus est itaque, et, mag¬ 
nis itineribus factis, fere ad urbem suam venit. At dies 
calidus (hot) fuit, et Gilgamesh, ad aestum vitandum 
(avoid the heat) vult natare. Dum natat, herbam mira- 
bilem in ripa relinquit. Sed ecce! serpens quidam ad 
ripam venit, herbam videt, comedit, et, deposita cute 
(skin) , revertitur in iuventutem. Quam ob causam ser- 
pentes etiam nunc cutem deponere et in iuventutem 
reverti possunt (non verum est serpentes hoc facere 
posse, sed quidam hoc dicunt). At miser (wretched) 
Gilgamesh, quid ille facere potest? Non iam mirabilem 
habet herbam: moriendum est. Nihilominus, ante mor¬ 
tem, spiritum Eabani per artes magicas evocat (sum¬ 
mons), qui ei multa de regionibus mortuorum narrat. 

English to Latin 

1. If Gilgamesh finds the plant, he will live eternally. 

2. If he does not watch it, a snake will take it. 3. There¬ 
fore snakes now have the power of not dying. 4. Is 
Gilgamesh much better than a snake? 5. Some of the 
citizens whom he rules think not. 6. If the people do not 
believe, what should I do? 7. He went into the sea to 
seek the plant. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Dixit Moyses Deo, “Non credent mihi populi mei, neque audient vocem 
meam, sed dicent, “Non apparuit tibi Dominus.” Sed Deus dedit Moysi 
potestatem magnam, ut posset persuadere Hebraeis. Dixit itaque Deus, 
“Quid est quod tenes in manu tua?” Respondit, “Virga.” Dixitque Domi¬ 
nus, “Proice earn in terrain.” Proiecit, et versa est in serpentem, ita ut fugeret 
Moyses. Dixitque Dominus, “Extende manum tuam, et apprehende cau- 
dam eius.” Qui manum extendit, et versa est in virgam, ita ut Moyses ipse 
incolumis esset, sine vulnere. Deus etiam dedit Moysi potestatem faciendi 
signa alia, imperavitque ei ut faceret ea coram Pharaone. 

Moyses itaque reliquit Jethro, et iter fecit per desertum. Aaron autem, 
frater Moysis, monitus a Deo, venit obviam Moysi in deserto. Moyses et 
Aaron venerunt simul, et congregaverunt omnes seniores filiorum Israel. 
Locutusque est Aaron omnia verba quae dixerat Dominus ad Moysen; et 
fecit signa coram populo, et credidit populus. Audivenintque quod visita- 
visset Dominus filios Israel, et proni adoraverunt. Intellexerunt enim quod 
Deus re vera locutus erat Moysi. 

Post haec ingressi sunt Moyses et Aaron, et dixerunt Pharaoni, “Haec 
dicit Dominus Deus Israel: Dimitte populum meum, ut sacrificet mihi in 
deserto.” At ille respondit, “Quis est Dominus, ut audiam vocem eius, et 
dimittam Israel? Nescio Dominum, et Israel non dimittam.” Praecepit ergo 
in die illo praefectis operum dicens, “Ne ultra praebeatis paleas populo 
Hebraeorum ut faciant lateres. Sed ipsi vadant et colligant paleas suas.” 
(Continuabitur eras) 

persuader e-persuade 
virga -rod 

obviam-/o meet ( adv .) 
simul-a/ the same time 
pronus -prostrate 
intellexit -understood 
praefectus -prefect 
ultra-any more 


intellegere, lexit, lectus- 



incolumis, e, i-unharmed 

persuadere, suasit. 

magnum vulnus, vulnere- 

su&sus -persuade (with 



obviam (adverb)-to meet 

praebere, praebuit, 


praebitus-/M/7iz's/i ( 

simul-af the same time 


ultra (adverb and prep. 

[proiciunt] proicere. 

with obj.) — more, 

iecit, iectus-l/irow 

further, beyond 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Give comparative and superlative adjective forms of: 
integer, durus, bonus, parvus. 2. Give the comparative 
and superlative adverbs of: fords, pulcher. 3. Decline 
together: cornu fortius, facies melior. 

Narratio Babylonica de Diluvio 

In poemate epico de Gilgamesh, Utanapistim de max- 
imo diluvio quod in diebus suis venerat narravit. Iam 
narrationem in Scripturis Sacris de diluvio biblico leg- 
imus. Nunc narrandum est de diluvio Babylonico. 
Postea comparationem ( comparison ) inter utramque 
{each ) versionem faciemus. 

Olim dei concilium habuerunt. In hoc concilio de 
humano genere deliberaverunt. Quandam ob causam 
(nihil de peccato dicitur in versione Babylonica) dei 
humanum genus delere volunt, diluviumque mittere 
statuunt (decide). 

Unus ex his deis amicum humanum quern non vult 
delere habet. Hie deus, cui nomen est Ea (deus aquarum 
est) ad amicum suum Utanapistim vadit, et eum de 
diluvio venturo monet. Insuper, Ea mandat ut Utanapis¬ 
tim navem aedificet, mensurasque ( dimensions ) navis 
ei dat. Imperat etiam ut Utanapistim animalia omnis 
generis in navem suam ducat. Utanapistim omnia sicut 
Ea mandavit facit, et in navem ingreditur cum uxore 


sua, omnibusque anim^libus. Imber de coelis dies sep- 
tem cadit. Omnes alii homines animaMque in 4quis in- 
terfecti sunt. Utanapistim autem, et qui cum eo in navi 
sunt, salvi (safe) sunt. Quodam die post imbres, navis in 
montem qui Nisir voc£turvenit. Utanapistim columbam 
(dove) et p£sserem (sparrow) ex navi mittit, sed ad eum 
revertuntur. Postea cornicem (crow) emittit ex navi. 
Cornix non reversa est. Utanapistim igitur ex navi 
egrdditur, et sacrificium offert. Dei, qui in coelum fuger- 
ant, tim6ntes diluvium, sicut muscae (flies )—sic enim 
narrat narr&tio Babylonica—ad sacrificium descdndunt. 
Sed quidam deus qui vocatur Bel ir^scitur quia Utana¬ 
pistim ex diluvio incolumis ev4sit. Nihilominus yiius 
deus, Enlil, praemia ad Utanapistim dare vult, quia ille 
genus hum^num serv&vit. Itaque Enlil ponit Utanapis¬ 
tim et uxorem eius in locum trans aquas mortis, datque 
eis immortality tern (Comparytio cum Scripturis fiet 

English to Latin 

1. The gods held a council and sent a flood to destroy 
the human race. 2. If Ea does not warn Utanapistim, 
he also will be destroyed. 3. Aaron came to meet him 

in the desert. 4. Moses did not understand why the bush 
remained unharmed. 5. Was Bel a much greater god 
than Ea? 6. The gods came down like flies to take the 
sacrifice. 7. Utanapistim escaped from the danger of 
dying in the flood. 

Spectaculum Novum 

Quidam bonus agricola, Egbertus nomine, non poterat 
bene vid6re propter debilitytem (weakness) oculorum. 
Iter ergo fecit in urbem ad optometristam (id est, ad 
oculorum medicum [eye doctor]). Optometrista posuit 
ante Egebertum litteras parvas et interrogyvit, “Potesne 
legere has litteras?” Cui Egbertus respondit, “Non 
possum.” Deinde posuit optometrista alias litteras 
maiores, et eodem modo interrogyvit. Iterum respondit 
Egbertus se non posse legere illas litteras. Maiores litte¬ 
ras iterum posuit m6dicus, et idem responsum accepit. 
Ultimo litteras pedis unius (one foot) posuit medicus, 
interrogavitque Egbertum, “Certe, nunc 16gere has lit¬ 
teras potes?” Cui Egbertus respondit, “Non possum.” 
“Quomodo (how) yeeidit?” dixit m6dicus. Et Egbertus 
respondit, “Numquam didici 16gere.” 



De conditionibus idealibus 
De formis verbi: malle 

Moyses et Aaron semel venerant coram Pharaone rogantes ut concederet 
licentiam discedendi Hebraeis. Qui non solum negavit licentiam, verum 
etiam magis oppressit Hebraeos. Populus Israel venit ad Moysen et Aaron, 
querentes de oppresione. Deus itaque mandavit Moysi et Aaron ut iterum 
venfrent ad Pharaonem, ut liberaretur populus ab oneribus quae vix 
sustinere poterant, et ut licentiam haberent egrediendi ex Aegypto. 

Iam Moyses vidit se frustra locuturum esse verba Pharaoni, nisi etiam 
miracula faceret. Aaron ergo convertit virgam in serpentem coram Phara¬ 
one. Hie autem vocavit magos suos, qui idem fecerunt. Sed virga Aaron 
devoravit virgas eorum. 

At Pharao remansit in duritia cordis sui, prohibui'tque Hebraeos egredi 
ex Aegypto. Deus ergo fecit decern signa magna, quae fuerunt decern 
plagae Aegypti. Aaron venit ad ripam fluminis Nili, percussitque flumen 
virga sua. Ecce, aqua fluminis facta est sanguis. Pharao autem adhuc 
durus erat. Post dies septem, Aaron extendit manum suam super flumina 
Aegypti, et statim multitudo magna ranarum venerunt ex aquis, et imple- 
verunt omnem terram. Ranae venerunt in domos omnium, etiam in pala- 
tium regis. Pharao territus est, vocavitque Moysen et Aaron, “Rogate 
Dominum pro me, ait, ut ranae discedant a me et populo meo et dimittam 
populum tuum.” Moyses fecit quae rex petiverat, et ranae discesserunt. At 
Pharao, videns se populumque suum liberatos esse a ranis, adhuc noluit 
dimittere Hebraeos. (Continuabitur eras) 

semel -once 
negar e-refuse 
queri -complain 
frustra-m vain 
magus -magician 
prohibuit -forbade 
plaga -plague 
percussit -struck 
rana -frog 


concedere, cessit, cessus- 

queri, questus est- 

yield, grant 


negare, avit, atus -deny, 

sustinere, sustinuit, 

say no, refuse 

sustentus -withstand, 

prohibere, prohibuit, 

hold up, bear 


frustra-m vain 


semel -once 
\\x-hardly, scarcely 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Ideal Conditions: Here are samples of the three kinds 
of ideal conditional sentences. Again, it is best to 
work by imitating a set of samples (would be good to 
memorize them): 

1. Si venerit (veniat)—bonum sit. (future ideal) 

If he should come (or comes)—it would be well. 

2. Si adesset—bonum esset. (present ideal) 

If he were here—it would be well. 

3. Si adfuisset—bonum fuisset. (past ideal) 

If he had been here—it would have been well. 
Notice the distinguishing marks of these kinds—sub¬ 
junctive in Latin —would in the second part of the sen¬ 
tence (main clause) in English. Notice also how the 
Latin tenses run: one notch off (we have no future sub¬ 
junctive, and so use present subjunctive for future ideal): 

Future ideal: present subjunctive (sometimes per¬ 
fect subjunctive in the si clause) 

Present ideal: imperfect subjunctive 
Past ideal: pluperfect subjunctive 

The Verb Malle (“Prefer”): Its forms are much 
like those of velle (wish): 

Present indicative: malo, mavis, mavult, malumus, 
mavultis, malunt 

Imperfect indicative: malebam, etc. 

Future indicative: malam, males, etc. 


Perfect indicative: malui, isti, etc. 

Present subjunctive: malim, etc. 

The other forms are too obvious to need to be written 

Comparatio Inter Duas Narrationes Diluvii 

Prima facie ( at first sight ) narratio Babylonica simil- 
lima videtur esse narrationi in Sacris Scripturis. Sed si 
diligenter studeamus, maximas adesse differentias vide- 
amus. In Scripturis enim diluvium non a multis deis, sed 
a Deo uno mittitur. Et saepe videmus hanc differentiam 
in duabus narrationibus—Babylonica enim supponit 
(supposes) polytheismum verum esse. Scriptiira, e con¬ 
tra, omnino monotheistica est. In Scripturis, diluvium 
est poena ( punishment ) peccatorum hominum. In 
Babylonia, e contra, diluvium non dicitur esse poena 
peccati. In Scriptura, unus solus verus Deus monet Noe 
de diliivio venturo. In Babylonia unus parvus deus, 
contra voluntatem aliorum deorum, vult servare 
Utanapistim. Mensurae ( dimensions ) navis diversae in 
duabus narrationibus sunt—sed differentia huius modi 
non gravis est. Simflia sunt ea quae narrantur de imbri- 
bus, de monte Nisir, de avibus (birds) missis ex area. 
Post diluvium, et Noe et Utanapistim sacrificia offerunt. 
Sed in Babylonia, videtur quod sacrificium fere neces- 
sarium deis est. In Scriptura, Deus non eget (needs) 

sacrificiis nostris, et ea habere vult solummodo in sig- 
num bonarum dispositionum cordis (heart) humani. In 
Babylonia dei congregantur “sicut muscae”—sunt verba 
ipsa narrationis Babylonicae. Nihil tarn indignum 
(unworthy) Deo in Scripturis habetur. In Babylonia, 
deus Bel irascitur quod (because) Utanapistim ex 
diliivio evasit. In Scripturis, Deus non irascitur. Ipse 
enim, qui solus est Deus, fecit Noe evadere. 

Valde magnae ergo sunt differentiae inter utramque 
(each) narrationem. Quid ergo dicendum est de multis 
rebus similibus in eis? Veritas in hac re non clara est 
—forsan utraque (each) narratio venit traditionibus 
antiquis. In Babylonia, hae traditiones mutatae sunt 
polytheistice (polytheistically, i.e., so as to speak of 
many gods). In Scriptura, scriptor humanus, sub in- 
spiratione divina scribens, omnem vitat (avoids) er¬ 
ror em. 

English to Latin 

1. If Ea had not warned him, Utanapistim would have 
died. 2. Most of the gods would have preferred to kill 
him. 3. If Bel should see the ship, would he destroy it? 
4. If they did not have sacrifices, what would the gods 
do? 5. Gilgamesh says, “If I were immortal, I would 
be happy.” 6. Pharao would yield if he knew the truth 
about God. 7. If Pharao wants to see me, let him call me. 



De gerundive > 

Ph&rao, videns ranas abifsse, Iterum indur^vit cor suum, nec permfsit 
Hebraefs ut exlrent ex Aeg^pto. At Aaron, iussu Dei, percussit virga sua 
pulverem terrae. Confestim multa mfllia clnifum vendrunt e pulvere in 
omnes homines et in anim£lia in univ6rsa terra Aeg^pti. Magi Pharaonis 
conatf sunt educere cfnifes e terra, nec potu6runt. Et magi Pharaoni dixe- 
runt, “Digitus Dei hie est." Ph£rao autem non audlvit eos. Induritum est 
enim cor illfus. Dixit quoque Dominus ad Moysen, “Vade ad Pharaonem 
et dices ad eum: Haec dicit Dominus: Dimftte populum meum, ut sacrificet 
mihi. Quod si non dimfseris eum, ecce ego mittam in te et in servos tuos 
et in populum tuum et in domos tuas omne genus musc4rum. Faci&mque 
mir£bilem in die ilia terram Gessen in qua populus meus est, ut non sint ibi 
muscae: et scias quod ego Dominus in m6dio terrae. Pon&mque divisionem 
inter populum meum et populum tuum: eras erit signum istud. Fecftque 
Dominus ita. Et ven6runt muscae gravfssimae in domos Pharaonis et 
servorum eius, et in omnem terram Aeg^pti; corruptaque est terra ab huius 
modi muscis. 

Vocavltque Ph&rao Moysen et Aaron et ait eis, “Ite et sacrifice Deo 
vestro in terra hac.” Et ait Moyses, “Non potest ita fieri. Sed viam trium 
di6rum per gem us in solitudinem, et sacrific4bimus Domino Deo nostro, 
sicut praec6pit nobis.” Dixltque Phirao, “Ego dimlttam vos, ut sacrific6tis 
Domino Deo vestro in des6rto; verumtamen longius ne abeitis. Rog&te 
pro me.” 

Egressusque Moyses a Pharaone, or&vit Dominum. Qui fecit secundum 
verbum illfus, et 4bstulit muscas a Pharaone et a servis eius, et a populo 
eius. At cor Pharaonis Iterum induritum est, et non dimlsit populum. 
(Continu&bitur eras) 

exfre-go out 
iussu-by order 
clnif cs-gnats 
educer e-lead out 
digitus -finger 
hie -here 
quod si-but if 
musca -fly 
licx'i-be done 
p6rger e-go 

ox&xe-pray, beg 
egr6ssus-^o out 


indur&re, 4vit, 4tus- 



digitus, o -finger 

or£re, £vit, £tus -beg, 

multus pulvis, pulvere- 



percutiunt, percutere, 

hie {adverb)-here 

percussit, percussus- 

quod si -but if 


quoque-a/jo, even 

p6rgere, perr6xit, 

{never first word ) 

perrectus -proceed, go 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Further Uses of the Gerundive: We have already 
seen how to use the gerundive f-ndus) to express pur¬ 

pose —in that sense it was used with ad, causa , grdtia, 
and sometimes ob, propter, or pro. When the gerundive 
is used without any of those prepositions (and, of course, 
not with a linking verb to express obligation), it may 
give the same effect as the English gerund with an 
object. Quite a variety of combinations are possible: 

1. Marcus consul factus est donis dandis. 

Marcus became consul by giving bribes (gifts). 

2. Brutus interf6ctus est in liberdnda pdtria. 

Brutus was killed in freeing his country. 

3. Scripsit librum de contemnenda gldria. 

He wrote a book about despising glory. 

4. Curavit pontem faciendum. 

He took care of making a bridge (or he had a 
bridge made). 

Notice how these translations work: 


1. Translate the preposition (if any—or consider 
what case we have). 

2. Translate the -ndus form by the English gerund 

3. Put the Latin noun (the one with which the 
gerundive agrees) after the gerund in English, as 
its object. 

Test this procedure on each of the above examples. 
It will seem strange at first—but actually this use of the 
gerundive is a handy short cut in Latin. 

De Pharaone et Iudaeis 

Ouodam die, unus ex consili&riis ( counsellors ) regis ad 
Pharaonem accessit, et fere hoc modo locutus est ei, 
“Domine mi rex, lic6tne mihi servo vestro loqui vobis de 
rebus magnis faci6ndis?” Cui PMrao, “Licet. Loqu&ris 
nobis. Consili&riis audiendis, multa bona tecere pos- 
sumus.” “In regno vestro,” ait servus regis, “populus 
novus est. Hie populus crescit, et fit gens magna. Ergo, 
timor mihi est.” “Sed quare timendum est,” interrog&vit 
rex. “Nonne bonum est ut multos subi6ctos habedmus? 
Possunt tributa (taxes) solvere; possunt in op6ribus 
magnis faci6ndis labor&re. Sed qui sunt hi homines?” 
“Hebra6i voc6ntur, domine mi rex.” “Ex qua terra ven6- 
runt?” “Audivi eos venlsse in hanc terram, multis sa6cu- 

lis ante regnum vestrum. Ouidam dicunt eos venisse ex 
Ch&naan.” Cui rex, “Sed nonne homines boni sunt? 
Quare eos tim£ndos esse credis?” Respondens itaque 
consilidrius dixit, “Vid6tur quod Hebra6i in terram 
nostram ven6runt t6mpore quo reges mali hanc terram 
reg6bant, domine mi rex. Id est, ven6runt tempore quo 
reges Aeg^pti erant homines qui vocab4ntur Hyksos. Hi 
enim reges in Aeg^pto fuerunt plus quam centum annos. 
Non erant reges boni. Non enim regn&bant per potestd- 
tem dei magni qui est in coelis, quern voc&mus ‘Horns.’ 
Sed solummodo per potest&tem alterius dei ‘Seth’ 
regnav6runt. Hebraei autem videntur potestdtem mag- 
nam habufsse in di6bus horum regum malorum.” (Con- 

English to Latin 

1. By destroying the ships, the Romans defeated 
Carthage. 2. The gods spoke about destroying all men. 
3. The art of ruling men is quite difficult. 4. By striking 
the dust, Aaron called forth thousands of gnats (cmi- 
fum). 5. If Pharao had feared God, he would not have 
hardened his heart. 6. If the Hebrews had not been in 
Gessen, would they have had gnats? 7. God preferred to 
send Moses to free His people by working (use fdeere) 



De verbis impersonalibus 
De ablativis causae et separations 

Dixit autem Dominus ad Moysen, “Ingredere ad Pharaonem, et loquere 
ad eum: Haec dicit Dominus Deus Hebraeorum: Dimitte populum meum 
ut sacrificet mihi. Quod si adhuc impedis eos et retines eos, ecce manus 
mea erit super agros tuos, et super animalia vestra. Et faciet Dominus 
mirabile inter possessions Israel et possessions Aegyptiorum, ut nihil 
omnino pereat ex his quae pertinent ad filios Israel.” Statuitque Dominus 
tempus, dicens, “Cras faciet Dominus verbum istud in terra.” Fecit ergo 
Dominus verbum hoc altera die. Mortuaque sunt multa animalia Aegypti¬ 
orum ex omnibus generibus animalium eorum; de animalibus vero filiorum 
Israel nihil omnino periit. Et misit Pharao ad videndum: nec erat quid- 
quam mortuum de his quae possidebat Israel. Induratumque est cor 
Pharaonis, et non dimisit populum. 

Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen et Aaron, “Tollite plenas manus cineris et 
spargat cinerem Moyses in coelum coram Pharaone. Sitque pulvis super 
omnem terram Aegypti: erunt enim in hominibus et iumentis ulcera in 
universa terra Aegypti.” 

Tulerunt itaque Moyses et Aaron cineres, steteruntque coram Pharaone. 
Et sparsit cineres Moyses in coelum; factaque sunt ulcera in hominibus et 
in iumentis. Nec poterant magi Pharaonis stare coram Moyse propter 
ulcera quae in illis erant et in omni terra Aegypti. Pharao autem ipse mansit 
adhuc in duritia cordis sui, et noluit dimittere populum Israel de Aegypto. 
Hoc modo Deus misit per Moysen plagas multas in Pharaonem et in 
omnem populum eius. At oportuit adhuc mittere alias plagas in Aegyptum 
antequam Pharao vellet dimittere filios Israel ex terra ilia. (Continuabitur 

retinere-/io/d back 
pereat ( from perire) 
pertiner c-belong to 
sparger e-scatter 
iumentum-6eas/ of burden 
ulcera -ulcers 
oportuit-wuj necessary 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Impersonal Verbs: There are some verbs that have 
no forms except the third person singular, with the 
subject it in English. These verbs are always impersonal. 
(There are, as we shall see, many verbs that may be used 
impersonally, but have more forms than merely third 
singular.) For example: 

Placuit senatui mittere eos in carcerem. 

It pleased the senate (or the senate decided) to send 
them to prison. 

We could also write the same sentence thus: 

Placuit senatui ut mitterentur in carcerem. 

Or another: Licet vobis discedere ex Aegypto. 

It is permitted to you to depart from Egypt. 



impedire, ivit, itus- 
hinder, impede 
licet, licere, licuit, 
licitum est-/7 is 
oportet, oportere, 
oportuit-// is neces¬ 
sary, it is proper 
pertinere, pertinuit, —: 

pertain, belong 
placet, placere, placuit, 
placitum est-/7 pleases, 
it is decided 

possidere, possedit, 
retinere, retinuit, 
retentus-fceep back, 

statuere, statuit, statutus- 
set, decide 

multus cinis, cinere-os/ies 
quisquam, quicquam (or 
quidquam— decline 
the quis part, not the 
quam)— anyone, any¬ 

Which could also be: Licet ut discedatis ex Aegypto. 
Another example: Oportet vos discedere. 

It is proper that you go. 

Which could be: Oportet (ut) vos discedatis. 

Notice that some of these verbs, such as placet and licet, 
take the dative. Notice also that to explain the subject it, 
we may have a clause—this clause is sometimes objec¬ 
tive with infinitive, sometimes ut with subjunctive. In 
general, any impersonal verb may have the objective 
with the infinitive clause—but the wr-subjunctive is 
usually restricted to verbs that have an idea of willing, 
wanting, permitting, deciding or something similar. 

As to verbs that are sometimes, not always, impersonal 
—consider this example: 

Nuntiatur Caesarem adesse. 

It is reported that Caesar is present. 

No real problem in it. But some others are a bit different: 
Ventum est in terram novam. 

They came into the new land. 

We cannot translate ventum est literally; it would mean 

“it was corned” (by-). Instead of they, in the above 

sentence, the general sense might have called for he, she, 
we, you or even /. 

Ablative of Cause and Ablative of Separation: 
We have already learned that the ablative without a 
preposition may be translated in English by: in, by, 
with. Now we must add two more meanings: because of 
and from. Of course an ablative of separation (from) 
often does have a preposition ( ab, ex, de), but some¬ 
times it does not. Hardly ever does it have one with 
names of towns, as we have already seen. 

1. Peccatis meis Deus haec fecit. 

Because of my sins God has done this. 

2. Liberavit me omni cura. 

He freed me from all care. 

Continuantur Verba Pharaonis et 


“Nunc autem,” perrexit consiliarius loquens Pharaoni, 
“videtur mihi quod periculum est ex hoc populo. Sicut 

enim dixi, in terram nostram venerunt temporibus 
malorum regum. Sed insuper, hi Hebraei loquuntur 
saepe de magno viro ex gente sua quern vocant Iose- 
phum. Dicunt hunc virum Iosephum fuisse magnum 
principem sub quodam ex his regibus malis.” “Et quis 
revera erat hie Iosephus,” interrogavit Pharao. “Eum 
nescio.” Cui consiliarius, “Ego quoque Iosephum nescio. 
Nihilominus, si quodam tempore hi Hebraei mag- 
nam habuerunt potestateiq in terra nostra, nonne peri¬ 
culum est ne, si lterum gentes aliae faciant bellum contra 
nos, Hebraei pugnent cum illis contra nos? Crescunt 
numero valde, sicut dixi. Ergo videtur mihi oportere ut 
aliquid faciamus de his hominibus. Nunc autem, liceat 
mihi ut explicem consilium novum et bonum de Hebraeis 
impediendis.” Cui rex, “Licet ut explices. Semper nos 
oportet audire consilia virorum egregiorum. Sed expli- 
candum est consilium tuum.” “In parte septentrionali 
terrae vestrae, domine mi rex, olim fuerunt duae urbes 
bonae. Nunc autem, in eadem parte terrae vestrae He¬ 
braei agros possident. Itaque, si liceat mihi loqui, hoc 
videtur bonum: Oportet ut rex edictum faciat de his 
urbibus lterum aedificandis. Hebraei cogendi sunt ut 
laborent in urbibus faciendis. Si ergo Pharaoni placeat 
haec imperare, ego servus vester statim curabo haec 
facienda.” Cui rex, “Ea quae dixisti bona videntur. 
Perge, cura statim urbes aedificandas.” 

English to Latin 

1. They were not permitted (literally: it was not per¬ 
mitted to them) to go out of Egypt. 2. It was necessary 
that Moses send more plagues. 3. Because of the great 
war, we do not wish to stay here: we prefer to leave. 
4. Pharao decided to let them go, but then hardened his 
heart again. 5. Because of many plagues the Hebrews 
feared God. 6. Did Moses scarcely escape death in sav¬ 
ing the people? 7. But if Aaron had not struck the earth 
with his rod, the gnats would not have come. 



Nihil novi hodie—veteribus studeamus 

Etiam post ulcera accepta Phirao noluit dimittere Israel. Moyses itaque, 
iubente Domino, mane surr6xit vaditque ad Pharaonem. Dixitque Moyses, 
“Haec dicit Dominus Deuj Hebrae6rum: Dimitte populum meum ut 
sacrificet mihi. Ut scias quod non sit similis mei in omni terra, nunc ex- 
tendens manum percutiam te et populum tuum. En pluam eras hac ipsa 
hora grandinem multam nimis, qualis non fuit in Aeg^pto a die qua 
fundita est, usque in praesens tempus.” 

Extendente itaque Moyse manum suam in coelum, facta est grando in 
univ6rsa terra Aeg^pti, et Dominus dedit tonitrua ac discurrentia fulgura 
super terram Aeg^pti. Et percussit grando, in omni terra Aeg^pti, cuncta 
quae fu6runt in agris, ab homine usque ad iumdntum. Tantum in terra 
Gessen, ubi erant filii Israel, grando non c6cidit. 

Misitque Phirao et voc&vit Moysen et Aaron, dicens ad eos, “Peccivi 
etiam nunc. Dominus iustus; ego et populus meus, impii. Orite Dominum 
ut d6sinant tonitrua Dei, et grando: ut dimittem vos, et nequiquam hie 
ultra maneitis.” 

Egressusque Moyses a Pharaone ex urbe, tetendit manus ad Dominum; 
et cessavdrunt tonitrua et grando, nec ultra ven6runt super terram. Domi¬ 
nus fecit haec quod Moyses rogiverat eum. Pharao autem, videns quod 
cessavisset grando et tonitrua, auxit peccitum suum; et induritum est cor 
eius, nec dimisit filios Israel, sicut praeceperat Dominus per manum 

mane-/n the morning 
grando-/m<7 storm 
qualis-suc/i, such as 
discurrere-r«n about 
f ulgur-light ning 
cunctus -all 
nequ4quam-6y no means 
cessdvit -ceased 
quod -because 


augere, auxit, auctus- 

cunctus, a, um -all 


clarum fulgur, fulgure- 

cess&re, ivit, atus-cease 


desinere, desivit, desitus- 

qualis, e, i -such, what kind 

cease, stop 

nimis (adverb)-very, 

t6ndere, tetendit, tentus- 

exceedingly, too 

stretch, spread 


note: Notice the new use of quod in the sense of be¬ 
cause. Quod also may mean that, for indirect state¬ 
ments, or for substantive clauses. It can also be one form 
of the relative pronoun, meaning which or that. 

Videamus Formas Veteres 

1. Find three basic English translations that will cover 
all uses of the future passive participle, gerundive, and 
gerund. 2. List all the meanings you know for the 

ablative without a preposition—invent examples of 
each (it is well to have one example of each memorized). 
3. Give the third singular of all tenses and moods of the 
verb malle. 4. Summarize the entire rule for Latin con¬ 
ditions, both real and ideal, in one sentence (make it 
short, not more than 20 words will easily do). 

Pharao de Moyse audit 

“Vocavistine me, Domine mi Rex?” dixit senex, qui erat 
princeps inter omnes consiliirios Pharaonis. “•tique,” 
rex ait, “audivimus virum novum in hanc terram venfsse 
cui nomen Moyses. Alii consiliirii nostri monuerunt nos 
de hoc viro. Dicunt eum esse periculo omni terrae 
Aeg^pti. Sed novimus te fuisse consili&rium patris mei et 
monufsse eum de populo quodam qui dicuntur Hebra6i. 
Nunc autem, hie Moyses dfeitur esse vir ex Hebra6is.” 
“Vera sunt haec,” respondit vetus consiliirius. “Paucis 
annis ante mortem patris vestri, ad eum veni et per- 
su&si ut cogeret hunc populum laborire in laboribus 
duris. Si haec non monuissem, et si Phirao haec non 


imperavisset, forsan hi Hebrali plus aucti essent, et 
regnum Pharaonis delevissent. £tiam consilium dedi de 
interfici6ndis omnibus pueris Hebraeorum in inftintia.” 
“Quomodo ergo hie vir Moyses non est interf6ctus?” in- 
terrog&vit Ph&rao. “Mater huius pueri novum consilium 
ad puerum serv&ndum invenit. Posuit enim eum in 
sporta in flumine sacro. Fflia regis, hunc puerum videns, 
desiderivit eum habdre. ltaque, fflia Pharaonis iubdnte, 
mater ipsa huius Moysis 41uit puerum paucos annos. His 
annis finitis, puer in palitium regis ipsius venit, vixitque 
ibi. Ph&rao autem nesci6bat puerum esse Hebra6um. 
Cum autem puer crevisset et vir factus esset, ost6ndit se 
amire Hebraeos, etiam virum Aegyptiacum percussit. 
Hanc propter causam, fugiendum erat ei in terram 
Median. Ibi multos annos rem^nsit. Sed dicunt eum 
vidisse visionem Dei Hebraeorum. Deus dixit ei redeun- 
dum esse in terram nostram, et Hebra6os duc6ndos esse 
ex regno vestro. M61ius esset nobis si mortuus esset in 

Ubi est Georgius Washington? 

Quidam senex (old man) per viam dmbulans (walk) 
vidit quinque pueros cum cane (dog). “Quid f&cilis?” 
interrogivit senex. “Mendicia (lies) dicimus,” re- 
spdndit unus ex pueris, “Quisquis (whoever) maximum 
narrat mendicium, canem hunc habdbit.” “Sed ego,” 
dixit senex, “cum puer essem, numquam mendicium 
dixi.” Sil6ntium breve erat—deinde unus puer ad senem 
locutus est: “Accipe eum—canis tuus est.” 

English to Latin 

1. If Pharao had not sinned, the plagues would not have 
come. 2. Why did he not decide to let Israel go? 3. 
Pharao did not free them from work. 4. Pharao in¬ 
creased his sin by hardening his heart. 5. Lightning, 
such as Egypt had never seen before that time, came 
upon the whole land. 6. When Moses extended his hand, 
the thunder stopped. 7. The lightning was seen in all the 
land except the part in which the Hebrews lived. 



De casu locativo 

De ablativo instrument et personae agentis 

Introierunt ergo Moyses et Aaron ad Pharaonem et dixerunt ei, “Haec 
dicit Dominus Deus Hebraeorum: Osquequo non vis obedire mihi? Di- 
mitte populum meum ut sacrificet mihi. Sin autem resistis, et non vis 
dimittere eum: ecce ego inducam eras locustam in fines tuos et si quid 
grando non delevit, comedent locustae. Et implebunt domos tuas et servo- 
rum tuorum.” Dixerunt autem servi Pharaonis ad eum, “Osquequo patie- 
mur hoc scandalum? Dimitte homines ut sacrificed. Nonne vides quod 
perierit Aegyptus?” Revocaveruntque Moysen et Aaron, et Pharao voluit 
permittere eis ut solummodo viri sine mulieribus et liberis irent et sacrifi- 
carent. Statimque eiecti sunt de conspectu Pharaonis. 

Extendit Moyses virgam super terram Aegypti; et Dominus induxit 
ventum urentem tota die ilia et nocte; et mane, ventus urens levavit locustas. 
Quae ascenderunt super universam terram, vastantes omnia. Quam ob 
rem Pharao festinus vocavit Moysen et Aaron, et dixit, “Peccavi in Domin- 
um Deum vestrum et in vos. Sed nunc dimittite peccatum meum.” Moyses 
l'taque egressus oravit Dominum. Qui flare fecit ventum ab occidente 
vehementissimum, et arripuit locustas proiecitque in Mare Rubrum. 
At Pharao iterum induravit cor suum, nec dimisit Israel. 

Moyses igitur extendit manum in coelum; et factae sunt tenebrae hor- 
ribiles in universa terra Aegypti tribus diebus. Nemo vidit fratrem suum, 
nec movit se de loco in quo erat. At ubicumque habitabant filii Israel lux 
erat. Vocavitque Pharao Moysen et Aaron et dixit eis, “Ite, sacrificate 
Domino. Oves tantum vestrae et armenta remaneant.” At Moyses negavit 
se posse ire sine armentis. Dixitque Pharao ad Moysen, “Discede a me, et 
cave ne ultra videas faciem meam. Quocumque die apparueris mihi, 
morieris.” Respondit Moyses, “Ita fiet ut locutus es. Non videbo ultra 
faciem tuam.” 

introivit-wenr in 

usquequo-/joH' long 

sin -but if 

resister e-resist 

inducere-bring in 

locusta -locust(s) 

eicere-throw out 



levar e-raise 

festinus -swift 




tenebra e-darkness 



armentum -flock 

quicuraque-w/iof what )-ever 

ut -as 


flare, avit, atus -blow only the qui-) -whoever, 

introire, iit, *iturus -enter whichever, whatever 

levare, avit, atus -raise, ruber, rubra, rubrum-reJ 

relieve tenebrae, is -darkness 

urere, ussit, ustus -burn sin -but if 

quicumque, quaecumque, ut ( with indicative)-as, 
quodcumque ( decline when 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Locative Case: We have already noted that the names 
of towns and cities do not usually use a preposition with 
the objective and the ablative to mean to or from the 

town. Now when the sense is that of staying in the town, 
something similar happens. We have the locative case 
(which is used only on names of towns, cities, and a few 
stray other words, such as domus — domi: at home). 
This locative case exists only in the first and second 


Endings are: 1. -ae 2. -i 

Thus: Romae Tarenti 

(In the plurals of first and second declensions, and in 
the third declension, we use the ablative.) 

Seldom do we find: in Roma, in Tarento, etc. 

Ablatives of Instrument and Personal Agent: 
For the most part we have not found it necessary to give 
special rules on when to use or omit prepositions with 


the ablative: in most uses, it is possible to use the case 
either way. But there are two uses in which most authors 
are particular about the prepositions: 

Instrument—no preposition (some Late authors use 
de or ex, but not very commonly) 

Personal agent—uses ab 

The difference is not hard to see from a pair of examples: 

1. Interfectus est gladio. 

He was killed by a sword. 

2. Interfectus est a Marco. 

He was killed by Marcus. 

In other words, in both examples we have something 
done by a person or thing. But when we have a person, 
a preposition (ab) is normal—when we have a thing, no 
preposition is ordinarily used. 

Pharao Audit Consilium Bonum 

“Licetne ut loquar pauca ad dominum meum regem?” 
interrogavit idem vetus consiliarius, cum ad Pharaonem 
introisset. Cui Pharao, “Licet, sed breviter. Valde enim 
moti sumus illis rebus quae facta sunt a viro pessimo 
Moyse.” “Breviter faciam,” respondit consiliarius. “Ego 
quoque passus sum multa ab eo. Ipso die in quo Moyses 
ante vos venit, ad petendam licentiam discedendi populo 
suo, timui. Non solum enim frater eius Aaron virgam 
suam in serpentem convertit, sed etiam, percutiendo 
fllimine, fecit aquam sacri fluminis in sanguinem! Dixi 
enim in mente mea: ‘Magno periculo terrae nostrae sunt 
hi viri! Videtur quod magni dei pro eis pugnant. Forsan 

maiores sunt quam dei Aegypti!’ Sed iterum cogitavi non 
oportere hoc modo loqui. Deinde post septem dies, 
manu extensa super flumen, idem Aaron fecit multitudi- 
nem magnam ranarum venire. Etiam in palatium sac¬ 
rum venerunt! Postea, pulvere percutiendo, vocavit 
Aaron multa millia cinifum e terra. Magi autem vestri 
hoc non potuerunt facere, ita ut dicerent: ‘Manus Dei est 
hie!’ Cum autem cinifes discessissent, misit Deus eorum 
muscas in omnem terram Aegypti—sed non in partem 
terrae ubi habitant Hebraei isti! Magno terrori erat mihi 
cogitare de his! Post haec multa animalia nostra mortua 
sunt—sed non animalia Hebraeorum. Deinde Moyses 
ipse, cinere spargendo in coelum coram Pharaone, misit 
ulcera gravia in nos omnes. Insuper, extendenda manu, 
misit idem vir in nos grandinem, locustas, et tenebras 
horribiles, quae tamen in partem terrae ubi Hebraei sunt 
non venerunt! Ergo, si liceat loqui, hoc dicam, ‘Forsan, 
ne peiora accidant terrae nostrae, melius esset ut Hebraei 
isti discedant.’ ” 

English to Latin 

1. There were many great men at Rome and at Athens. 

2. Caesar was killed by Brutus. 3. He was killed with 
a dagger. 4. If he had not desired to be a king, would 
he have been killed? 5. Pharao said that he did not wish 
to see the face of Moses again. 6. God sent lightning 
into all Egypt, so that the people were terrified. 7. Be¬ 
cause of the sins of Pharao, ten plagues came upon the 



De clausulis inlroductis coniunctione: cunt 
De variis rebus in declinatione tertia 

Et dixit Dominus ad Moysen, “Adhuc una plaga tangam Pharaonem et 
Aegyptum, et post haec dimfttet vos, et exfre compel let.” Dixitque Dominus 
etiam, “Media nocte egrediar in Aegyptum, et morietur omne primogeni- 
tum in terra Aegyptiorum, a primogenito Pharaonis, qui sedet in solio 
eius, usque ad primogenitum ancillae quae est ad molam, et omnia primo- 
gentia iumentorum. Eritque clamor magnus in universa terra Aegypti, 
qualis nec ante hoc tempus fuit, nec postea futurus est. Mensis iste, vobis 
erit princi'pium mensium: primus erit in mensibus anni. Loqufmini ad 
universum coetum filiorum Israel et dfcite eis: Decima die mensis huius 
tollat unus quisque (each and every one) agnum per famflias et domos 
suas. Sin autem minor est numerus, ut sufficere possit ad vescendum agnum, 
assumet vicinum suum, qui iunctus est domui suae, secundum numerum 
animarum quae sufficere possunt ad esum agni. Erit autem agnus absque 
macula, masculus, anniculus. Et servabitis eum usque ad quartam deci- 
mam diem mensis huius. Immolabftque eum universa multitudo filiorum 
Israel ad vesperam. Et sument de sanguine eius, ac ponent sanguinem 
super utrumque postern, et in superliminaribus domorum in quibus come- 
dent ilium. Et edent carnes nocte ilia assas igni, et azymos panes cum 
lactucis agrestibus. Et transibo per terram Aegypti nocte ilia, percutiamque 
omne primogenitum in terra Aegypti. Erit autem sanguis vobis in signum 
in domibus in quibus eritis, et videbo sanguinem, et transibo vos, nec erit 
in vobis plaga delens quando percussero terram Aegypti. Habebitis autem 
hunc diem in monumentum, et celebrabitis earn solemnem Domino in 
generationibus vestris.” 

Factum est autem in noctis medio, percussit Dominus omne primogeni¬ 
tum in terra Aegypti, a primogenito Pharaonis usque ad primogenitum 
captfvae, quae erat in carcere. Surrexftque Pharao nocte, et omnes servi 
eius, omnfsque Aegyptus, et factus est clamor magnus in Aegypto. Neque 
enim erat domus in qua non erat mortuus. Vocatfsque Moyse et Aaron 
nocte, Pharao ait, “Surgite et egredfmini a populo meo, vos et fflii Israel: 
ite, immolate Domino sicut dfcitis, et abeuntes benedfcite mihi.” 

compeller e-drive 
ancflla-s/ave girl 

iumentum-Aearf of burden 



coetus -assembly 



vesci -eat 

assumere-/aA:e also 
iunctus -joined 
macula -spot 
annfculus-o/ie year old 
uterqu t-each, both 
postis-door post 
assus -roasted 
agrestis -wild 
lactuca -lettuce 
in -as 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Cum Clauses: It is good now to review and make 
more precise our information about clauses introduced 
by cum. We already know that cum may have three 
classes of meanings: 

1. Time— when or after 

2. Cause— because or since 

3. Concession— although 
We know that: 

1. Cause and concession always have the 

2. Time sometimes has the subjunctive. 



iungere, iunxit, iunctus- 
join, yoke 

vesci (no other parts)-eat 
(often with abl.) 
absque (withabl.)- 

coetus, u -assembly,crowd 
macula, a -spot 
mola, a-mill, meal 

princfpium, o-beginning 
quisque, quaeque, 

quidque (or quodque)- 
each, each one 
(unus quisque— each 
and every one ) 
vicfnus, o (noun or ad /.)- 
neighbor, neighboring 

But precisely when does time have the subjunctive? We 
must distinguish primary and secondary sequence (see 
Lesson 66—we have primary sequence when the main 
verb refers to present or future time; secondary, when it 
refers to past time). 

In primary sequence, cum will have the indicative 
whenever it is to be translated by when or after. 

In secondary sequence, however, cum will have the 
indicative only when the clause means merely time (i.e., 
no other idea, such as because or although is strongly 
felt in the background). E.g.: 

Cum sol oriebatur, Caesar profectus est. 

When the sun was rising, Caesar set out. 

The indicative is used because the idea is purely time 
—there is no thought that Caesar was starting because 
or although the sun was rising. 

Mixed Stem Nouns in Third Declension: We have 
already learned that there are two large groups of nouns 
in third declension, depending on the ablative singular: 

i —means that possessive plural will be-/um 

nominative-objective plural of neuters will be -ia 

e —means that possessive plural will be -um 

nominative-objective plural of neuters will be -a 

Actually, there are some nouns that are half-breeds, 
or mixed stems. They have e in the ablative singular, but 
-ium in the possessive plural. Which are these nouns? 
There is no simple rule—experience and much reading 
is the best teacher. But we may note that no neuters are 
mixed stems. And most nouns of one syllable in the 
nominative that end in -ns, -rs, -rx, -lx in the nominative 
are mixed. 

Rules for I-stem Nouns: I-stem nouns are those that 
we have learned with i in the ablative singular. There 
are three rules to help our memory in learning that abla¬ 
tive singular. 

1. Monosyllables (i.e., nouns with one syllable in the 
nominative) whose bases (ablative singular minus end¬ 
ing) end in two consonants—will be either I-stems or 
mixed stems. (This group is masculine or feminine) 

2. Parasyllables (i.e., nouns with same number of 
syllables in nominative and ablative singular—e.g., 
civ is, civi) with nominative singular in -is or -es (will 
be masculine or feminine)—will be I-stems. 

3. Neuters in -e, -al, or -ar —will be I-stems. Unfor¬ 

tunately, there are exceptions to these rules—but they 
are still a help to memory. 

De Elia Propheta et Prophetis Baal 

In diebus Eliae prophetae, cum Iudaei deos falsos et 
idola colerent, Elias ad omnem populum Israel locutus 
est dicens, “Osquequo (how long) claudicatis (waver) 
inter duas partes. Si Dominus est Deus, sequimini eum: 
si autem Baal est deus, sequimini ilium.” Et non respon¬ 
ds ei populus verbum. Et ait rursus Elias ad populum, 
“Ego remansi propheta Domini solus: prophetae autem 
Baal quadringenti et quinquaginta (450) viri sunt. Den- 
tur (from dare) itaque nobis duo boves, et illi eligant 
(choose) sibi bovem unum, et in frusta (pieces) caed- 
entes (cutting) super ligna ponant, ignem autem non 
supponant (put beneath)', et ego bovem alterum pa- 
rabo, et super ligna imponam, ignem autem non suppo- 
nam. Invocate nomina deorum vestrorum, et ego nomen 
Domini mei invocabo: et Deus qui per ignem exaudiverit 
(hear, grant favor), ipse sit Deus.” Respondens omnis 
populus ait, “Optima propositio.” 

Dixit ergo Elias prophetis Baal, “Eligite vobis bovem 
unum, et parate primi, quia vos plures estis: et invocate 
nomina deorum vestrorum, ignemque non supponatis.” 

Qui cum tulissent bovem quern dederat eis, invoca- 
bant nomen Baal de mane (morning) usque ad meri¬ 
diem (noon) dicentes, “Baal, exaudi nos.” Et non erat 
vox, neque qui responderet. Transiliebantque (jump 
over) altare quod fecerant. 

Cumque iam esset meridies, illudebat (mock) illis 
Elias, dicens, “Clamate voce maiore (louder): deus 
enim est, et forsan loquitur, aut in diversorio (inn) est, 
aut in itinere, aut certe dormit (is asleep), ut excitetur.” 

Clamabant ergo voce magna, et incidebant se (cut 
themselves) secundum ritum suum donee perfunderen- 
tur (be covered) sanguine. (Continuabitur eras) 

English to Latin 

1. When Pharao saw that his own son was dead, he 
called Moses and Aaron. 2. He told them that he would 
let Israel go. 3. Each and every one prepared to leave 
Egypt at night. 4. When they had eaten the lamb, they 
put its blood on the doors. 5. The Egyptians were killed 
by the angel of the Lord. 6. Because of the blood of the 
lamb, the angel did not kill the Jews. 7. By sacrificing 
the lamb the Jews were saved. 



De verbis regentibus casum ablativum 
De variis terminationibus 
De usu lexici 

Pharao dederat populo Israel licentiam discedendi ex Aegypto. Illi lgitur 
surrexerunt nocte, et, portantes ossa Iosephi, discesserunt. Dominus autem 
praecedebat eos ad ostendendam viam per diem in columna nubis et per 
noctem in columna ignis, ut dux esset itineris utroque tempore. Numquam 
defuit columna nubis per diem, nec columna ignis per noctem coram 

Et nuntiatum est regi Aegyptiorum quod fugisset populus; immutatum- 
que est cor Pharaonis et servorum eius super populo, et dixerunt, “Quid 
voluimus facere ut dimitteremus Israel ne serviret nobis?” Iunxit ergo 
currum, et omnem populum suum assumpsit secum. Tulitque sescentos 
currus electos et quidquid in Aegypto curruum fuit, et duces totius exer- 
citus. Cumque appropinquasset Pharao, levantes filii Israel oculos, vide- 
runt Aegyptios post se: ettimuerunt valde, clamaveruntque ad Dominum. 
Et ait Moyses ad populum, “Nolite timere, state et videte res magnas 
Domini quas facturus est hodie. Aegyptios enim, quos nunc videtis, nequa- 
quam ultra videbitis in sempiternum. Dominus pugnabit pro vobis, et vos 
tacebitis.” Profecti sunt lgitur filii Israel ad Mare Rubrum. Cumque 
extendisset Moyses manum super mare, abstulit mare Dominus, flante 
vento vehementi et urente, et vertit in siccum; divisaque est aqua. Et in- 
gressi sunt filii Israel per medium sicci maris; erat enim aqua quasi murus 
a dextra eorum et a laeva. Persequentesque Aegyptii ingressi sunt post 
eos. Et ait Dominus ad Moysen, “Extende manum tuam super mare, ut 
revertantur aquae ad Aegyptios super currus et equites eorum.” Cumque 
extendisset Moyses manum contra mare, reversum est ad priorem locum. 
Fugientibusque Aegyptiis occurrerunt aquae, et involvit eos Dominus in 
mediis fluctibus. Ne unus quidem superfuit ex eis. Filii autem Israel per- 
rexerunt per medium sicci maris et laudaverunt Dominum. 

defuit-he lacking 
nu ntiar e-announce 
immutar e-change 
servire-be slave 

(fourth declension) 
assumer e-take 
electus -picked 
nequaquam-hy no means 
tacer t-be silent 
siccus -dry 
dexter -right 
laevus -left 
occurrer e-meet 
ne . .. quidem-no/ even 
laudar e-praise 


deesse, defuit, 

tacere, tacuit, tacitus-he 

*defuturus-/a/7, be 


lacking to 

dexter, tera, terum -right 

immutare, avit, atus- 

murus, o -wall 


siccus, a, um -dry 

laudare, avit, atus -praise 

ne ... quidem —not even 

servire, servivit, servitus- 
be slave to (with dat .) 

(note the word order) 

Nunc Cogitemus 

Five Deponents Governing the Ablative: There 

are five deponent verbs whose apparent object is in the 

uti, usus est— use; gladio utitur— he uses a sword. 
frui, fructus est— enjoy; frumento fruitur— he enjoys 

fungi, functus est— busy self with, perform; consul- 
atu fungitur— he performed the duty of a consul. 

potiri, potitus est— get possession of ; terra potitus 
est— he got possession of the land. 

vesci ( sometimes with objective) — eat; cibis vesci- 
tur— he eats foods. 

Actually, the five verbs are in the middle voice (some¬ 
thing neither active nor passive, which has no special 
forms in Latin. The passive in a few examples has such 
a meaning)—they mean the subject acts so as to affect 


himself: Thus: uti: to serve oneself by means of some¬ 
thing; fungi: to busy oneself with, etc. 

Optional Endings in Third Declension: In addi¬ 
tion to the endings we have already learned, there are 
some optional endings that are sometimes used, as fol¬ 

1. The ablative singular of most I-stems can also be 
e (but the ablative singular of consonant stems can 
never be /). This holds for nouns, not for adjectives. 
Nor does it hold for neuter nouns. Present participles do 
have the choice. 

2. The objective plural of I-stems can be - is (with 
long /') instead of -es. E.g., the noun navis could have 
ablative nave ; objective plural navis. 

Optional Endings of Verbs: 

1. The second person singular passive ending is 
usually -ris, as we have seen, in forms made on the first 
part of the verb. But instead of -ris we may have -re: 

pararis could be parare. 

2. The third person plural of the perfect indicative 
active is usually -erunt. It could also be -ere (with the 
first e long): 

paraverunt could be paravere. 

Contractions in the Perfect and Pluperfect 
Active of Verbs: These contractions are rather com¬ 
mon in the perfect tense of verbs that have their perfect 
ending in: -avit, -evit, -ivit: 

1. -avit and -evit perfects lose v and the following 
vowel before s or r. 

2. -ivit perfects lose v and the following vowel before 
s —and also lose v before r. 

There are a few other occasional contracted forms— 
such as those from noscere—novisti becomes nosti ; 
noverunt becomes norunt', noveram, etc., becomes 
noram, etc., novisse becomes nosse. 

Continuatur Narratio de Elia Propheta 

Sed vox non audiebatur, et nemo prophetis Baal 
respondebat. Dixit itaque Elias omni populo, “Venite ad 
me.” Et accedente ad se populo, curavit altare Domini, 
quod destructum erat. Et tulit duodecim lapides ( stones ) 
secundum numerum tribuum ( tribes) filiorum Iacob. 
Et de lapidibus altare in nomine Domini aedificavit; 
fecitque fossam {ditch) in circuitu ( around ) altaris. Et 
composuit ligna, divisitque bovem et super ligna posuit. 
Et ait, “Implete quattuor hydrias ( water jars ) aqua 
(ablative ) et fundite super holocaustum et super ligna.” 
Et fecerunt hoc ter ( three times), Elia iubente. Et 
currebant aquae circum altare, et fossa repleta est. Cum- 
que iam tempus esset ut offerretur holocaustum, ac- 
cedens Elias propheta ait: “Domine Deus Abraham et 
Isaac, ostende hodie quia (that) tu es Deus Israel, et 
ego servus tuus, et iuxta {according to) praeceptum 
tuum omnia verba haec feci. Exaudi {hear) me, Domine, 
exaudi me, ut discat populus iste, quia {that) tu es 
Dominus Deus, et tu convertisti cor eorum iterum.” 

Cecidit autem ignis Domini, et voravit {consumed) 
holocaustum, et ligna, et lapides, pulverem quoque, et 
aquam quae, erat in fossa, lambens {licking it up). 

Quod cum vidisset omnis populus, cecidit in faciem 
suam, et ait: “Dominus ipse est Deus, Dominus ipse est 





amasti delesti audisti amarim delerim audierim 
amastis delestis audistis etc. etc. etc. 

amarunt delerunt audierunt 

Past Perfect Past Perfect 

amaram deleram audieram amassem delessem audissem 
etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. etc. 

Future Perfect 
amaro delero audiero 
etc. etc. etc. 






English to Latin 

1. How did the Jews get possession of the Holy Land? 

2. They enjoyed all the things that the Lord had given 
them. 3. Not even one thing was lacking to them. 4. If 
they had served the Lord well, they would have remained 
there. 5. We ought to use well all that God has given us. 
6. Although the holocaust was not dry, fire from heaven 
came down upon it and consumed it. 7. The Lord is to 
be praised greatly {magnopere). 

The Use of the Latin Dictionary 

Latin Dictionaries (and other texts also) do not use 
the new forms of listing of words such as we have 
learned. But it is easy to learn to follow them. 

They give four parts for normal verbs instead of our 
three. The last three are the same (substantially) as ours 
(the difference is that we use the third person ending in 


the perfect active, while they use the first person). The 
additional part they give is the first part. It is the present 
indicative active, first singular. Compare it to our pre¬ 
liminary part on such verbs as cdpiunt. Here are a few 
examples, listed in both ways: 
ours: c&piunt, c&pere, cepit, captus 
theirs: capio, capere, cepi, captus 
ours: loqui, locutusest 
theirs: loquor, loqui, locutus sum 
ours: par&re, par&vit. par&tus 
theirs: paro, parare, paravi, paratus 
ours: con&ri, con&tus est 
theirs: conor, conan, conatus sum 
The first part they give is really unnecessary—we have 
all the necessary information from three parts—why 
memorize four? But if we want that other part, we can 
easily make it from the principles we have learned: 
merely make the present indicative active first singular. 
That will be it. 

On the last part of the verb, practice varies. Some 
books will give perfect passive participles instead of fu¬ 
ture active participles on some verbs. There is no 
uniformity between various dictionaries and texts. For 
example on the verb ire, some will give the last part as 
itus, others as iturus. But if you know one you can easily 
make the other. 

As to nouns, other books give the possessive singular 
instead of the ablative singular as the second form. But 
we can handle that easily—the disadvantage in giving 
the possessive singular is that we then do not learn easily 
how to distinguish the various subdivisions within third 
declension (we must try to work them out by rules such 
as those given in Lesson 80). For example: 
ours: bona vdritas, veritdte-truth 
theirs: veritas, veritatis-/-truth 
ours: servus, o-slave 
theirs: servus, i-m-slave 

They give the gender by a letter instead of by an 
adjective. On the bonus type they list: bonus, a, um: the 
three forms of the nominative singular, just as we do. 
On third declension adjectives they give the same listing 
as we do except that they do not give the ablative singu¬ 
lar, and so do not tell us what type of declension to 

So the differences are not extremely great. The older 
method calls for more memory work, but gives less in¬ 
formation, since it fails to help us in third declension. 

Other grammars write similarly to this book, but in 
the names of the cases they use the term genitive instead 
of possessive, and accusative instead of objective. 


Declensions of Nouns 



























































naves (is) 




















mar is 




















































Declensions of Adjectives 























































































































































































All are declined liked bonus 


Conjugations of Verbs 


present: He loves, he does love, he is loving 





1 . 























1 . 





















habent ponunt cipiunt 

imperfect: He loved, he did love, he was loving 

1 . 
























1 . 































future: He will love, he will be loving 

















1 . 



















: tis 

1 . 

2 . 


1 . 

2 . 























* The perfect active tenses of all conjugations are the same. 



audi s 
audi t 

audi mus 
audi tis 

audieba m 
audieba s 
audieba t 

audieba mus 
audiebi tis 
audieba nt 

audie s 
audie t 

audie mus 
audie tis 


1 . 

2 . 


1 . 

2 . 


1 . 

2 . 


1 . 

2 . 

















present: He is loved, he is being loved 

ponor cdpior 






poni lur 

poni mur 
poni mini 


dpi lur 

cdpi mur 

hatentur ponuntur capiuntur 

imperfect: He was loved, he was being loved 

1 . 
























1 . 
























future: He will be loved 






hatebi mur 
hatebi mini 






























1. amatus sum 

2. amatus es 

3. amatus est 

1. amati sumus 

2. amati estis 

3. amati sunt 

amatus eram 
amatus eras 
amatus erat 

amati eramus 
amati eratis 
amati erant 

amatus ero 
amatus eris 
amatus erit 

amati erimus 
amati eritis 
amati erunt 

* The perfect passive tenses of all conjugations are the same. 


audi ris 
audi tur 

audi mur 
audi mini 

audidba r 
audiete ris 
audiete tur 

audiete mur 
audiete mini 
audiete ntur 

audi6 ris 
audi£ tur 

audi£ mur 
audi£ mini 
audi£ ntur 



1 . 
























1 . 













. pon4 



















1 . 



Other conjugations 

The conjugations are the 






are the same: 

same in the perfect and 






hab6ret, etc. 




1 . 



poneret, etc. 






c4peret, etc. 






audfret, etc. 




1 . 















1 . 









































1 . 



Other conjugations 

All conjugations are the 

am4tus sim 




are the same: 

same in the perfect and 

am4tus sis 




haber6tur, etc. 


am4tus sit 

1 . 



poner6tur, etc. 

am4ti simus 




caper6tur, etc. 

am4ti sitis 




audir6tur, etc. 

am4ti sint 


audia m 
audia s 
audia t 

audi4 mus 
audi4 tis 
audia nt 


amavfsse m 
amavfsse s 
amavfsse t 

amavisse mus 
amaviss6 tis 
amavfsse nt 

audia r 
audi4 ris 
audi4 tur 

audi4 mur 
audi& mini 
audi4 ntur 


am4tus essem 
am4tus esses 
am4tus esset 

am4ti ess6mus 
am4ti essetis 
am4ti essent 



Active: to love 



to be loved 





















Perfect Active: to have loved 

Perfect Passive: to have been loved 

(all conjugations are same) 

amavisse, habuisse, posuisse, etc. 

amatus esse, habitus esse, positus esse, etc. 

Future Active: to be about to love Future Passive: to be about to be loved 

(all conjugations same) 

amaturus esse, habiturus esse, etc. amatum iri, habitum iri, etc. 

present active: loving 


am antis 
am an tern 

amantes (is) 








future active: about to, going to, intending to love 
amaturus, a, um (decline like bonus) 

perfect passive: having been loved 
am&tus, a, um (decline like bonus ) 

perfect deponent: having spoken 
locutus, a, um 


amandus, a, um habendus, a, um ponendus, a, um capiendus, a, um audiendus, a, um 

Active: love! 


Passive: be loved! 

ama habe pone cape audi 

amate habete ponite capite audite 












Latin Numbers 

There are several different kinds of numbers both in 
English and in Latin. We are concerned with chiefly two 
kinds: the ordinal and cardinal numbers. The ordinal 
numbers are: first, second, third, etc. They tell in what 
order a thing comes. The cardinal numbers are: one, 
two, three, etc. 

In Latin, all ordinal numbers are declined, like bonus, 
a, um. Of the cardinal numbers, unus, duo, and tres are 
declined—but after that no cardinals are declined until 
we reach ducenti, ae, a (200). Of course, compound 
numbers, having the words unus, duo, tres in them, 
decline those parts. Unus is declined like the nine irregu¬ 
lar adjectives (possessive singular in -ius and dative 
singular in -i). Duo has only a few forms: 

Masculine and Neuter: duo, duorum, duobus, duos 
(duo) duobus 

Feminine: duae, duarum, duabus, duas, duabus 
Tres has only a few forms: 

Masculine and Feminine: tres, trium, tribus, tres 

(tris), tribus 

13. tredecim 

14. quattuordecim 

15. quindecim 

16. sedecim 

17. septendecim 

18. duodeviginti 

19. undeviginti 

20. viginti 

21. viginti unus 
(unus et 

22. viginti duo 

30. triginta 
40. quadraginta 
50. quinquaginta 





100 . 






Neuter: tria, trium, tribus, tria, tribus 

200. ducenti, ae, a 

300. trecenti, ae, a 



400. quadringenti, 

ae, a 

1. unus 


500. quingenti, ae. 

2. duo 



3. tres 


600. sescenti, ae, a 

4. quattuor 


700. septingenti, 

5. quinque 


ae, a 

6. sex 


800. octingenti, ae, 

7. septem 



8. octo 


900. nongenti, ae. 

9. novem 



10. decern 


1000. mille ( several 

11. undecim 



12. duodecim 

duodecim us 


tertius decimus 

quartus decimus 

quintus decimus 

sextus decimus 

Septimus decimus 



vigesimus (vicensimus) 

vigesimus primus (vicensimus 


vigesimus secundus (vicensimus 

trigesimus (tricensimus) 
quadragesimus (quadragensimus) 
quinquagesimus (quinquagensi- 

sexagesimus (sexagensimus) 
septuagesimus (septuagensimus) 
octogesimus (octogensimus) 
nonagesimus (nonagensimus) 
centesimus (centensimus) 
ducentesimus (ducentensimus) 
trecentesimus (trecentensimus) 
quadringentesimus (quadringen- 

quingentesimus (quingentensi- 

sescentesimus (sescentensimus) 
septingentesimus (septingenten- 

octingentesimus (octingentensi- 

nongentesimus (nongentensimus) 
millesimus (millensimus) 



abAsse, 6fuit, afuturus—be absent 
abire, iit, iturus—go away 
Abraham—poss. & dat.: Abrahae, other 
forms: Abraham 

abscdndere, abscdndit, abscdnditus—hide 

absque (with abl.)—without 

accAdere, cAssit, cessurus—go to, approach 

accidere, Accidit,-, happen 

accipiunt, ere, cApit, cAptus—receive 

accusAre, Avit, Atus—accuse 

acer, acris, acre, i—sharp, eager, keen 

ad (with obj.)—to, near 

adducere, duxit, ductus—lead to, influence 

adAsse, Adfuit, adfuturus—be present 

adhuc—yet, still 

administrate, Avit, Atus—govern, manage 
adorAre, Avit, Atus—respect, reverence, 

aedificAre, -Avit, -Atus—build 
aeger, aegra, aegrum—sick 
aetas, aetAte, magna—age 
afficiunt, afficere, affAcit, affActus—affect, 

ager, agro—field, farm 
Agere, egit, actus—do, drive, discuss, spend 

aggrediuntur, Aggredi, aggrAssus est—attack 
agnus, o—lamb 

aliAnus, a, um—foreign, unfavorable 

Aliqui, quae, quod—some, any 

Aliquis, Aliquid—someone, anyone 

Alius, a, um—other, another 

altAre, i, magnum—altar 

alter, era, erum—one, the one ... the other 

altus, a, um—high, deep 

amAre, Avit, Atus—love 

amittere, misit, missus—lose 

amor, 6re, magnus—love 

an—or (in questions only) 

Anima, a—soul, life, breath 
animadvArtere, vArtit, vArsus—notice, punish 
annus, o—year 
ante (with obj.)—before 
Antea (adv.)—before 
Antequam (conjunction)—before 
aperire, apAruit, apArtus—open 
apparAre, appAruit, appAritus—appear 
appropinquAre, Avit, Atus—approach (with 

apud (with obj.)—with, at the house of 
aqua, a—water 
arcus, u—bow 
arAna, a—sand 

ars, arte, bona (poss. pi. -ium) —art, skill 

auctdritas, tAte, magna—authority, influ¬ 

audax, Aci—bold 

audAre, ausus est—dare (notice that the 
first part is normal, but the rest is 

audire, ivit, itus—hear 
aufArre, Abstulit, ablAtus—take away some¬ 
thing (obj.) from someone (dat.) 
augAre, auxit, auctus—increase 
aurum, o—gold 

aut—or; aut... aut—either ... or 
autem—however, moreover (never first 
word in its clause) 

auxilium, o—help 

avunculus, o—uncle (on mother's side: on 
father’s side is pdtruus) 

bellum, o—war 

benedicere, dixit, dictus—bless (sometimes 
with dat.) 

bonus, a, um—good 

bos, bove—cow, bull, ox (masc. or fern.) 
brevis, e, i—short 

caecus, a, um—blind 
cAdere, cAcidit, casus—fall 
CaAsar, are—Caesar 
cAlidus, a, um—hot 
calix, cAlice, magnus—cup 
campus, o—field, plain 
capillus o—hair 

cApiunt, ere, cepit, captus—take, capture 

caput, cApite, magnum—head 

career, cArcere, magnus—prison 

caro, came, bona—flesh, meat 

causa—for sake of (with poss.) 

causa, a—cause, case, reason 

cavAre, cavit, cautus—beware, guard against 

celAriter—quickly, swiftly 

certus, a, um—certain 

cibus, o—food 

cinis, cinere, multus—ashes 

circum (with obj.)—around 

circumcidere, cidit, cisus—circumcise 

circumire, iit, iturus—go around 

circumstAre, stetit,-, surround 

civis, i, bonus—citizen 

civitas, civitAte, magna—city, citizenship 


dams, a, um—famous, brilliant 
dassis, i, magna—fleet 
daudere, dausit, clausus—close 
coelum, o (but pi. is masc.: coeli )—heaven, 

-, coepit, coeptus (the last part has 

active meaning)—begin 
coetus, u—assembly, crowd 
edgere, coAgit, coActus—compel 
cogitAre, Avit, Atus—think 
cogndscere, ndvit, nitus—learn (and there¬ 
fore the perfect means:—know) 
cdlere, cdluit, cultus—worship, till, cultivate 
colligere, collAgit, collActus—collect 
comAdere, comAdit, comAsus—eat 
committere, commisit, commissus—com¬ 
mit, intrust 

comprehAndere, prehAndit, prehAnsus— 
grasp, arrest 

conAri, conAtus est—attempt 
concAdere, cAssit, cAssus—yield, grant 
confAstim—at once 

confidere, confisus est—trust in (half de¬ 
ponent ) 

coniurAtio, i6ne, mala—conspiracy 
ednsequi, consecutus est—follow up, over¬ 
take, accomplish 
consilium, o—plan 

conspiciunt, conspicere, spAxit, spActus— 
see, catch sight of 

constituere, stituit, stitutus—set up, decide, 

consuetudo, tudine, bona—custom 

consulAtus, u-consulship 

consulere, consuluit, consultus—consult 


contAmnere, tAmpsit, tAmptus—despise, 

continAre, continuit, contAntus—hold to¬ 
gether, restrain 
contra (with obj.)—against 
cdpia, a—abundance 

coram (with abl.)—in the presence of, 

corpus, edrpore, magnum—body 
creAre, Avit, Atus—make, create 
crAdere, crAdidit, crAditus—believe (with 
dat. of the person believed) 
crAscere, crevit, cretus—grow 
crimen, crimine, malum—charge, crime 
crux, cruce, bona—cross 
cum—when, after, although, because 
cum (with abl.)—with 
cunctus, a, um—all 

cupiunt, cupere, cupivit, cupitus—desire 

curAre, Avit, Atus—take care of (with obj., 
not possessive case) 
currere, cucurrit, cursurus—run 

dare, dedit, datus—give 
de (with abl.)—about, concerning, down 

debere, dAbuit, dAbitus—owe, ought 

decollAre, Avit, Atus—behead 

deAsse, dAfuit, defuturus—fail, be lacking to 

deinde—then, next 

delActus, u—draft, levy 

delAre, delAvit, delAtus—destroy 

deliberAre, Avit, Atus—deliberate 

depdnere, pdsuit, pdsitus—put down 

desiderAre, Avit, Atus—desire, miss 

desinere, desivit, desitus—cease, stop 

Deus, o—God (dea, a—goddess) 

dexter, tera, terum—right 

diAbolus, o—-devil 

dicere, dixit, dictus—say, tell 

dies, die (5)—day 

difficilis, e, i—difficult 

digitus, o—finger 

diluvium, o—flood, deluge 

dimittere, misit, missus—dismiss 

discere, didicit,-, learn 

discAdere, cAssit, cessurus—depart 
diu—a long time 

dives, divite—rich (poss. pi.— um) 

dividere, divisit, divisus—-divide 

docAre, docuit, doctus—teach 

dolor, 6re, magnus—sorrow, pain, grief 

domi—at home 

ddminus, o—lord, master 

donee—while, until 

dormire, ivit, itus—sleep 

dubium, o—doubt 

ducere, duxit, ductus—lead (ducere in 
durus, a, um—hard 
dux, duce, magnus—leader 

e, ex (with abl.)—from, out from 

egrediuntur, gredi, grAssus est—go out 
egrAgius, a, um—excellent 
Amere, emit, emptus—buy 
enim (never 1st word)—for 

epistola, a—letter 
equus, o—horse 

eques, dquite, bonus—horseman 
esse, fuit, futurus—be 
dtiam—even, also 
etsi—even if, although 
evddere, evdsit, evdsus—escape 
exercdre, exdrcuit, exdrcitus—practice, 


exdrcitus, u—army 
exclamdre, dvit, dtus—shout 
expdllere, pulit, pulsus—expell 
explicdre, dvit, dtus—explain 
explordtor, 6re, bonus—spy, scout 
exsilium, o—exile 
exspectdre, dvit, dtus—expect 

fdbula, a—legend, story 
fac—imperative singular of fdcere (pi. is 
regular: fdcite ) There are 4 irregular 
imperative singulars: Die, Due, Fac, Fer 
fdcies, e (5)—face, appearance 
fdcilis, e, i—easy 

fdciunt, 3, fecit, factus—do make 

fdllere, fefdllit, falsus—deceive 

fames, fame, magna—hunger, famine 

fdmina, a—woman 

fere—almost, in general, about 

ferox, feroci—fierce 

ferre, tulit, latus—bear, bring, carry 

ferns, o and fera, a—wild beast 

filia, a—daughter 

filius, o—son 

finire, ivit, itus—finish, complete 
finis, e (poss. pi. -ium), bonus—end 
fiunt, fieri, factus est—become, happen 
(the infinitive is irregular— factus est is 
really the last part of fdcere — to be 
made means the same as: to become) 
fiare, avit, atus—blow 
fldre, flevit, fletus—weep 
fluere, fluxit, fluxurus—flow 
flumen, flumine, magnum—river 
foedus, foddere, bonum—pact, covenant 
fons, fonte (poss. pi. -ium), magnus— 
fountain, spring 
fortis, e, i—brave, strong 
forum, o—market, forum 
frdngere, fregit, fractus—break 
frater, fratre, bonus—brother 
frigidus, a, um—cold 
frumdntum, o—grain 
frustra—in vain 

fugiunt, fugere, fugit, fugiturus—flee 
fulgur, fulgure, clarum—lightning 
fundere, fudit, fusus—pour, shed 

gens, gente, magna—tribe, people (poss. pi. 
-ium ) 

genu, u—knee 

genus, gdnere, bonum—kind, race 

gerere, gessit, gestus—wage, wear 

glddius, o—sword 

grdtia, a—favor, grace, gratitude 

gratus, a, um—pleasing 

gravis, e, i—heavy 

guttur, ure, magnum—throat 

habdre, hdbuit, hdbitus—have 
habitdre, dvit, dtus—dwell, inhabit 
hie, haec, hoc—this 

hie (adverb)—here 

homo, h6mine, bonus—man (vir is man in 
the strictly masculine sense, almost mean¬ 
ing hero\ homo is more general, and 
means merely: human being —may in¬ 
clude women and children) 
hdrreum, o—bam 
hostis, i, magnus—enemy 
hue—to this place 

idciunt, 3, iecit, iactus—throw 

idem, dadem, idem—same 
ignis, i, calidus—fire 

igndscere, igndvit, igndtus—forgive (with 
dat. and obj.: Cadsari multa igndvit— 
He forgave Caesar many things) 
ille, ilia, illud—that 
imdgo, imdgine, bona—image 
imber, imbre, bonus—rain 
immutdre, dvit, dtus—change 
impedire, ivit, itus—hinder, impede 
imperdre, dvit, dtus—command 
imperdtor, 6re, bonus—general 
impdrium, o—command, power 
impldre, impldvit, impldtus—fill, fulfill 
in (with abl.)—in, on (with obj.)—into 
incdlumis, e, i—unharmed 
indurdre, dvit, dtus—harden 
infundere, fudit, fusus—pour in 
ingdnium, o—talent, natural ability 
inimicus, o—enemy (personal enemy) 
initium, o—beginning 
iniustus, a, um—unjust 
indpia, a—need 
insidiae, is—ambush, snare 
insuper—in addition 
integer, gra, grum—fresh, untouched 
intelldgere, telldxit, telldctus—understand 
inter (with obj.)—between, among 
intercludere, interclusit, interclusus—cut off 
interficiunt, 3, fdcit, fdetus—kill 
interrogdre, dvit, dtus—question, ask 
introire, iit, iturus—enter 
invenire, vdnit, vdntus—find 
invidia, a—envy, unpopularity 
ipse, ipsa, ipsum—himself, herself, itself 
ira, a—anger 

irdsci, irdtus est—be angry 
ire, iit, iturus—go 
is, ea, id—this, that, he, she, it 
iste, ista, istud—this, that (often with feel¬ 
ing: “that of yours,” or with feeling of 

itaque—and so 

iter, itinere, magnum—journey 
iubdre, iussit, iussus—order 
iudicium, o—judgment, court, trial 
iungere, iunxit, iunctus—join, yoke 
ius, jure, verum—right, law 
iuvdre, iuvit, iutus—help, please 
iuvdntus, tute, bona—youth (time of life) 

labor, 6re, multus—work, suffering 
lacdssere, cessivit, cessitus—harass 
laetus, a, um—glad 
lauddre, dvit, dtus—praise 
ldgere, legit, lectus—read 


levdre, dvit, dtus—raise, relieve 
lex, lege, bona—law 
liber, libro—book 
liberdre, dvit, dtus—free 
Hberi, is (pi. only)—children 
liedntia, a—permission 
licet, liedre, licuit, licitum est—it is per¬ 

ligdre, dvit, dtus—bind 
lignum, o—wood 
lingua, a—tongue, language 
locus, o (plural shifts to neuter: loca)— 

loqui, locutus est—speak 

luna, a—moon 

lux, luce, magna—light 

mdcula, a—spot 
magfster, tro—teacher 
magnus, a, um—great, large 
maior, maius, mai6r*—greater 
maidres—ancestors (merely pi. of maior 
in special sense) 
malle, mdluit—prefer 
malum, o—apple 
maius, a, um—bad, evil 
manddre, 1—order, send word, intrust 
mandre, mansit, mansurus—remain 
manus, u, longa—hand 
mare, i, magnum—sea 
mater, matre, bona—mother 
mdximus, a, um—very great, greatest 
mdlior, mdlius, melidre—better 
mens, mente, mea—mind (poss. pi.—mdn- 

mensis, i, unus—month 

merdre, mdruit, mdritus—earn, deserve 

meridiondlis, e, i—south 


metus, u—fear 

meus, a, um—my, mine 

miles, mflite, bonus—soldier 

minimus, a, um—least, smallest 

mirdri, mirdtus est—wonder, admire 

miseriedrdia, a—mercy, pity 

Mithraddtes, e, maius—Mithradates 

mittere, misit, missus—send 

modus, o—manner, way, measure, limit 

mola, a—mill, meal 

mondre, mdnuit, mdnitus—warn, advise 
monitio, 6ne, bona—advice, warning 
mons, monte, magnus—mountain 
monstrdre, dvit, dtus—show 
more, a—delay 

mordri, mordtus est—delay, stay 
moriuntur, mori, mdrtuus est—die 
mors, morte, bona—death 
mos, more, bonus—custom, habit (in plural: 

morals, character) 
movdre, movit, motus—move 

mulier, re, bona—woman 
multus, a, um—much, many 
mundus, o—world 

munus, mdnere, bonum—duty, gift, bribe, 
murus, o—wall 
mutdre, dvit, dtus—change 
mystdrium, o—mystery, rite 

narrdre, dvit, dtus—tell 
nasci, natus est—be bom 
nauta, a—sailor 
navigdre, dvit, dtus—sail 

navis, i, longa—ship 

ne . . . quidem—not even (Lat. word comes 
in between, but is translated after the 
quidem ) 

nec(neque)—and not; nec . .. nec—neither 
... nor 

necesse (indecl.)—necessary 

negare, avit, atus—deny, say no, refuse 

negdtium, o—business, trouble 

nemo, nemine (has no poss.)—no one 

nescire, nescivit, nescitus—not know 

neuter, tra, trum—neither 

nihil—nothing; nihil certi—nothing certain 


nimis (adverb)—very, exceedingly, too 

nirnius, a, um—excessive, very great 

nisi—unless, except,if . . . not 

nocere, nocuit, nociturus—harm (with dat.) 

nolle, ndluit,-, be unwilling 

nomen, ndmine, bonum—name 
non—not, no 
nondum—not yet 
non iam—no longer 

non solum . . . verum etiam—not only . . . 
but also 

ndscere, novit, notus—learn (but the per¬ 
fect means: has learned, knows ) 
novus, a, um—new 
nox, nocte, longa—night 
nullus, a, um—no one 

numerare, avit, atus—count, number 

nuntius, o—messenger, message 

ob (with obj.)—on account of 
obedire, obedivit, obeditus—obey (with 

oblivisci, oblitus est—forget (with poss. or 

6bviam (adverb)—to meet (with dat.) 
occidentals, e, i—western 
occidere, occidit, occisus—kill 
dculus, o—eye 
odit, osurus—hate 
6dium, o—hatred 
offerre, dbtulit, oblatus—offer 
omntno—altogether, at all, in all 
omnis, omne, i—all, every 
onus, 6nere, durum—burden 
opdrtet, oportere, opdrtuit—it is necessary, 
it is proper 
dppidum, o—town 
dptimus, a, um—best, very good 
opus, 6pere, magnum—work 
orare, avit, atus—beg, pray 
oratio, 6ne, magna—speech 
oratidnem habere—give a speech 
ordo, ordine, bonus—row, order, rank 
orientals, e, i—eastern 
oriuntur, oriri, ortus est—rise, arise 
os, ore, magnum—mouth 
os, osse, durunf—bone (compare: os, ore- 

ostendere, ostendit, ostensus—show 

panis, e, bonus—bread 
parare, avit, atus—prepare 
parcere, pepercit, parcitus (or: parsus)— 
spare (with dat.) 

pars, parte (poss. pi., - ium ), bona—part 

parvus, a, um—small 

pasci, pastus est—feed on (with abl.) 

pastor, ore, bonus—shepherd, herdsman 
pater, tre, bonus—father 
patiuntur, pati, passus est—suffer 
pauci, ae, a (plural only)—few 
pax, pace, bona—peace 
peccare, avit, atus—sin 
peccatum, o—sin 
pecunia, a—money 
peior, peius, peidre—worse 
pellere, pepulit, pulsus—drive, rout 
per (with obj.)—through 
percutiunt, percutere, percussit, percussus— 

pergere, perrexit, perrectus—proceed, go on 
periculum, o—danger 

permittere, misit, missus—permit (per- 
misit hoc Marco) 

perseverare, avit, atus—continue, persevere 
persuadere, suasit, suasus—persuade (with 

pertinere, pertinuit, -, pertain, belong 

pes, pede, magnus—foot 
pessimus, a, um—very bad, worst 
petere, petivit, petitus—ask, seek 
pinguis e, i—fat 

placet, placere, placuit, placitum est (with 
dat.)—it pleases, it is decided 
planus, a, um—flat 
plenus, a, um—full 
plurimus, a, um—very many, most 
plus, plure (has only neuter form in sing.; 
plural is: plures, plura—two termination 
type, with -ium poss. plural)—more 
polliceri, pollicitus est—promise 
pdnere, pdsuit, pdsitus—put, place 
pons, ponte, longus—bridge 
pdntifex, flee, magnus—priest 
porta, a—gate, door 
portare, avit, atus—carry 

posse pdtuit,-, be able 

possidere, possedit, possessus—possess 
post (with obj.)—after 
potestas, tate, magna—power 
praebere, praebuit, praebitus—furnish, offer 
praecedere, cessit, cessurus—go before 
praecipiunt, praecipere, praecepit, prae- 
praeco, edne, bonus—herald 
praeficiunt, praeficere, fecit, fectus—put 
someone in charge of something (prae- 
fecit losephum frumento) 
praemium, o—reward 
praeter (with obj.)—beyond, besides, ex¬ 

praevidere, vidit, visus—foresee 
primus, a, um—first 
pn'nceps, cipe, magnus—chief, leader 
principium, o—beginning 
privare, avit, atus—deprive (with abl.) 
pro (with abl.)—for 
probare, avit, atus—prove, test 
prodesse, prdfuit, profuturus—be profitable 
to (with dat.) 
proelium, o—battle 
profanare, avit, atus—defile 
proferre, prdtulit, prolatus—bring forth 
proficisci, profectus est—set out 
prohibere, prohibuit, prohibitus—prohibit, 

proiciunt, proicere, iecit, iectus—throw 


promittere, misit, missus—promise 

propdnere, pdsuit, pdsitus—propose 
propter (with obj.)—on account of 
proscribere, scripsit, scriptus—proscribe, 

prdximus, a, um—next, nearest 
puella, a—girl 
puer, puero—boy 
pugna, a—battle 
pulcher, chra, chrum—beautiful 
pulvis, pulvere, multus—dust 
punire, punivit, punitus—punish 
putare, avit, atus—think 

quaerere, quaesivit, quaesitus—seek 

qualis, e, i—such, what kind 






queri, questus est—complain 
qui, quae, quod—who, which, that 

quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque (de¬ 
cline only the qui-) whoever, whichever, 

quidam, quaedam, quiddam (quoddam)— 

quis, quid—who, what? 
quis, quid—someone, anyone (indef.) 
quisquam, quicquam (or: quidquam—de¬ 
cline the quis part, not the quam) —any¬ 
one, anything 

quisque, quaeque, quidque (or: quodque) 
—each, each one 

(unus quisque—each and every one) 
quod—because, that (ind. disc.), the fact 
that, as to the fact that 
quoque—also, even (never first word) 

rapiunt, rapere, rapuit, raptus—seize, 

recipere se—retreat 

recipiunt, recipere, cepit, ceptus—take back 
recordari, recordatus est—remember (with 

reddere, reddidit, redditus—give back, re¬ 

redire, rediit, rediturus—return, go back 
regere, rexit, rectus—rule 
regina, a—queen 
regnare, avit, atus—reign 
relinquere, reliquit, relictus—leave 
reliquus, a, um—rest of (usftd like midi us: 
middle of) 

remanere, mansit, mansurus—remain 
reperire, reperuit, repertus—find, find out 
requiescere, requievit, requietus—rest 
res, re(5)—thing 

respondere, respondit, responsus—answer 
respdnsum, o—answer 
restituere, restituit, restitutus—restore 
retinere, retinuit, retentus—keep back, re¬ 

reverti, reversus est—return 
revocare, avit, atus—recall 
rex, rege, magnus—king 
rogare, avit, atus—ask 
rotundus, a, um—round 
ruber, rubra, rubrum—red 

ruere, ruit, rutus—fall, rush 
rumpere, rupit, ruptus—break 

sacerdos, d6te, bonus—priest 
saeculum, o—century, age 

salus, salute—safety, salvation, health 
sanguis, sanguine, bonus—blood 
sapientia, a—wisdom 
satis—sufficiently, very, enough 
scire, ivit, itus—know 
scribere, scripsit, scriptus—write 
scriptor, 6re, bonus—writer 
secundum (with obj.)—according to 
secundus, a, um—second, successful 
senator, 6re, magnus—senator 
senatus, u—senate 
senex, sene, bonus—old man 
sentire, sensit, sensus—feel, realize, per¬ 

septentrionalis, e, i—northern 

sequi, secutus est—follow 

sermo, 6ne, bonus—word, conversation 

servare, avit, atus—save 

servire, 4 (with dat.)—serve, be slave to 

servus, o—slave 


siccus, a, um—dry 
sicut—as, just as, as if 
signum, o—sign, signal, standard 
similis, e, i—like, similar (with poss. or 

simul—at the same time 
simulare, avit, atus—feign, pretend 
sin—but if 

sine (with abl.)—without 

singuli, ae, a (pi. only)—one at a time, each 

sdcius, o—ally, companion 

sol, sole, bonus—sun 

solus, a, um—alone, only 

sdlvere, solvit, solutus—loose, pay, free 

soror, 6re, bona—sister 

spectare, avit, atus—look at 
sperare, avit, atus—hope 
stare, stetit, staturus—stand 
statim—at once 

statuere, statuit, statutus—set, decide, 

sub—under (cases are like in —obj. for mo¬ 
tion; abl. for rest) 

subiciunt, subicere, iecit, iectus—subject 
sui, sibi, se, se—himself, etc. 
sumere, sumpsit, sumptus—take, assume 
(sumere supplicium de eo—exact punish¬ 
ment from him) 
super (with obj.)—above, over 
superbus, a, um—proud 
supplicium, o—punishment 
suscipiunt, suscipere, cepit, ceptus—under¬ 
take, take 

suspendere, pendit, pensus—hang 
sustinere, sustinuit, sustentus—withstand, 
hold up, bear 

suus, a, um—one’s own, his, hers, its, theirs 

tacere, tacuit, tacitus—be silent 
talis, e, i—such 

tangere, tetigit, tactus—touch 

tantus, a, um—so great, so large 
tempus, tempore, longum—time 
tendere, tetendit, tentus (tensus)—stretch, 

tenebrae, is—darkness 
tenere, tenuit, tentus—hold, keep 
terra, a—land 

terrere, terruit, territus—terrify 
timere, timuit—fear 

tdllere, sustulit, sublatus—remove, take, 
lift, raise 

totus, a, um—whole 
tradere, tradidit, traditus—hand over 
trahere, traxit, tractus—draw, drag 
trans (with obj.)—across 
tribuere, buit, butus—assign, give 


turris, i, magna—tower 

ubertas, tate, magna—fertility, richness 


ullus, a, um—any 

ultimo—at last 

ultimus, a, um—last 

ultra (adv. and prep, with obj.)—more, 
further, beyond 
unde—whence, from where 
urbs, be, magna—city 
urere, ussit, ustus—burn 
usque ad—as far as, even to, up to 
ut—that (with subj.) 

vadere (no other parts)—go 

vates, i, bonus—soothsayer, prophet 
vehemens, menti—forceful 
vel—or, even 
velle, vdluit—wish 
vendere, vendidit, venditus—sell 
venire, venit, venturus—come 
ventus, o—wind 
verbum, o—word 
veritas, tate, bona—truth 
vertere, vertit, versus—turn, change, trans¬ 

verus, a, um—true; re vera—in truth, really 
vesci (no other parts)—eat (often with 

vetus, vetere—old 
via, a—way, road, means 
victdria, a—victory 
videre, vidit, visus—see 
vincere, vicit, victus—conquer 
vinculum, o—bond, chain 
vir, viro—man 

virgo, virgine, bona—virgin, maiden 
vita, a—life 

vivere, vixit, victurus—live 

vix—hardly, scarcely 

vocare, avit, atus—call 

voluntas, tate, bona—will 

vox, voce, magna—voice 

vulnus, vulnere, magnum—wound 


For the most part, the parts of words are not given here, since they are provided in the Latin-English section. But they are given for 
some odd words, and for words which occur early in the year, before the use of the system of parts is fully explained. You will find it very 
helpful to reread the stories, for that will show you many expressions, some of considerable size, that you can use in translating the sen¬ 

able (be)—posse, pdtuit 

alive—vivus: be alive—vivere 
although—quamquam, cum 

angry (be)—irasci, ira moveri 





ask—rogare, petere 
Athens—Athenae, is 

battle—pugna, proelium 

because of—propter or ob 
use abl. case alone 



be willing—velle 
born (be)—nasci 
obj.) or bring—ferre 

bring forth—proferre 


Caesar—Caesar, are 
Carthage—Carth&go, gine 
Cato—Cato, 6ne 
certain—quidam, certus 
change—mu tire 
communist—communista, a 
conquer—vincere, vicit 
consul—consul, ule 
country—pitria, terra 
cry out—exclamire 
cut off—intercludere 


decide—statuere; placire ei 


















each and every one—unus quisque 

earth—terra, mundus 

eastern—orientilis, e, i 



either . . . or—aut . . . aut 

enemy—hostis, inimicus 


enter—inire, ingrediuntur 


escape—evidere ab or ex 




except—praeter (with abl.), nisi 











feed on—pasci 




fight—pugna, proilium 


fill—complire, implire 













for sake of—propter or ob (obj.) 



fulfill—complire, implire 


Gaul—Gillia (country); Gallus (man) 

general—dux, impefator 

get out—discidere 

get possession of—potiri 



give back—riddere 

give (speech)—oratidnem habire 


gnats—cinifes (malae) 





go out—exire 






Hannibal—Hinnibal, ile 
happy—felix, laetus 
have—habire, h&buit 





help—auxilium dare, adiuv&re, iuv&re 







horseman—eques, ite 


in—in (abl. or obj.) 
in order that—ut 
in reality—re vera 
interpreter—intirpres, ete 
into—in (with obj.) 


know—scire, scivit; not know—nescire 

lack (be lacking)—deisse 


land—ager, terra 





leave (depart from)—discidere ab, relin- 


loud (voice)—vox magna 
love—amor, 6re 


make war—bellum movire 

man—vir, homo 


marry—in matrimdnium ducere 



mile—mille p&ssuum 


Mithradates—Mithradites, e 







nation—nitio, gens 

natural ability—inginium 


neither .. . nor—nec . .. nec (neque) 




Old Testament—Vetus Testamentum 

on account of: see: “because of’ 

once upon a time—olim 


orator—orator, 6re 

order—iubire, imperire 

Osiris—Osiris, ide 










Pharao—Ph&rao, 6ne 


pirate—pir&ta, a 





please—placire, iuv&re 












Punic—Carthagini£nsis, e, i; Punicus, 



put down—dep6nere 


race (human)—genus humdnum 

raise—ext£ndere, tdllere 
really—re vera 
religion—religio, 6ne 



rest of—reliquus 

restore—reddere, restituere 

retreat—se recipere 

return—redire, rev£rti, iterum venire 







Roman—Romin us 


rule—r£gere, regndre 




sad (be)—doldre afficiuntur 





save—servdre, salvire 

say—dicere; say no—neg&re 







seem: use passive of vidlre 

seize—cipiunt, ere 

-self—ipse, sui 





set out—proficisci 

set over—praeficiunt 


shed (blood)—effundere sdnguinem 
i, um show—monstrfire 

soldier—miles, milite 
southern—meridion&lis, e, i 




that—quod (ind. statement) 

throw—i&ciunt, ere 
time—temp us 
trust—confidere (in) 
truth—viritas, tite 



want—velle, vdluit 






were—fu£runt, erant 



which—qui, quae, quod 




willing (be)—velle 


work—labor; opus, 6pere 








absolute, 35-36, 72 
of agent, 164-165 
of cause, 161 
of comparison, 149 
of instrument, 164-165 
of means, 164-165 
of measure of difference, 152-153 
of separation, 161 
with deponents, 168-169 
without prepositions, 14 

agreement, 22, 26-27 
as nouns, 13, 27 
comparison of, 148-149 
irregular, 86 
Adverbs, 150 
Aliquis, 124 

Base of nouns, 9 

Conditional sentences, 152, 156 
Consecutive clauses, 93 
Contractions (verbs), 169 
Cum clauses, 88, 166-167 


double, 142-143 
of indirect object, 61-62 
of possession, 141 
of purpose and reference, 142-143 
Deponent verbs, 63 
Deponents with ablative, 168-169 
Domus , 151 

Ego, 105 
Esse, 115 

Ferre, 116 

Gerunds, 142 

for gerund plus object, 158 

Gerundives —continued 
for obligation, 135-136 
for purpose, 140-141 

Hie, 43-44 

Hortatory subjunctive, 95 

Idem, 52 
Ille, 39-40 
irregular, 98 
regular active, 109 
regular passive, 133 
Imperfect tense, meaning, 68 
Impersonal verbs, 160-161 
Indirect questions, 95 
Indirect statements, 3-4, 79-80,144 
Ipse, 56 
be, 112 
Is, ea, id, 51-52 
Iste, 151 

/-stem rules, 167 

Locative case, 164 

Malle, 156-157 
Mille, 136 

Mixed stem nouns, 167 

Nolle, 111 
Nos, 102 
base of, 9 
mixed stem, 167 
participles as, 38 
Num (direct questions), 119 

Objective and infinitive, 79-80, 144- 
double, 145 
of extent, 136 
Optional endings, 169 

as nouns, 38 
future active, 144-145 
future passive (obligation), 135- 

perfect passive, 28-29 
present active, 71-72 
Posse, 116 

Possessive case, 37-38 

dative case of, 85-86 
personal, 97, 101, 102, 105 
possessive case of, 37-38 
reflexive, 56 
relative, 53-54 
Purpose clauses, 84 

-que, 125 

Qui, quae, quod, 53-54 
Quidam, 55-56 

indefinite, 127 
interrogative, 77 

Reflexives, 44, 56, 70 
Relatives, 53-54 
Result clauses, 93 

Se, 56 

Sequence of tenses, 138-139 
hortatory, 95 

tenses of, 88, 133, 138-139 
Suus, 44, 70 

Towns and cities, cases with, 63-64 
Tu, 101 

Velle, 111 
Vocative case, 129 
Vos, 97 

Word order, 41-42, 62, 81-82